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1.  Can early postoperative intraocular pressure predict success following mitomycin-C augmented trabeculectomy in primary angle-closure glaucoma 
Eye  2013;27(3):403-409.
To evaluate the association between early and late postoperative intraocular pressure (IOP) and determine if early postoperative IOP can predict the surgical outcome.
A total of 165 consecutive patients with primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) undergoing primary mitomycin-C-augmented trabeculectomy underwent a comprehensive eye examination before surgery and were followed-up on days 1, 7, 14, and 30, and months 3, 6, 12, and 18. IOPs on days 1, 7, 14, and 30 were stratified into groups A (<10 mm Hg), B (≥10 and <15 mm Hg), C (≥15 and <20 mm Hg), and D (≥20 mm Hg). Differences between groups were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Fisher's exact test. Multivariable regression was used to exam the predictive ability of early IOP for final outcome.
The mean age was 62.5±7.9 years and 41.21% (n=68) were males. Stratified by IOP on days 1, 7, 14, and 30, respectively, mean IOPs at month 18 were different among groups A, B, C, and D (ANOVA, P=0.047, P=0.033, P=0.008, and P<0.001, respectively). Once the IOPs were settled with interventions on day 7 a higher IOP level was associated with decreasing success rate under different outcome definitions, final IOP <15 mm Hg (Fisher's exact P=0.001) and <20 mm Hg (P=0.039) without medication. Multiple regression showed early IOP predicted final IOP independently from baseline variables. A cutoff value of 13.5 mm Hg on day 7 achieved an accuracy of 80.0 and 57.1% in predicting IOP<15 mm Hg without medication and failure after surgery, respectively.
The IOP at 18 months following primary antifibrotic-augmented trabeculectomy in PACG patients is associated with and predicted by the postoperative IOPs at 1 month. Control of early IOP to 13.5 or less may provide better outcomes.
PMCID: PMC3597889  PMID: 23306726
trabeculectomy; intraocular pressure; releasable sutures; outcome prediction; active bleb management; angle-closure glaucoma
2.  Particle image velocimetry (PIV) evaluation of flow modification in aneurysm phantoms using asymmetric stents 
Asymmetric stents are promising new devices for endovascular treatment of cerebrovascular aneurysms. For in vitro experiment a patch made of stainless steel mesh is directly attached onto a standard stent and deployed so that the patch is placed over the aneurysm orifice. Thus we modify substantially the flow into the aneurysm and decrease the shear stress on the aneurysm walls. We used mesh-patches having different permeabilities and evaluated the flow using Particle Image Velocimetry. PIV provides instantaneous velocity vector measurements in a cross-section of flow containing reflective micro-particles. A pulsed-laser light sheet illuminates the flow in the target area and images are acquired using a CCD camera. By registering the position of the particles in two successive images the fluid velocity vectors components are calculated. From the 2D velocity field a best polynomial fit is made to obtain a smooth function of each velocity with respect to the coordinates. Using the fit, we derived the values of quantities of interest in the plane of acquisition such as: tangent shear stress, vorticity and inflow. We used four meshes of different permeabilities. We found out that by using lower permeability meshes we create better conditions for the embolization of the aneurysm.
PMCID: PMC3092536  PMID: 21572936
asymmetric stent; particle image velocimetry (PIV); cerebral aneurysm; shear stress
3.  Maternally and zygotically provided Cdx2 have novel and critical roles for early development of the mouse embryo 
Developmental Biology  2010;344(1-2):66-78.
