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1.  Genome scan of clot lysis time and its association with thrombosis in a protein C deficient kindred 
Summary
Background
Previously we found increased clot lysis time (CLT), as measured with a plasma-based assay, to increase the risk of venous thrombosis in two population-based case-control studies. Genes influencing CLT are yet unknown.
Objectives and Patients/Methods
We tested CLT as risk factor for venous thrombosis in Kindred Vermont II (n=346), a pedigree suffering from a high thrombosis risk, partially attributable to a type I protein C deficiency. Furthermore we tested for quantitative trait loci (QTL) for CLT using variance component linkage analysis.
Results
Protein C deficient family members had shorter CLT than non-deficient members (median CLT 67 versus 75 minutes). One standard deviation increase in CLT increased risk of venous thrombosis 2.4-fold in non-deficient family members. Protein C deficiency without elevated CLT increased risk 6.9-fold. Combining both risk factors yielded a 27.8-fold increased risk. Heritability of CLT was 42-52%. We found suggestive evidence of linkage on chromosome 11 (62 cM), partly explained by the prothrombin 20210A mutation, and on chromosome 13 (52 cM). Thrombin Activatable Fibrinolysis Inhibitor genotypes did not explain the variation in CLT.
Conclusion
Hypofibrinolysis appears to increase thrombosis risk in this family especially in combination with protein C deficiency. Protein C deficiency is associated with short CLT. CLT is partly genetically regulated. Suggestive QTL were found on chromosome 11 and 13.
doi:10.1111/j.1538-7836.2011.04343.x
PMCID: PMC3138551  PMID: 21575129
fibrinolysis; protein C deficiency; QTL; TAFI; venous thrombosis
2.  Molecular modeling of retinoschisin with functional analysis of pathogenic mutations from human X-linked retinoschisis 
Human Molecular Genetics  2010;19(7):1302-1313.
Gene mutations that encode retinoschisin (RS1) cause X-linked retinoschisis (XLRS), a form of juvenile macular and retinal degeneration that affects males. RS1 is an adhesive protein which is proposed to preserve the structural and functional integrity of the retina, but there is very little evidence of the mechanism by which protein changes are related to XLRS disease. Here, we report molecular modeling of the RS1 protein and consider perturbations caused by mutations found in human XLRS subjects. In 60 XLRS patients who share 27 missense mutations, we then evaluated possible correlations of the molecular modeling with retinal function as determined by the electroretinogram (ERG) a- and b-waves. The b/a-wave ratio reflects visual-signal transfer in retina. We sorted the ERG b/a-ratios by patient age and by the mutation impact on protein structure. The majority of RS1 mutations caused minimal structure perturbation and targeted the protein surface. These patients' b/a-ratios were similar across younger and older subjects. Maximum structural perturbations from either the removal or insertion of cysteine residues or changes in the hydrophobic core were associated with greater difference in the b/a-ratio with age, with a significantly smaller ratio at younger ages, analogous to the ERG changes with age observed in mice with no RS1-protein expression due to a recombinant RS1-knockout gene. The molecular modeling suggests an association between the predicted structural alteration and/or damage to retinoschisin and the severity of XLRS as measured by the ERG analogous to the RS1-knockout mouse.
doi:10.1093/hmg/ddq006
PMCID: PMC2838538  PMID: 20061330
3.  Modeling potential responses to smallpox as a bioterrorist weapon. 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2001;7(6):959-969.
We constructed a mathematical model to describe the spread of smallpox after a deliberate release of the virus. Assuming 100 persons initially infected and 3 persons infected per infectious person, quarantine alone could stop disease transmission but would require a minimum daily removal rate of 50% of those with overt symptoms. Vaccination would stop the outbreak within 365 days after release only if disease transmission were reduced to <0.85 persons infected per infectious person. A combined vaccination and quarantine campaign could stop an outbreak if a daily quarantine rate of 25% were achieved and vaccination reduced smallpox transmission by > or = 33%. In such a scenario, approximately 4,200 cases would occur and 365 days would be needed to stop the outbreak. Historical data indicate that a median of 2,155 smallpox vaccine doses per case were given to stop outbreaks, implying that a stockpile of 40 million doses should be adequate.
