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1.  Effects of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) gene silencing on the radiosensitivity of glioblastoma 
The effects of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) gene silencing on the radiosensitivity of glioblastoma cells (GBM) were investigated. The lentivirus-mediated short hairpin RNA (shRNA) expression vector targeting CTGF was constructed and transinfected into U87MG human GBM cell line. The CTGF gene expression in U87MG cells was significantly down-regulated. After irradiation with 6 MV X-rays at a dose rate of 2.5 Gy/min, the clonogenicity, proliferation and migration of U87MG cells were assayed in vitro. The survival, proliferation and migration of U87MG cells were all remarkably inhibited by CTGF silencing (p < 0.05 vs control). Our results demonstrate that CTGF is important for GBM and CTGF gene silencing can be a potential tool to enhance the sensitivity of GBM to radiotherapy.
PMCID: PMC4211759  PMID: 25356109
Connective tissue growth factor; glioblastoma; radiosensitivity
2.  TolC Promotes ExPEC Biofilm Formation and Curli Production in Response to Medium Osmolarity 
BioMed Research International  2014;2014:574274.
While a high osmolarity medium activates Cpx signaling and causes CpxR to repress csgD expression, and efflux protein TolC protein plays an important role in biofilm formation in Escherichia coli, whether TolC also responds to an osmolarity change to regulate biofilm formation in extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) remains unknown. In this study, we constructed ΔtolC mutant and complement ExPEC strains to investigate the role of TolC in the retention of biofilm formation and curli production capability under different osmotic conditions. The ΔtolC mutant showed significantly decreased biofilm formation and lost the ability to produce curli fimbriae compared to its parent ExPEC strain PPECC42 when cultured in M9 medium or 1/2 M9 medium of increased osmolarity with NaCl or sucrose at 28°C. However, biofilm formation and curli production levels were restored to wild-type levels in the ΔtolC mutant in 1/2 M9 medium. We propose for the first time that TolC protein is able to form biofilm even under high osmotic stress. Our findings reveal an interplay between the role of TolC in ExPEC biofilm formation and the osmolarity of the surrounding environment, thus providing guidance for the development of a treatment for ExPEC biofilm formation.
doi:10.1155/2014/574274
PMCID: PMC4163439  PMID: 25243151
3.  Astrocytic expression of cannabinoid type 1 receptor in rat and human sclerotic hippocampi 
Cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1R), which is traditionally located on axon terminals, plays an important role in the pathology of epilepsy and neurodegenerative diseases by modulating synaptic transmission. Using the pilocarpine model of chronic spontaneous recurrent seizures, which mimics the main features of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with hippocampal sclerosis (HS) in humans, we examined the expression of CB1R in hippocampal astrocytes of epileptic rats. Furthermore, we also examined the expression of astrocytic CB1R in the resected hippocampi from patients with medically refractory mesial TLE. Using immunofluorescent double labeling, we found increased expression of astrocytic CB1R in hippocampi of epileptic rats, whereas expression of astrocytic CB1R was not detectable in hippocampi of saline treated animals. Furthermore, CB1R was also found in some astrocytes in sclerotic hippocampi in a subset of patients with intractable mesial TLE. Detection with immune electron microscopy showed that the expression of CB1R was increased in astrocytes of epileptic rats and modest levels of CB1R were also found on the astrocytic membrane of sclerotic hippocampi. These results suggest that increased expression of astrocytic CB1R in sclerotic hippocampi might be involved in the cellular basis of the effects of cannabinoids on epilepsy.
PMCID: PMC4097232  PMID: 25031702
Epilepsy; cannabinoid type 1 receptor; hippocampal sclerosis; astrocyte; immune electron microscopy
4.  Actin-associated Proteins in the Pathogenesis of Podocyte Injury 
Current Genomics  2013;14(7):477-484.
Podocytes have a complex cellular architecture with interdigitating processes maintained by a precise organization of actin filaments. The actin-based foot processes of podocytes and the interposed slit diaphragm form the final barrier to proteinuria. The function of podocytes is largely based on the maintenance of the normal foot process structure with actin cytoskeleton. Cytoskeletal dynamics play important roles during normal podocyte development, in maintenance of the healthy glomerular filtration barrier, and in the pathogenesis of glomerular diseases. In this review, we focused on recent findings on the mechanisms of organization and reorganization of these actin-related molecules in the pathogenesis of podocyte injury and potential therapeutics targeting the regulation of actin cytoskeleton in podocytopathies.
doi:10.2174/13892029113146660014
PMCID: PMC3867723  PMID: 24396279
Actin cytoskeleton; α-actinin-4; CD2-associated protein; Foot processes; Podocyte; Slit diaphragm.
5.  Isolation of Butanol- and Isobutanol-Tolerant Bacteria and Physiological Characterization of Their Butanol Tolerance 
Applied and Environmental Microbiology  2013;79(22):6998-7005.