Divisions of polarised blastomeres that allocate polar cells to outer and apolar cells to inner positions initiate the first cell fate decision in the mouse embryo. Subsequently, outer cells differentiate into trophectoderm while inner cells retain pluripotency to become inner cell mass (ICM) of the blastocyst. Elimination of zygotic expression of trophectoderm-specific transcription factor Cdx2 leads to defects in the maintenance of the blastocyst cavity, suggesting that it participates only in the late stage of trophectoderm formation. However, we now find that mouse embryos also have a maternally provided pool of Cdx2 mRNA. Moreover, depletion of both maternal and zygotic Cdx2 from immediately after fertilization by three independent approaches, dsRNAi, siRNAi and morpholino oligonucleotides, leads to developmental arrest at much earlier stages than expected from elimination of only zygotic Cdx2. This developmental arrest is associated with defects in cell polarisation, reflected by expression and localisation of cell polarity molecules such as Par3 and aPKC and cell compaction at the 8- and 16-cell stages. Cells deprived of Cdx2 show delayed development with increased cell cycle length, irregular cell division and increased incidence of apoptosis. Although some Cdx2-depleted embryos initiate cavitation, the cavity cannot be maintained. Furthermore, expression of trophectoderm-specific genes, Gata3 and Eomes, and also the trophectoderm-specific cytokeratin intermediate filament, recognised by Troma1, are greatly reduced or undetectable. Taken together, our results indicate that Cdx2 participates in two steps leading to trophectoderm specification: appropriate polarisation of blastomeres at the 8- and 16-cell stage and then the maintenance of trophectoderm lineage-specific differentiation.
PMCID: PMC2954319  PMID: 20430022
Cdx2; Trophectoderm; Mouse embryo; Polarisation; Cell death; Compaction
4.  Saccular Aneurysms on Straight and Curved Vessels Are Subject to Different Hemodynamics: Implications of Intravascular Stenting 
Our aim was to examine hemodynamic implications of intravascular stenting in the canine venous pouch (sidewall or straight-vessel) and rabbit elastase (curved-vessel) aneurysm models. Flow dynamics in stented (Wallstent) and nonstented versions were studied by using computational fluid dynamics simulations and in vitro flow visualization, with a focus on stent placement effects on aneurysmal flow stagnancy and flow impingement. Results show that sidewall and curved aneurysm models have fundamentally different hemodynamics (shear-driven versus inertia-driven) and thus stent placement outcomes.
PMCID: PMC2754164  PMID: 17032857
5.  Pioglitazone versus Rosiglitazone: Effects on Lipids, Lipoproteins, and Apolipoproteins in Head-to-Head Randomized Clinical Studies 
PPAR Research  2008;2008:520465.
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) play an important role in regulating both glucose and lipid metabolism. Agonists for both PPARγ and PPARγ have been used to treat dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia, respectively. In addition to affecting glucose metabolism, PPARγ agonists also regulate lipid metabolism. In this review, we will focus on the randomized clinical trials that directly compared the lipid effects of the thiazolidinedione class of PPARγ agonists, pioglitazone and rosiglitazone, head-to-head either as monotherapy or in combination with other lipid-altering or glucose-lowering agents
PMCID: PMC2519139  PMID: 18769492
6.  Characterization of Humanized Antibodies Secreted by Aspergillus niger 
Two different humanized immunoglobulin G1(κ) antibodies and an Fab′ fragment were produced by Aspergillus niger. The antibodies were secreted into the culture supernatant. Both light and heavy chains were initially synthesized as fusion proteins with native glucoamylase. After antibody assembly, cleavage by A. niger KexB protease allowed the release of free antibody. Purification by hydrophobic charge induction chromatography proved effective at removing any antibody to which glucoamylase remained attached. Glycosylation at N297 in the Fc region of the heavy chain was observed, but this site was unoccupied on approximately 50% of the heavy chains. The glycan was of the high-mannose type, with some galactose present, and the size ranged from Hex6GlcNAc2 to Hex15GlcNAc2. An aglycosyl mutant form of antibody was also produced. No significant difference between the glycosylated antibody produced by Aspergillus and that produced by mammalian cell cultures was observed in tests for affinity, avidity, pharmacokinetics, or antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity function.
PMCID: PMC404402  PMID: 15128505
7.  Human mast cells stimulate vascular tube formation. Tryptase is a novel, potent angiogenic factor. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1997;99(11):2691-2700.