PMCID: PMC2631899  PMID: 11747722
4.  Costs and benefits of a subtype-specific surveillance system for identifying Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreaks. 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2000;6(3):293-297.
We assessed the societal costs and benefits of a subtype-specific surveillance system for identifying outbreak-associated Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections. Using data from Colorado, we estimated that if it averted five cases annually, the system would recover all its costs.
PMCID: PMC2640869  PMID: 10827120
5.  The economic impact of pandemic influenza in the United States: priorities for intervention. 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  1999;5(5):659-671.
We estimated the possible effects of the next influenza pandemic in the United States and analyzed the economic impact of vaccine-based interventions. Using death rates, hospitalization data, and outpatient visits, we estimated 89,000 to 207,000 deaths; 314,000 to 734,000 hospitalizations; 18 to 42 million outpatient visits; and 20 to 47 million additional illnesses. Patients at high risk (15% of the population) would account for approximately 84% of all deaths. The estimated economic impact would be US$71.3 to $166.5 billion, excluding disruptions to commerce and society. At $21 per vaccinee, we project a net savings to society if persons in all age groups are vaccinated. At $62 per vaccinee and at gross attack rates of 25%, we project net losses if persons not at high risk for complications are vaccinated. Vaccinating 60% of the population would generate the highest economic returns but may not be possible within the time required for vaccine effectiveness, especially if two doses of vaccine are required.
PMCID: PMC2627723  PMID: 10511522
6.  The cost effectiveness of vaccinating against Lyme disease. 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  1999;5(3):321-328.
To determine the cost effectiveness of vaccinating against Lyme disease, we used a decision tree to examine the impact on society of six key components. The main measure of outcome was the cost per case averted. Assuming a 0.80 probability of diagnosing and treating early Lyme disease, a 0.005 probability of contracting Lyme disease, and a vaccination cost of $50 per year, the mean cost of vaccination per case averted was $4,466. When we increased the probability of contracting Lyme disease to 0.03 and the cost of vaccination to $100 per year, the mean net savings per case averted was $3,377. Since few communities have average annual incidences of Lyme disease >0. 005, economic benefits will be greatest when vaccination is used on the basis of individual risk, specifically, in persons whose probability of contracting Lyme disease is >0.01.
PMCID: PMC2640763  PMID: 10341168
7.  The cost of rabies postexposure prophylaxis: one state's experience. 
Public Health Reports  1998;113(3):247-251.
OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to evaluate trends in the use of rabies postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) before, during, and following an epidemic of raccoon rabies in Massachusetts. METHODS: The authors reviewed initiation of PEP as reported to the Massachusetts Department of Public Health (MDPH) from August 1994 to December 1995 and surveyed hospital pharmacies to determine the number of vials of Human Rabies Immune Globulin (HRIG) dispensed from 1991 through 1995 and charges to patients per vial. RESULTS: PEP use increased dramatically, from 1.7 per 100,000 population in 1991 (pre-epidemic) to 45 per 100,000 in 1995 (after the first stages of the epidemic). The median costs per patient for biologics was $1646 (range: $632-$3435). Including physician and emergency room charges, per-patient median costs were $2376 (range: $1038-$4447). Total health care charges for PEP in Massachusetts in 1995 were estimated at $2.4 million to $6.4 million. CONCLUSIONS: Given the rapid increase in use of PEP, further studies should be undertaken to determine the appropriateness of use, and other alternatives, such as oral wildlife vaccines, should be considered.
PMCID: PMC1308677  PMID: 9633871
8.  The economic impact of a bioterrorist attack: are prevention and postattack intervention programs justifiable? 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  1997;3(2):83-94.