Despite their importance as a biofuel production platform, only a very limited number of butanol-tolerant bacteria have been identified thus far. Here, we extensively explored butanol- and isobutanol-tolerant bacteria from various environmental samples. A total of 16 aerobic and anaerobic bacteria that could tolerate greater than 2.0% (vol/vol) butanol and isobutanol were isolated. A 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis revealed that the isolates were phylogenetically distributed over at least nine genera: Bacillus, Lysinibacillus, Rummeliibacillus, Brevibacillus, Coprothermobacter, Caloribacterium, Enterococcus, Hydrogenoanaerobacterium, and Cellulosimicrobium, within the phyla Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. Ten of the isolates were phylogenetically distinct from previously identified butanol-tolerant bacteria. Two relatively highly butanol-tolerant strains CM4A (aerobe) and GK12 (obligate anaerobe) were characterized further. Both strains changed their membrane fatty acid composition in response to butanol exposure, i.e., CM4A and GK12 exhibited increased saturated and cyclopropane fatty acids (CFAs) and long-chain fatty acids, respectively, which may serve to maintain membrane fluidity. The gene (cfa) encoding CFA synthase was cloned from strain CM4A and expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant E. coli showed relatively higher butanol and isobutanol tolerance than E. coli without the cfa gene, suggesting that cfa can confer solvent tolerance. The exposure of strain GK12 to butanol by consecutive passages even enhanced the growth rate, indicating that yet-unknown mechanisms may also contribute to solvent tolerance. Taken together, the results demonstrate that a wide variety of butanol- and isobutanol-tolerant bacteria that can grow in 2.0% butanol exist in the environment and have various strategies to maintain structural integrity against detrimental solvents.
doi:10.1128/AEM.02900-13
PMCID: PMC3811554  PMID: 24014527
6.  Role of NADPH Oxidase-Mediated Reactive Oxygen Species in Podocyte Injury 
BioMed Research International  2013;2013:839761.
Proteinuria is an independent risk factor for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) (Shankland, 2006). Recent studies highlighted the mechanisms of podocyte injury and implications for potential treatment strategies in proteinuric kidney diseases (Zhang et al., 2012). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are cellular signals which are closely associated with the development and progression of glomerular sclerosis. NADPH oxidase is a district enzymatic source of cellular ROS production and prominently expressed in podocytes (Zhang et al., 2010). In the last decade, it has become evident that NADPH oxidase-derived ROS overproduction is a key trigger of podocyte injury, such as renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activation (Whaley-Connell et al., 2006), epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (Zhang et al., 2011), and inflammatory priming (Abais et al., 2013). This review focuses on the mechanism of NADPH oxidase-mediated ROS in podocyte injury under different pathophysiological conditions. In addition, we also reviewed the therapeutic perspectives of NADPH oxidase in kidney diseases related to podocyte injury.
doi:10.1155/2013/839761
PMCID: PMC3844218  PMID: 24319690
7.  Peach genetic resources: diversity, population structure and linkage disequilibrium 
BMC Genetics  2013;14:84.
Background
Peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) is one of the most important model fruits in the Rosaceae family. Native to the west of China, where peach has been domesticated for more than 4,000 years, its cultivation spread from China to Persia, Mediterranean countries and to America. Chinese peach has had a major impact on international peach breeding programs due to its high genetic diversity. In this research, we used 48 highly polymorphic SSRs, distributed over the peach genome, to investigate the difference in genetic diversity, and linkage disequilibrium (LD) among Chinese cultivars, and North American and European cultivars, and the evolution of current peach cultivars.
Results
In total, 588 alleles were obtained with 48 SSRs on 653 peach accessions, giving an average of 12.25 alleles per locus. In general, the average value of observed heterozygosity (0.47) was lower than the expected heterozygosity (0.60). The separate analysis of groups of accessions according to their origin or reproductive strategies showed greater variability in Oriental cultivars, mainly due to the high level of heterozygosity in Chinese landraces. Genetic distance analysis clustered the cultivars into two main groups: one included four wild related Prunus, and the other included most of the Oriental and Occidental landraces and breeding cultivars. STRUCTURE analysis assigned 469 accessions to three subpopulations: Oriental (234), Occidental (174), and Landraces (61). Nested STRUCTURE analysis divided the Oriental subpopulation into two different subpopulations: ‘Yu Lu’ and ‘Hakuho’. The Occidental breeding subpopulation was also subdivided into nectarine and peach subpopulations. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis in each of these subpopulations showed that the percentage of linked (r2 > 0.1) intra-chromosome comparisons ranged between 14% and 47%. LD decayed faster in Oriental (1,196 Kbp) than in Occidental (2,687 Kbp) samples. In the ‘Yu Lu’ subpopulation there was considerable LD extension while no variation of LD with physical distance was observed in the landraces. From the first STRUCTURE result, LG1 had the greatest proportion of alleles in LD within all three subpopulations.