The presence of mast cells near capillary sprouting sites suggests an association between mast cells and angiogenesis. However, the role of mast cells in blood vessel development remains to be defined. In an attempt to elucidate this relationship, we investigated the effect of human mast cells (HMC-1) and their products on human dermal microvascular endothelial cell (HDMEC) tube formation. Coculture of HMC-1 with HDMEC led to a dose-response increase in the network area of vascular tube growth. Moreover, the extent of neovascularization was enhanced greatly when HMC-1 were degranulated in the presence of HDMEC. Further examination using antagonists to various mast cell products revealed a blunted response (73-88% decrease) in the area of vascular tube formation if specific inhibitors of tryptase were present. Tryptase (3 microg/ml) directly added to HDMEC caused a significant augmentation of capillary growth, which was suppressed by specific tryptase inhibitors. Tryptase also directly induced cell proliferation of HDMEC in a dose-dependent fashion (2 pM-2 nM). Our results suggest that mast cells act at sites of new vessel formation by secreting tryptase, which then functions as a potent and previously unrecognized angiogenic factor.
PMCID: PMC508115  PMID: 9169499
8.  Detection of hepatitis E virus RNA in stools and serum by reverse transcription-PCR. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1996;34(6):1568-1571.
Stools and sera collected during an experimental hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in monkeys and collected from humans with acute HEV infections during epidemic and sporadic cases were analyzed by reverse transcription-PCR. Two methods for RNA purification were compared. Proteinase K digestion and phenolchloroform extraction were more efficient than guanidinium isothiocyanate extraction in improving the sensitivity and specificity for the detection of HEV genomes.
PMCID: PMC229066  PMID: 8735122
9.  Purification and partial characterization of Flavotoxin A. 
A heat-resistant, low-molecular-weight toxin was isolated from semisolid potato dextrose agar medium after inoculation with Flavobacterium farinofermentans sp. nov., which was isolated from fermented corn meal that caused some outbreaks of food poisoning in China. The toxin was purified by solvent partition, Sephadex LH-20 gel filtration, and C-18 reversed-phase column chromatography. Thin-layer chromatography and high-pressure liquid chromatographic methods were developed for the identification and analysis of the toxin. The purified toxin exhibited a single spot in thin-layer chromatography and a single peak in high-pressure liquid chromatography and had adsorption maxima at 232 and 267 nm. Mass spectral analysis indicated a molecular weight of 169 with an experimental formula of C9H13O3. The 50% lethal dose of purified toxin in mice (oral) was less than 6.84 mg/kg, but greater than 0.68 mg/kg. Postmortem examination showed that the mice died of some type of neurological and cardiovascular system toxicity. The name Flavotoxin A is being assigned to the toxin.
PMCID: PMC241595  PMID: 6391376
10.  Cognitive trio: relationship with major depression and clinical predictors in Han Chinese women 
Psychological Medicine  2013;43(11):2265-2275.
Previous studies support Beck's cognitive model of vulnerability to depression. However, the relationship between his cognitive triad and other clinical features and risk factors among those with major depression (MD) has rarely been systematically studied.
The three key cognitive symptoms of worthlessness, hopelessness and helplessness were assessed during their lifetime worst episode in 1970 Han Chinese women with recurrent MD. Diagnostic and other risk factor information was assessed at personal interview. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated by logistic regression.
Compared to patients who did not endorse the cognitive trio, those who did had a greater number of DSM-IV A criteria, more individual depressive symptoms, an earlier age at onset, a greater number of episodes, and were more likely to meet diagnostic criteria for melancholia, postnatal depression, dysthymia and anxiety disorders. Hopelessness was highly related to all the suicidal symptomatology, with ORs ranging from 5.92 to 6.51. Neuroticism, stressful life events (SLEs) and a protective parental rearing style were associated with these cognitive symptoms.