Understanding and quantifying the impact of a bioterrorist attack are essential in developing public health preparedness for such an attack. We constructed a model that compares the impact of three classic agents of biologic warfare (Bacillus anthracis, Brucella melitensis, and Francisella tularensis) when released as aerosols in the suburb of a major city. The model shows that the economic impact of a bioterrorist attack can range from an estimated $477.7 million per 100,000 persons exposed (brucellosis scenario) to $26.2 billion per 100,000 persons exposed (anthrax scenario). Rapid implementation of a postattack prophylaxis program is the single most important means of reducing these losses. By using an insurance analogy, our model provides economic justification for preparedness measures.
PMCID: PMC2627615  PMID: 9204289
9.  Assessing the costs and benefits of an oral vaccine for raccoon rabies: a possible model. 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  1996;2(4):343-349.
Any cost-benefit analysis of the use of an oral vaccine to control raccoon rabies should include calculating both costs and benefits in terms of $/unit area. Further, cost savings must be adjusted to match the stages of an epizootic: pre-epizootic, epizootic, and post-epizootic. A generic model, which can be adapted to different sites, illustrates the use of threshold analysis to link distribution costs, cost savings, bait density, and vaccine price. Initial results indicate the need to lower the cost of the vaccine, continue research to determine optimal bait densities, and examine distribution plans that do not require continued protection of areas in which raccoon rabies was eliminated through previous vaccination programs.
PMCID: PMC2639934  PMID: 8969251
10.  Growth of Francisella tularensis LVS in macrophages: the acidic intracellular compartment provides essential iron required for growth. 
Infection and Immunity  1995;63(4):1478-1483.
Murine macrophages supported exponential intracellular growth of Francisella tularensis LVS in vitro with a doubling time of 4 to 6 h. LVS was internalized and remained in a vacuolar compartment throughout its growth cycle. The importance of endosome acidification to intracellular growth of this bacterium was assessed by treatment of LVS-infected macrophages with several different lysosomotropic agents (chloroquine, NH4Cl, and ouabain). Regardless of the agent used or its mechanism of action, macrophages treated with agents that blocked endosome acidification no longer supported replication of LVS. Over several experiments for each lysosomotropic agent, the number of CFU of LVS recovered from treated macrophage cultures was equivalent to the input inoculum (approximately 10(4) CFU) at 72 h. In contrast, over 10(8) CFU was consistently recovered from untreated cultures. Pretreatment of macrophages with these endosome acidification inhibitors did not alter their ingestion of bacteria. Further, the effects of the inhibitors were completely reversible: inhibitor-pretreated LVS-infected macrophages washed free of the agent and cultured in medium fully supported LVS growth over 72 h. Endosome acidification is an important cellular event essential for release of iron from transferrin. The growth-inhibitory effects of both chloroquine and NH4Cl were completely reversed by addition of ferric PPi, a transferrin-independent iron source, at a neutral pH but not by addition of excess holotransferrin. Thus, intracellular localization in an acidic vesicle which facilitates the availability of iron essential for Francisella growth is a survival tactic of this bacterium, and iron depletion is one mechanism that macrophages use to inhibit its growth.
PMCID: PMC173178  PMID: 7890413
11.  Neutralization of gamma interferon and tumor necrosis factor alpha blocks in vivo synthesis of nitrogen oxides from L-arginine and protection against Francisella tularensis infection in Mycobacterium bovis BCG-treated mice. 
Infection and Immunity  1993;61(2):689-698.