Conclusions
Our study demonstrates a high level of genetic diversity and relatively fast decay of LD in the Oriental peach breeding program. Inclusion of Chinese landraces will have a greater effect on increasing genetic diversity in Occidental breeding programs. Fingerprinting with genotype data for all 658 cultivars will be used for accession management in different germplasms. A higher density of markers are needed for association mapping in Oriental germplasm due to the low extension of LD. Population structure and evaluation of LD provides valuable information for GWAS experiment design in peach.
doi:10.1186/1471-2156-14-84
PMCID: PMC3848491  PMID: 24041442
8.  Comparison of the protective effects of ferulic acid and its drug-containing plasma on primary cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes with hypoxia/reoxygenation injury 
Pharmacognosy Magazine  2013;9(35):202-209.
Backgroud:
To simulate the ischemia-reperfusion injury in vivo, hypoxia/reoxygenation injury model was established in vitro and primary cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were underwent hypoxia with hydrosulfite (Na2S2O4) for 1 h followed by 1 h reoxygenation.
Materials and Methods:
Determination the cell viability by MTT colorimetric assay. We use kit to detect the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Na+-K+-ATPase and Ca2+-ATPase. Do research on the effect which ferulic acid and its drug-containing plasma have to self-discipline, conductivity, action potential duration and other electrophysiological phenomena of myocardial cells by direct observation using a microscope and recording method of intracellular action potential.
Results:
The experimental datum showed that both can reduce the damage hydrosulfite to myocardial cell damage and improve myocardial viability, reduce the amount of LDH leak, increase activity of Na+-K+-ATPase, Ca2+-ATPase, and increase APA (Action potential amplitude), Vmax (Maximum rate of depolarization) and MPD (Maximum potential diastolic).
Conclusion:
Taken together, therefore, we can get the conclusion that ferulic acid drug-containing plasma has better protective effect injured myocardial cell than ferulic acid.
doi:10.4103/0973-1296.113264
PMCID: PMC3732421  PMID: 23930002
ATPase; drug-containing plasma; electrophysiological phenomena; ferulic acid; hypoxia/reoxygenation; LDH; primary cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes; sodium hydrosulfite
9.  Electroacupuncture improves thermal and mechanical sensitivities in a rat model of postherpetic neuralgia 
Molecular Pain  2013;9:18.
Background
Electroacupuncture (EA) is effective in relieving pain in patients with postherpetic neuralgia (PHN). However, the mechanism underlying the therapeutic effect of EA in PHN is still unclear. Systemic injection of resiniferatoxin (RTX), an ultrapotent analog of TRPV1 agonist, in adult rats can reproduce the clinical symptoms of PHN by ablating TRPV1-expressing sensory neurons. In this study, we determined the beneficial effect of EA and the potential mechanisms in this rat model of PHN.
Methods
PHN was induced in rats by a single injection of RTX. Thermal hyperalgesia was tested with a radiant heat stimulus, and mechanical allodynia was quantified with von Frey filaments. TRPV1 receptors were shown by using immunofluorescence labeling. The ultrastructural changes of the sciatic nerve were assessed by electron microscopic examination. The sprouting of myelinated primary afferent terminals into the spinal dorsal horn was mapped by using the transganglionic tracer cholera toxin B-subunit (CTB).
Results
RTX injection diminished thermal sensitivity and gradually induced tactile allodynia within 3 weeks. EA applied to GB30 and GB34 at 2 and 15 Hz, but not 100 Hz, significantly increased the thermal sensitivity 4 weeks after treatment and decreased the tactile allodynia 2 weeks after treatment in RTX-treated rats. EA treatment at 2 and 15 Hz recovered the loss of TRPV1-positive dorsal root ganglion neurons and their central terminals of afferent fibers in the spinal superficial dorsal horn of RTX-treated rats. Moreover, EA significantly reduced the loss of unmyelinated fibers and the damage of the myelinated nerve fibers of RTX-treated rats. Furthermore, EA at 2 and 15 Hz inhibited the sprouting of myelinated primary afferent terminals into the spinal lamina II of RTX-treated rats.
Conclusions
EA treatment improves thermal perception by recovering TRPV1-positive sensory neurons and nerve terminals damaged by RTX. EA Also reduces RTX-induced tactile allodynia by attenuating the damage of myelinated afferent nerves and their abnormal sprouting into the spinal lamina II. Our study provides new information about the mechanisms of the therapeutic actions of EA in the treatment of PHN.
doi:10.1186/1744-8069-9-18
PMCID: PMC3626545  PMID: 23551937
Neuropathic pain; Postherpetic neuralgia; Capsaicin; Acupuncture; Analgesia; Allodynia; TRPV1; Axonal sprouting
10.  Reductive genome evolution, host–symbiont co-speciation and uterine transmission of endosymbiotic bacteria in bat flies 
The ISME Journal  2011;6(3):577-587.
