Because of fast recovery from synaptic depression and fast-initiated action potentials, neuronal information transfer can have a substantially higher bandwidth in human neocortical circuits than in those of rodents.
Neuronal firing, synaptic transmission, and its plasticity form the building blocks for processing and storage of information in the brain. It is unknown whether adult human synapses are more efficient in transferring information between neurons than rodent synapses. To test this, we recorded from connected pairs of pyramidal neurons in acute brain slices of adult human and mouse temporal cortex and probed the dynamical properties of use-dependent plasticity. We found that human synaptic connections were purely depressing and that they recovered three to four times more swiftly from depression than synapses in rodent neocortex. Thereby, during realistic spike trains, the temporal resolution of synaptic information exchange in human synapses substantially surpasses that in mice. Using information theory, we calculate that information transfer between human pyramidal neurons exceeds that of mouse pyramidal neurons by four to nine times, well into the beta and gamma frequency range. In addition, we found that human principal cells tracked fine temporal features, conveyed in received synaptic inputs, at a wider bandwidth than for rodents. Action potential firing probability was reliably phase-locked to input transients up to 1,000 cycles/s because of a steep onset of action potentials in human pyramidal neurons during spike trains, unlike in rodent neurons. Our data show that, in contrast to the widely held views of limited information transfer in rodent depressing synapses, fast recovering synapses of human neurons can actually transfer substantial amounts of information during spike trains. In addition, human pyramidal neurons are equipped to encode high synaptic information content. Thus, adult human cortical microcircuits relay information at a wider bandwidth than rodent microcircuits.
Our ability to think, memorize information, and act appropriately depends on circuits of connected neurons in the brain. In these circuits, neurons pass information to each other using electric pulses (action potentials) that cause the release of chemical neurotransmitters, which alter the membrane electric potential of receiving neurons. Based on the inputs neurons receive, they decide whether to transmit action potentials to other neurons in the circuit to pass on information. During sequences of repeated information transfer, synaptic connections between two neurons temporarily become weaker by synaptic depression. Our knowledge of neuronal information transfer is based on rodent neurons. The properties of synaptic information transfer and synaptic depression in humans are not known. Here, we show that adult human neurons can transfer information with up to ten times higher rates than mouse neurons, because of a three to four times faster recovery from depression. Furthermore, we found that human neurons can respond faster to synaptic inputs, owing to faster initiation of action potentials. Human neurons can thereby reliably encode high input frequencies in their output. Thus, neuronal information transfer can have a substantially higher bandwidth in human neocortical circuits than in rodent brains.