Peritoneal cells from Mycobacterium bovis BCG-infected C3H/HeN mice produced nitrite (NO2-, an oxidative end product of nitric oxide [NO] synthesis) and inhibited the growth of Francisella tularensis, a facultative intracellular bacterium. Both NO2- production and inhibition of bacterial growth were suppressed by NG-monomethyl-L-arginine, a substrate inhibitor of nitrogen oxidation of L-arginine, and monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). Intraperitoneal injection of mice with BCG increased urinary nitrate (NO3-) excretion coincident with development of activated macrophages capable of secreting nitrogen oxides and inhibiting F. tularensis growth in vitro. Eight days after BCG inoculation, mice survived a normally lethal intraperitoneal challenge with F. tularensis. Treatment of these BCG-infected mice with MAbs to IFN-gamma or TNF-alpha at the time of BCG inoculation reduced urinary NO3- levels to those found in normal uninfected mice for up to 14 days. The same anticytokine antibody treatment abolished BCG-mediated protection against F. tularensis: mice died within 4 to 6 days. Intraperitoneal administration of anti-IFN-gamma or anti-TNF-alpha antibody 8 days after BCG infection also reduced urinary NO3- and abolished protection against F. tularensis. Isotype control (immunoglobulin G) or anti-interleukin 4 MAbs had little effect on these parameters at any time of treatment. IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha were clearly involved in the regulation of macrophage activation by BCG in vivo. Protection against F. tularensis challenge by BCG depended upon the physiological generation of reactive nitrogen oxides induced by these cytokines.
PMCID: PMC302781  PMID: 8423095
12.  Loss of infectivity by progeny virus from alpha interferon-treated human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected T cells is associated with defective assembly of envelope gp120. 
Journal of Virology  1992;66(12):7543-7548.
Levels of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) DNA, RNA, or p24 antigen and reverse transcriptase activity in T-cell cultures treated with 500 IU of recombinant alpha interferon (rIFN alpha) per ml were comparable to those in control cultures. Radioimmunoprecipitation analysis of proteins in lysates of IFN-treated T cells documented a marked accumulation of HIV proteins. Localization of gp120 by immunofluorescence showed a diffuse pattern in IFN-treated cells quite distinct from the ring pattern in untreated control cells. That large quantities of gp120 in aberrant cell compartments might affect HIV morphogenesis was confirmed in infectivity studies: virions from IFN-treated cells were 100- to 1,000-fold less infectious than an equal number of virions from control cells. Direct examination of IFN-treated and control HIV-infected cells by transmission electron microscopy showed little difference in the number or distribution of viral particles. However, quantitation of gp120 by immunogold particle analysis revealed a marked depletion of envelope glycoprotein in virions released from IFN-treated cells. This defect in gp120 assembly onto mature viral particles provides a molecular basis for this loss of infectivity.
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PMCID: PMC240466  PMID: 1279206
13.  Live vaccine strain of Francisella tularensis: infection and immunity in mice. 
Infection and Immunity  1991;59(9):2922-2928.
The live vaccine strain (LVS) of Francisella tularensis caused lethal disease in several mouse strains. Lethality depended upon the dose and route of inoculation. The lethal dose for 50% of the mice (LD50) in four of six mouse strains (A/J, BALB/cHSD, C3H/HeNHSD, and SWR/J) given an intraperitoneal (i.p.) inoculation was less than 10 CFU. For the other two strains tested, C3H/HeJ and C57BL/6J, the i.p. log LD50 was 1.5 and 2.7, respectively. Similar susceptibility was observed in mice inoculated by intravenous (i.v.) and intranasal (i.n.) routes: in all cases the LD50 was less than 1,000 CFU. Regardless of the inoculation route (i.p., i.v., or i.n.), bacteria were isolated from spleen, liver, and lungs within 3 days of introduction of bacteria; numbers of bacteria increased in these infected organs over 5 days. In contrast to the other routes of inoculation, mice injected with LVS intradermally (i.d.) survived infection: the LD50 of LVS by this route was much greater than 10(5) CFU. This difference in susceptibility was not due solely to local effects at the dermal site of inoculation, since bacteria were isolated from the spleen, liver, and lungs within 3 days by this route as well. The i.d.-infected mice were immune to an otherwise lethal i.p. challenge with as many as 10(4) CFU, and immunity could be transferred with either serum, whole spleen cells, or nonadherent spleen cells (but not Ig+ cells). A variety of infectious agents induce different disease syndromes depending on the route of entry. Francisella LVS infection in mice provides a model system for analysis of locally induced protective effector mechanisms.