Bat flies of the family Nycteribiidae are known for their extreme morphological and physiological traits specialized for ectoparasitic blood-feeding lifestyle on bats, including lack of wings, reduced head and eyes, adenotrophic viviparity with a highly developed uterus and milk glands, as well as association with endosymbiotic bacteria. We investigated Japanese nycteribiid bat flies representing 4 genera, 8 species and 27 populations for their bacterial endosymbionts. From all the nycteribiid species examined, a distinct clade of gammaproteobacteria was consistently detected, which was allied to endosymbionts of other insects such as Riesia spp. of primate lice and Arsenophonus spp. of diverse insects. In adult insects, the endosymbiont was localized in specific bacteriocytes in the abdomen, suggesting an intimate host–symbiont association. In adult females, the endosymbiont was also found in the cavity of milk gland tubules, which suggests uterine vertical transmission of the endosymbiont to larvae through milk gland secretion. In adult females of Penicillidia jenynsii, we discovered a previously unknown type of symbiotic organ in the Nycteribiidae: a pair of large bacteriomes located inside the swellings on the fifth abdominal ventral plate. The endosymbiont genes consistently exhibited adenine/thymine biased nucleotide compositions and accelerated rates of molecular evolution. The endosymbiont genome was estimated to be highly reduced, ∼0.76 Mb in size. The endosymbiont phylogeny perfectly mirrored the host insect phylogeny, indicating strict vertical transmission and host–symbiont co-speciation in the evolutionary course of the Nycteribiidae. The designation ‘Candidatus Aschnera chinzeii' is proposed for the endosymbiont clade.
doi:10.1038/ismej.2011.125
PMCID: PMC3280136  PMID: 21938025
endosymbiont; nycteribiid bat fly; vertical transmission; adenotrophic viviparity; co-evolution
11.  High Serum Uric Acid and Increased Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: A Systemic Review and Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(2):e56864.
Objective
Current evidence suggests high serum uric acid may increase the risk of type 2 diabetes, but the association is still uncertain. The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between serum uric acid and future risk of type 2 diabetes by conducting a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.
Design and Methods
We conducted a systematic literature search of the PubMed database through April 2012. Prospective cohort studies were included in meta-analysis that reported the multivariate adjusted relative risks (RRs) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between serum uric acid and risk of type 2 diabetes. We used both fix-effects and random-effects models to calculate the overall effect estimate. The heterogeneity across studies was tested by both Q statistic and I2 statistic. Begg’s funnel plot and Egger’s regression test were used to assess the potential publication bias.
Results
We retrieved 7 eligible articles derived from 8 prospective cohort studies, involving a total of 32016 participants and 2930 incident type 2 diabetes. The combined RR of developing type 2 diabetes for the highest category of serum uric acid level compared with the lowest was 1.56(95% CI, 1.39–1.76). Dose-response analysis showed the risk of type 2 diabetes was increased by 6% per 1 mg/dl increment in serum uric acid level (RR 1.06, 95% CI: 1.04–1.07). The result from each subgroup showed a significant association between serum uric acid and risk of type 2 diabetes. In sensitive analysis, the combined RR was consistent every time omitting any one study. Little evidence of heterogeneity and publication bias was observed.
Conclusions
Our meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies provided strong evidence that high level of serum uric acid is independent of other established risk factors, especially metabolic syndrome components, for developing type 2 diabetes in middle-aged and older people.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0056864
PMCID: PMC3577701  PMID: 23437258
12.  Evolution of symbiotic organs and endosymbionts in lygaeid stinkbugs 
The ISME Journal  2011;6(2):397-409.
We investigated seed bugs of the genus Nysius (Insecta: Hemiptera: Lygaeidae) for their symbiotic bacteria. From all the samples representing 4 species, 18 populations and 281 individuals, specific bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences were consistently identified, which formed a distinct clade in the Gammaproteobacteria. In situ hybridization showed that the bacterium was endocellularly localized in a pair of large bacteriomes that were amorphous in shape, deep red in color, and in association with gonads. In the ovary of adult females, the endosymbiont was also localized in the ‘infection zone' in the middle of each germarium and in the ‘symbiont ball' at the anterior pole of each oocyte, indicating vertical transmission of the endosymbiont through the ovarial passage. Phylogenetic analyses based on bacterial 16S rRNA, groEL and gyrB genes consistently supported a coherent monophyly of the Nysius endosymbionts. The possibility of a sister relationship to ‘Candidatus Kleidoceria schneideri', the bacteriome-associated endosymbiont of a lygaeid bug Kleidocerys resedae, was statistically rejected, indicating independent evolutionary origins of the endosymbionts in the Lygaeidae. The endosymbiont genes consistently exhibited AT-biased nucleotide compositions and accelerated rates of molecular evolution, and the endosymbiont genome was only 0.6 Mb in size. The endosymbiont phylogeny was congruent with the host insect phylogeny, suggesting strict vertical transmission and host–symbiont co-speciation over evolutionary time. Based on these results, we discuss the evolution of bacteriomes and endosymbionts in the Heteroptera, most members of which are associated with gut symbiotic bacteria. The designation ‘Candidatus Schneideria nysicola' is proposed for the endosymbiont clade.
