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AIDS Research and Treatment (1)
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Magnitude and Correlates of Intimate Partner Violence against Women and Its Outcome in Southwest Ethiopia
Beyene, Biruk Kebede
Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is a major public health problem with serious consequences. This study was conducted to assess the magnitude of IPV in Southwest Ethiopia in predominantly rural community.
This community based cross-sectional study was conducted in May, 2009 in Southwest Ethiopia using the World Health Organization core questionnaire to measure violence against women. Trained data collectors interviewed 851 ever-married women. Stata version 10.1 software and SPSS version 12.0.1 for windows were used for data analysis.
In this study the life time prevalence of sexual or physical partner violence, or both was 64.7% (95%CI: 61.4%–67.9%). The lifetime sexual violence [50.1% (95% CI: 46.7%–53.4%)] was considerably more prevalent than physical violence [41.1% (95%:37.8–44.5)]. A sizable proportion [41.5%(95%CI: 38.2%–44.8%)] of women reported physical or sexual violence, or both, in the past year. Men who were controlling were more likely to be violent against their partner.
Physical and sexual violence is common among ever-married women in Southwest Ethiopia. Interventions targeting controlling men might help in reducing IPV. Further prospective longitudinal studies among ever-married women are important to identify predictors and to study the dynamics of violence over time.
Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Precancerous Cervical Cancer Lesions among HIV-Infected Women in Resource-Limited Settings
AIDS Research and Treatment
Objective. To assess the prevalence and identified associated risk factors for precancerous cervical cancer lesions among HIV-infected women in resource-limited settings in Kenya. Methods. HIV-infected women attending the ART clinic at the Nazareth Hospital ART clinic between June 2009 and September 2010. Multivariate logistic regression model with odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated after controlling for important covariates. Result. A total of 715 women were screened for cervical cancer. The median age of the participants was 40 years (range 18–69 years). The prevalence of precancerous lesions (CINI, CINII, CIN III, ICC) was 191 (26.7%). After controlling for other variables in logistic regression analysis, cervical precancerous lesions were associated with not being on ART therapy; whereby non-ART were 2.21 times more likely to have precancerous lesions than ART patients [(aOR) = 2.21, 95% CI (1.28–3.83)]. Conclusion. The prevalence of precancerous cervical lesions was lower than other similar settings. It is recommended that cancer screening of HIV-infected women should be an established practice. Availability and accessibility of these services can be done through their integration into HIV. Prompt initiation of HAART through an early enrollment into care has an impact on reducing the prevalence and progression of cervical precancerous lesions.
The utility of the environmental scan for public health practice: lessons from an urban program to increase cancer screening.
Moore, Natalie Dewberry
Journal of the National Medical Association
The environmental scan is a tool that can be utilized to collect data to design health programs uniquely tailored to the needs of communities. However, it remains relatively undefined, unevaluated and underutilized in the field of public health. While individual studies indicate the utility of the environmental scan for public health, it is difficult to find a theoretical framework or guidelines on how to design, implement or evaluate the process within public health practice. The purpose of this study was to elicit lessons learned to maximize the utility of the environmental scan as a tool for public health. This process occurred through the development and implementation of an environmental scan as part of the needs-assessment phase of a project to increase cancer screening among African Americans in Baltimore, MD. Data collection methods for the environmental scan included a review of community stakeholders, cancer incidence and community assets and liabilities in target communities, focus-group sessions and key informant interviews with service providers. The environmental scan was conducted in 2003 and allowed for rapid acquisition and use of information about events, trends and relationships in the neighborhoods targeted for our project and enabled researchers to move forward with implementing the cancer-screening project. The researchers conclude that the environmental scan has considerable potential to be a creative, responsive, cost-effective and mobilizing tool for public health practice. However, further application and critical review are necessary to make it a more effective public health tool and an established research methodology.
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