PMCID: PMC258114  PMID: 1879918
14.  The inability of human immunodeficiency virus to infect chimpanzee monocytes can be overcome by serial viral passage in vivo. 
Journal of Virology  1991;65(7):3853-3863.
Studies of lentivirus infection in ruminants, nonhuman primates, and humans suggest that virus infection of macrophages plays a central role in the disease process. To investigate whether human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) can infect chimpanzee macrophages, we recovered monocytes from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of HIV-1-negative animals and inoculated these and control human monocytes with a panel of four human-passaged monocytotropic virus strains and one chimpanzee-passaged isolate. HIV-1 infected human monocytes synthesized proviral DNA, viral mRNA, p24 antigen, and progeny virions. In contrast, except for the chimpanzee-passaged HIV-1 isolate, chimpanzee monocytes failed to support HIV-1 replication when cultured under both identical and a variety of other conditions. Proviral DNA was demonstrated only at background levels in these cell cultures by polymerase chain reaction for gag- and env-related sequences. Interestingly, the chimpanzee-passaged HIV-1 isolate did not replicate in human monocytes; viral p24 antigens and progeny virions were not detected. The same monocytotropic panel of HIV-1 strains replicated in both human and chimpanzee CD4+ T lymphoblasts treated with phytohemagglutinin and interleukin-2. The failure of HIV-1 to infect chimpanzee monocytes, which can be overcome by serial in vivo viral passage, occurs through a block early in the viral life cycle.
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PMCID: PMC241416  PMID: 1674968
15.  Cytoplasmic assembly and accumulation of human immunodeficiency virus types 1 and 2 in recombinant human colony-stimulating factor-1-treated human monocytes: an ultrastructural study. 
Journal of Virology  1988;62(8):2578-2586.
Recombinant human colony-stimulating factor-1-treated human peripheral blood-derived monocytes-macrophages are efficient host cells for recovery of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) from blood leukocytes of patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. These cells can be maintained as viable monolayers for intervals exceeding 3 months. Infection with HIV resulted in virus-induced cytopathic effects, accompanied by relatively high levels of released progeny virus, followed by a prolonged low-level release of virus from morphologically normal cells. In both acutely and chronically infected monocytes, viral particles were seen budding into and accumulating within cytoplasmic vacuoles. The number of intravacuolar virions far exceeded those associated with the plasma membrane, especially in the chronic phase, and were concentrated in the perinuclear Golgi zone. In many instances, the vacuoles were identified as Golgi elements. Fusion of virus-laden vacuoles with primary lysosomes were rare. The pattern of cytoplasmic assembly of virus was observed with both HIV types 1 and 2 and in brain macrophages of an individual with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome encephalopathy. Immunoglobulin-coated gold beads added to acutely infected cultures were segregated from the vacuoles containing virus; relatively few beads and viral particles colocalized. The assembly of HIV virions within vacuoles of macrophages is in contrast to the exclusive surface assembly of HIV by T lymphocytes. Intracytoplasmic virus hidden from immune surveillance in monocytes-macrophages may explain, in part, the persistence of HIV in the infected human host.
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PMCID: PMC253687  PMID: 3260631
16.  Mycobacterium bovis BCG-induced protection against cutaneous and systemic Leishmania major infections of mice. 
Infection and Immunity  1987;55(7):1707-1714.