doi:10.1038/ismej.2011.103
PMCID: PMC3260496  PMID: 21814289
stinkbug; Nysius; Lygaeidae; bacteriome; endosymbiont
13.  TNNI3K is a novel mediator of myofilament function and phosphorylates cardiac troponin I 
The phosphorylation of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) plays an important role in the contractile dysfunction associated with heart failure. Human cardiac troponin I-interacting kinase (TNNI3K) is a novel cardiac-specific functional kinase that can bind to cTnI in a yeast two-hybrid screen. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether TNNI3K can phosphorylate cTnI at specific sites and to examine whether the phosphorylation of cTnI caused by TNNI3K can regulate cardiac myofilament contractile function. Co-immunoprecipitation was performed to confirm that TNNI3K could interact with cTnI. Kinase assays further indicated that TNNI3K did not phosphorylate cTnI at Ser23/24 and Ser44, but directly phosphorylated Ser43 and Thr143 in vitro. The results obtained for adult rat cardiomyocytes also indicated that enhanced phosphorylation of cTnI at Ser43 and Thr143 correlated with rTNNI3K (rat TNNI3K) overexpression, and phosphorylation was reduced when rTNNI3K was knocked down. To determine the contractile function modulated by TNNI3K-mediated phosphorylation of cTnI, cardiomyocyte contraction was studied in adult rat ventricular myocytes. The contraction of cardiomyocytes increased with rTNNI3K overexpression and decreased with rTNNI3K knockdown. We conclude that TNNI3K may be a novel mediator of cTnI phosphorylation and contribute to the regulation of cardiac myofilament contraction function.
doi:10.1590/1414-431X20122515
PMCID: PMC3854359  PMID: 23369981
TNNI3K; cTnI; Phosphorylation; Contraction function
14.  Magnifying chromoendoscopy combined with immunohistochemical staining for early diagnosis of gastric cancer 
AIM: To assess the diagnostic value of using magnifying chromoendoscopy combined with immunohistochemical staining of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and p53 in the detection of gastric precancerous lesions.
METHODS: Ninety-five patients who were treated for abdominal discomfort, abdominal pain, bloating, and acid reflux at our hospital from January 2010 to December 2011 were included in the study. An ordinary gastroscopic procedure was initially performed to select the lesions. All subjects underwent magnifying chromoendoscopy to observe morphological changes of gastric pits. Biopsies were then taken from each area of interest and sent for pathological examination and detection of PCNA and p53 expression by immunohistochemistry. An immunoreactivity score for each lesion was calculated. Based on immunoreactivity scores, immunohistochemical staining was then considered.
RESULTS: Compared to intestinal metaplasia, gastric pits were more diverse in size, more irregular in shape, and more disorderly in arrangement in moderate and severe dysplasia. PCNA and p53 expression was significantly higher in precancerous lesions (intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia) than in chronic gastritis. PCNA expression showed an upward trend in types A-F pits. The number of cases that showed strong PCNA positivity increased significantly with an increase in the severity of lesions. Rank sum test for independent samples showed that p53 expression was significantly higher in types E and F pits than in types A-D pits (H = 33.068, P = 0.000). Rank sum test for independent samples showed that PCNA expression was significantly higher in types E and F pits than in types A-D pits (H = 31.791, P = 0.001).
CONCLUSION: The presence of types E and F pits, in which p53 and PCNA are highly expressed, is highly suggestive of the occurrence of early cancer, and patients developing these changes should be closely followed.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v19.i3.404
PMCID: PMC3554827  PMID: 23372365
Magnifying chromoendoscopy; Gastric precancerous lesions; p53; Proliferating cell nuclear antigen; Early gastric cancer
15.  Dracorhodin Perchlorate Induced Human Breast Cancer MCF-7 Apoptosis through Mitochondrial Pathways 
Objective: Dracorhodin perchlorate (DP) was a synthetic analogue of the antimicrobial anthocyanin red pigment dracorhodin. It was reported that DP could induce apoptosis in human prostate cancer, human gastric tumor cells and human melanoma, but the cytotoxic effect of DP on human breast cancer was not investigated. This study would investigate whether DP was a candidate chemical of anti-human breast cancer.
Methods: The MTT assay reflected the number of viable cells through measuring the activity of cellular enzymes. Phase contrast microscopy visualized cell morphology. Fluorescence microscopy detected nuclear fragmentation after Hoechst 33258 staining. Flowcytometric analysis of Annexin V-PI staining and Rodamine 123 staining was used to detect cell apoptosis and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). Real time PCR detected mRNA level. Western blot examined protein expression.
Results: DP dose and time-dependently inhibited the growth of MCF-7 cells. DP inhibited MCF-7 cell growth through apoptosis. DP regulated the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax, which were mitochondrial pathway proteins, to decrease MMP, and DP promoted the transcription of Bax and inhibited Bcl-2. Apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) and cytochrome c which localized in mitochondrial in physiological condition were released into cytoplasm when MMP was decreased. DP activated caspase-9, which was the downstream of mitochondrial pathway. Therefore DP decreased MMP to release AIF and cytochrome c into cytoplasm, further activating caspase 9, lastly led to apoptosis.