During the worst episode of MD in Han Chinese women, the endorsement of the cognitive trio was associated with a worse course of depression and an increased risk of suicide. Individuals with high levels of neuroticism, many SLEs and high parental protectiveness were at increased risk for these cognitive depressive symptoms. As in Western populations, symptoms of the cognitive trio appear to play a central role in the psychopathology of MD in Chinese women.
PMCID: PMC3807662  PMID: 23425530
Cognitive trio; Han Chinese women; major depression; suicide; symptoms
11.  The structure of the symptoms of major depression: exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis in depressed Han Chinese women 
Psychological Medicine  2013;44(7):1391-1401.
The symptoms of major depression (MD) are clinically diverse. Do they form coherent factors that might clarify the underlying nature of this important psychiatric syndrome?
Symptoms at lifetime worst depressive episode were assessed at structured psychiatric interview in 6008 women of Han Chinese descent, age ⩾30 years with recurrent DSM-IV MD. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatoryfactor analysis (CFA) were performed in Mplus in random split-half samples.
The preliminary EFA results were consistently supported by the findings from CFA. Analyses of the nine DSM-IV MD symptomatic A criteria revealed two factors loading on: (i) general depressive symptoms; and (ii) guilt/suicidal ideation. Examining 14 disaggregated DSM-IV criteria revealed three factors reflecting: (i) weight/appetite disturbance; (ii) general depressive symptoms; and (iii) sleep disturbance. Using all symptoms (n = 27), we identified five factors that reflected: (i) weight/appetite symptoms; (ii) general retarded depressive symptoms; (iii) atypical vegetative symptoms; (iv) suicidality/hopelessness; and (v) symptoms of agitation and anxiety.
MD is a clinically complex syndrome with several underlying correlated symptom dimensions. In addition to a general depressive symptom factor, a complete picture must include factors reflecting typical/atypical vegetative symptoms, cognitive symptoms (hopelessness/suicidal ideation), and an agitated symptom factor characterized by anxiety, guilt, helplessness and irritability. Prior cross-cultural studies, factor analyses of MD in Western populations and empirical findings in this sample showing risk factor profiles similar to those seen in Western populations suggest that our results are likely to be broadly representative of the human depressive syndrome.
PMCID: PMC3967839  PMID: 23920138
Atypical symptoms; China; cognitive symptoms; depression; factor analysis
12.  Monophyletic origin of domestic bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus) and its evolutionary relationship with the extant wild camel (Camelus bactrianus ferus) 
Ji, R | Cui, P | Ding, F | Geng, J | Gao, H | Zhang, H | Yu, J | Hu, S | Meng, H
Animal Genetics  2009;40(4):377-382.
The evolutionary relationship between the domestic bactrian camel and the extant wild two-humped camel and the factual origin of the domestic bactrian camel remain elusive. We determined the sequence of mitochondrial cytb gene from 21 camel samples, including 18 domestic camels (three Camelus bactrianus xinjiang, three Camelus bactrianus sunite, three Camelus bactrianus alashan, three Camelus bactrianus red, three Camelus bactrianus brown and three Camelus bactrianus normal) and three wild camels (Camelus bactrianus ferus). Our phylogenetic analyses revealed that the extant wild two-humped camel may not share a common ancestor with the domestic bactrian camel and they are not the same subspecies at least in their maternal origins. Molecular clock analysis based on complete mitochondrial genome sequences indicated that the sub-speciation of the two lineages had begun in the early Pleistocene, about 0.7 million years ago. According to the archaeological dating of the earliest known two-humped camel domestication (5000–6000 years ago), we could conclude that the extant wild camel is a separate lineage but not the direct progenitor of the domestic bactrian camel. Further phylogenetic analysis suggested that the bactrian camel appeared monophyletic in evolutionary origin and that the domestic bactrian camel could originate from a single wild population. The data presented here show how conservation strategies should be implemented to protect the critically endangered wild camel, as it is the last extant form of the wild tribe Camelina.
PMCID: PMC2721964  PMID: 19292708
bactrian camel; domestication; mitochondrial genome; phylogeny

Results 1-12 (12)