Conclusion: Therefore DP was a candidate for anti-breast cancer, DP induced apoptosis of MCF-7 through mitochondrial pathway.
doi:10.7150/ijms.6275
PMCID: PMC3714391  PMID: 23869191
dracorhodin perchlorate; apoptosis; mitochondrial pathway
16.  Novel Clade of Alphaproteobacterial Endosymbionts Associated with Stinkbugs and Other Arthropods 
Applied and Environmental Microbiology  2012;78(12):4149-4156.
Here we report a novel clade of secondary endosymbionts associated with insects and other arthropods. Seed bugs of the genus Nysius (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae) harbor the primary gammaproteobacterial symbiont Schneideria nysicola within a pair of bacteriomes in the abdomen. Our survey of Nysius species for their facultative bacterial associates consistently yielded a novel type of alphaproteobacterial 16S rRNA gene sequence in addition to those of Wolbachia. Diagnostic PCR survey of 343 individuals representing 24 populations of four Nysius species revealed overall detection rates of the alphaproteobacteria at 77.6% in Nysius plebeius, 87.7% in Nysius sp. 1, 81.0% in Nysius sp. 2, and 100% in Nysius expressus. Further survey of diverse stinkbugs representing 24 families, 191 species, and 582 individuals detected the alphaproteobacteria from an additional 12 species representing six families. Molecular phylogenetic analysis showed that the alphaproteobacteria from the stinkbugs form a distinct and coherent monophyletic group in the order Rickettsiales together with several uncharacterized endosymbionts from fleas and ticks. The alphaproteobacterial symbiont clade was allied to bacterial clades such as the endosymbionts of acanthamoebae, the endosymbionts of cnidarians, and Midichloria spp., the mitochondrion-associated endosymbionts of ticks. In situ hybridization and electron microscopy identified small filamentous bacterial cells in various tissues of N. plebeius, including the bacteriome and ovary. The concentrated localization of the symbiont cells at the anterior pole of oocytes indicated its vertical transmission route through host insect generations. The designation “Candidatus Lariskella arthropodarum” is proposed for the endosymbiont clade.
doi:10.1128/AEM.00673-12
PMCID: PMC3370525  PMID: 22504806
17.  The options of C2 fixation for os odontoideum: a radiographic study for the C2 pedicle and lamina anatomy 
European Spine Journal  2011;20(11):1921-1927.
Introduction
Patients with os odontoideum always present instability in atlantoaxial joint and need atlantoaxial fixation. C2 pedicle or laminar screws fixation has proven to be efficient and reliable for atlantoaxial instability. However, os odontoideum is a congenital or developmental disease, featured with anomalous bony anatomies. The anatomic measurements and guidelines for C2 pedicle screw placement in general population tends to differ with those of os odontoideum patients, for whom C2 pedicle screws are often needed. The option and techniques of C2 fixation are still challenging and yet to be fully explored.
Material and methods
We recruited 29 adult patients with os odontoideum and measured the dimension of C2 pedicle and lamina for each patient to examine how well do they match with the screws anatomically. In order to access the intra-observer reliability and inter-observer repeatability of the measurements, the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was also calculated.
Results
The results for reliability of the CT measurements showed excellent intraobserver (ICC = 0.95 and 0.96) and interobserver correlation coefficient (ICC = 0.93). The diameter and length of C2 pedicle were found to be 6.06 ± 1.37 and 24.05 ± 2.54 mm, while the corresponding figures of C2 laminar were 6.95 ± 0.82 and 25.60 ± 2.18 mm, respectively. In the measurements, all 29 cases had suitable diameter (larger than 5.5 mm) for C2 laminar screw (the laminar diameters ranged from 5.52 to 8.82 mm). In C2 pedicle measurements, the diameters of the 29 cases were from 3.50 to 9.86 mm, while 20 pedicles (34.5%) in 14 cases were less than 5.5 mm in diameter. Six had bilateral small pedicles where the diameter was less than 5.5 mm.
Conclusion
Anatomically, we found laminar screw is a better match in comparison with pedicle screw for C2 fixation in os odontoideum. The options for C2 fixation should be made based on careful preoperative imaging and thorough consideration. Preoperative reconstructive CT scan can offer great assistance for the choice of fixation in os odontoideum by revealing the anatomy of the C2 pedicles in detail.
doi:10.1007/s00586-011-1893-4
PMCID: PMC3207342  PMID: 21725866
Os odontoideum pedicle screw; Laminar screw; C2 fixation
18.  Constructions of two polycatenanes and one polypseudo-rotaxane by discrete tetrahedral cages and stool-like building units 
Scientific Reports  2012;2:668.
Mechanically Interlocked molecules, such as catenanes and rotaxanes, are of great interest due to their fascinating structures and potential applications, while such molecules have been mainly restricted to comprising components of interlocked rings or polygons. The constructions of infinite polycatenanes and polyrotaxanes by discrete cages remain great challenge, and only two infinite polycatenanes fabricated by discrete cages have been reported so far, while the structures of polyrotaxanes and polypseudo-rotaxanes fabricated by discrete build units have not been documented to date. Herein we report the first example of a two-dimensional (2D) polypseudo-rotaxane fabricated by stool-like build units, the second example of a one-dimensional (1D) polycatenane, and the second example of a three-dimensional (3D) polycatenane, which were assemblied by discrete tetrahedral cages. The pores of dehydrated 3D polycatenane are dynamic, and display size-dependent adsorption/desorption behaviors of alcohols.
doi:10.1038/srep00668
PMCID: PMC3444800  PMID: 22993693
19.  In vitro infection with classical swine fever virus inhibits the transcription of immune response genes 
Virology Journal  2012;9:175.
Background
Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) can evade the immune response and establish chronic infection under natural and experimental conditions. Some genes related to antigen processing and presentation and to cytokine regulation are known to be involved in this response, but the precise mechanism through which each gene responds to CSFV infection remains unclear.
Results
In this study, the amplification standard curve and corresponding linear regression equations for the genes SLA-2, TAP1, SLA-DR, Ii, CD40, CD80, CD86, IFN-α, and IFN-β were established successfully. Real-time RT-PCR was used to quantify the immune response gene transcription in PK-15 cells post CSFV infection. Results showed that: (1) immune response genes were generally down-regulated as a result of CSFV infection, and (2) the expression of SLA-2, SLA-DR, Ii and CD80 was significantly decreased (p<0.001).
Conclusion
We conclude that in vitro infection with CSFV inhibits the transcription of host immune response genes. These findings may facilitate the development of effective strategies for controlling CSF.
doi:10.1186/1743-422X-9-175
PMCID: PMC3463435  PMID: 22925563
Classical swine fever virus (CSFV); Immune response genes; Real-time RT-PCR
20.  Hostility, Physical Aggression and Trait Anger as Predictors for Suicidal Behavior in Chinese Adolescents: A School-Based Study 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(2):e31044.
Purpose
This study explored the extent to which trait aggression is associated with suicidal behavior in a nationwide school-based sample of adolescents.
Methods
A nationwide sample of 14,537 high school students in urban areas of China was recruited. Information concerning suicide ideation, plans, attempts, trait aggression and other risk factors was collected by a self-reported questionnaire. Multivariate regression analyses were employed to predict suicidal behavior.
Results
Approximately 18.5% of students reported suicide ideation, 8.7% reported suicide plans, and 4.1% reported attempts during the past one year. Hostility and trait anger had a significant positive association with suicidal ideation. Hostility and physical aggression were positively related to suicide plans. Hostility had a positive correlation with suicide attempts, while trait anger was inversely associated with suicide attempts.
Conclusions
This study suggests that hostility, physical aggression and trait anger may be able to be used to predict suicidal behavior among adolescents. Suicide prevention programs should target at attenuating the severity of hostility, anger and physical aggression. But teachers and parents should also give close attention to students with low trait anger.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0031044
PMCID: PMC3281042  PMID: 22359563
21.  A Chinese Herbal Formula to Improve General Psychological Status in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial on Sichuan Earthquake Survivors 
Introduction. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is accompanied by poor general psychological status (GPS). In the present study, we investigated the effects of a Chinese herbal formula on GPS in earthquake survivors with PTSD. Methods. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial compared a Chinese herbal formula, Xiao-Tan-Jie-Yu-Fang (XTJYF), to placebo in 2008 Sichuan earthquake survivors with PTSD. Patients were randomized into XTJYF (n = 123) and placebo (n = 122) groups. Baseline-to-end-point score changes in the three global indices of the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) and rates of response in the SCL global severity index (GSI) were the primary endpoints. A subanalysis of the nine SCL factors and the sleep quality score were secondary endpoints. Results and Discussion. Compared to placebo, the XTJYF group was significantly improved in all three SCL global indices (P = 0.001~0.028). More patients in the XTJYF group reported “much improved” than the placebo group (P = 0.001). The XTJYF group performed significantly better than control in five out of nine SCL factors (somatization, obsessive-compulsive behavior, depression, anxiety, and hostility (P = 0.001~0.036)), and in sleep quality score (P < 0.001). XTJYF produced no serious adverse events. These findings suggest that XTJYF may be an effective and safe treatment option for improving GPS in patients with PTSD.
doi:10.1155/2012/691258
PMCID: PMC3199055  PMID: 22028733
22.  2-Chloro-N′-(2-hy­droxy-3,5-diiodo­benzyl­idene)benzohydrazide 
In the title compound, C14H9ClI2N2O2, the dihedral angle between the benzene rings is 65.9 (2)° and an intra­molecular O—H⋯N hydrogen bond generates an S(6) ring. The mol­ecule has an E conformation about the C=N bond. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked into C(4) chains propagating in [001] by N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds.
doi:10.1107/S1600536811007653
PMCID: PMC3099825  PMID: 21754096
23.  Genome-wide analysis of microRNA and mRNA expression signatures in hydroxycamptothecin-resistant gastric cancer cells 
Acta Pharmacologica Sinica  2011;32(2):259-269.
Aim:
To investigate the involvement of microRNAs (miRNAs) in intrinsic drug resistance to hydroxycamptothecin (HCPT) of six gastric cancer cell lines (BGC-823, SGC-7901, MGC-803, HGC-27, NCI-N87, and AGS).
Methods:
A sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay was used to analyze the sensitivity to HCPT of six gastric cancer cell lines. The miRNA and mRNA expression signatures in HCPT-resistant cell lines were then identified using DNA microarrays. Gene ontology and pathway analysis was conducted using GenMAPP2. A combined analysis was used to explore the relationship between the miRNAs and mRNAs.
Results:
The sensitivity to HCPT was significantly different among the six cell lines. In the HCPT-resistant gastric cancer cells, the levels of 25 miRNAs were deregulated, including miR-196a, miR-200 family, miR-338, miR-126, miR-31, miR-98, let-7g, and miR-7. Their target genes were related to cancer development, progression and chemosensitivity. Moreover, 307 genes were differentially expressed in HCPT-resistant cell lines, including apoptosis-related genes (BAX, TIAL1), cell division-related genes (MCM2), cell adhesion- or migration-related genes (TIMP2, VSNL1) and checkpoint genes (RAD1). The combined analysis revealed 78 relation pairs between the miRNAs and mRNAs.
Conclusion:
Hierarchical clustering showed that the miRNA and mRNA signatures in our results were informative for discriminating cell lines with different sensitivities to HCPT. However, there was slightly lower correlation between the expression patterns of the miRNA and those of the predicted target transcripts.
doi:10.1038/aps.2010.204
PMCID: PMC4009939  PMID: 21293479
hydroxycamptothecin (HCPT); gastric cancer; microRNA; signature; drug resistance; gene expression regulation; cluster analysis; messenger RNA
24.  Phylogenetic Position and Peculiar Genetic Traits of a Midgut Bacterial Symbiont of the Stinkbug Parastrachia japonensis▿ †  
Applied and Environmental Microbiology  2010;76(13):4130-4135.
The stinkbug Parastrachia japonensis (Hemiptera: Parastrachiidae) is known for its prolonged prereproductive nonfeeding period, maternal care of eggs in an underground nest, and maternal collection and provisioning of food (fruits) for nymphs. A previous study suggested that a bacterial symbiont is involved in uric acid recycling in this insect during the nonfeeding period, but the identity of this symbiont has not been determined. Here we characterized a novel bacterial symbiont obtained from P. japonensis. Molecular phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA, gyrB, and groEL gene sequences consistently indicated that this symbiont constituted a distinct lineage in the Gammaproteobacteria that has no close relatives but is allied with gut symbionts of acanthosomatid and plataspid stinkbugs, as well as with endocellular symbionts of sharpshooters, tsetse flies, and aphids. The symbiont genes had a remarkably AT-biased nucleotide composition and exhibited significantly accelerated molecular evolution. The symbiont genome was extremely reduced; its size was estimated to be 0.85 Mb. These results suggest that there has been an intimate host-symbiont association over evolutionary time. The symbiont was localized in swollen crypts in a posterior part of the midgut, which was a specialized symbiotic organ. The possibility that the symbiont is involved in uric acid recycling is discussed. The designation “Candidatus Benitsuchiphilus tojoi” is proposed for the symbiont.
doi:10.1128/AEM.00616-10
PMCID: PMC2897413  PMID: 20453148
25.  Disruption of the Putative Cell Surface Polysaccharide Biosynthesis Gene SO3177 in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 Enhances Adhesion to Electrodes and Current Generation in Microbial Fuel Cells▿ † 
Applied and Environmental Microbiology  2010;76(13):4151-4157.
A microbial fuel cell (MFC) was inoculated with a random transposon insertion mutant library of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 and operated with lactate as the sole fuel to select for mutants that preferentially grew in it. Agar plate cultivation of the resultant MFC enrichment culture detected an increased number of colonies exhibiting rough morphology. One such isolate, strain 4A, generated 50% more current in an MFC than wild-type MR-1. Determination of the transposon insertion site in strain 4A followed by deletion and complementation experiments revealed that the SO3177 gene, encoding a putative formyltransferase and situated in a cell surface polysaccharide biosynthesis gene cluster, was responsible for the increased current. Transmission electron microscopy showed that a layered structure at the cell surface, stainable with ruthenium red, was impaired in the SO3177 mutant (ΔSO3177), confirming that SO3177 is involved in the biosynthesis of cell surface polysaccharides. Compared to the wild type, ΔSO3177 cells preferentially attached to graphite felt anodes in MFCs, while physicochemical analyses revealed that the cell surface of ΔSO3177 was more hydrophobic. These results demonstrate that cell surface polysaccharides affect not only the cell adhesion to graphite anodes but also the current generation in MFCs.
doi:10.1128/AEM.00117-10
PMCID: PMC2897461  PMID: 20453127

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