We examined the protective effects of Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) administration on Leishmania major infections of BALB/c and P/J mice. There were two treatment protocols. In the first, the footpads of naive animals were inoculated with mixtures of L. major and BCG (viable or heat killed) or the soluble mycobacterial antigen, purified protein derivative. Viable BCG, but not heat-killed BCG or purified protein derivative, inoculated with L. major amastigotes into the footpads of naive BALB/c or P/J mice protected these animals from the metastatic spread of parasites to the viscera and from ensuing lethal systemic infection. This treatment also induced cures of the cutaneous lesions of P/J mice but not of BALB/c mice. In the second protocol, we induced an immune response to BCG before inoculation of L. major. BCG given intraperitoneally 10 days before infection of footpads with leishmania offered protection against the metastatic spread of amastigotes in both P/J and BALB/c mice, regardless of intralesional treatment, and modulated the severity of cutaneous infection by 30 to 50%. Inoculation of a mixture of viable BCG and L. major amastigotes into BCG-immune mice completely protected both BALB/c and P/J strains from cutaneous disease; we recovered no parasites from the inoculated footpads of these animals. Furthermore, each of the nonspecifically protected mice of both the BALB/c and P/J strains developed immunity to rechallenge with viable L. major. Injection of amastigotes at a site remote from the original lesion, the contralateral footpad, resulted in the complete clearance of parasites in the inoculum with no evidence of either cutaneous or systemic disease over an extended observation period.
PMCID: PMC260582  PMID: 3298065
17.  Differential inhibition of macrophage microbicidal activity by liposomes. 
Infection and Immunity  1985;47(2):567-569.
In vitro culture of murine resident peritoneal macrophages with lymphokine (LK)-rich leukocyte culture fluids induces enhanced microbicidal activity against amastigotes of the protozoan parasite Leishmania tropica. Macrophages infected with Leishmania and treated with LKs after infection acquire the capacity to kill the intracellular parasite within 72 h. When compared with control macrophage cultures treated with medium lacking LKs, 80 to 90% fewer macrophages treated with LKs contained amastigotes. In experiments designed to test liposome delivery of LKs to infected macrophages, addition of multilamellar liposomes composed of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylserine (molar ratio, 7:3) completely abrogated LK-induced microbicidal activity. Liposomes containing only phosphatidylcholine were not inhibitory. Inhibition of LK activity by the liposomes occurred regardless of whether the liposomes contained LKs. Liposomal inhibition of activated macrophage effector activity was limited to intracellular killing; LK-induced macrophage extracellular cytolysis (i.e., tumor cytotoxicity) was not affected by liposome treatment. These data indicate that elucidation of the effects of liposome composition on acquired host defense mechanisms may be useful for the design of drug delivery systems that allow expression or augmentation of immunologically induced mechanisms for the intracellular destruction of infectious agents.
PMCID: PMC263210  PMID: 3967927
18.  Cytotoxicity of human serum for Leishmania donovani amastigotes: antibody facilitation of alternate complement pathway-mediated killing. 
Infection and Immunity  1985;47(1):247-252.
Mechanisms that mediate recovery from leishmanial infection have not been fully characterized but are generally believed to involve interactions between T lymphocytes and macrophages. A major role for serum-mediated effector mechanisms in the protection of humans from reinfection with Leishmania, however, has not been ruled out. In this report, amastigotes of L. donovani were incubated with dilutions of serum from normal subjects and from patients with kala-azar. Normal serum was cytotoxic for parasites at a dilution of greater than or equal to 1:20. Cytotoxicity did not occur in the presence of EDTA, was abolished by heating serum to 56 degrees C for 30 min, and was not diminished by prior adsorption of normal serum with parasites at 0 degree C. Killing proceeded normally in the presence of magnesium-ethylene glycol-bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N, N-tetraacetic acid, however, and was fully effected by C2-deficient serum. These studies indicated that killing of amastigotes, unlike that of promastigotes, was mediated via the alternate pathway of serum complement. In further studies, cytotoxicity of normal serum was enhanced three- to fivefold by factors in patient serum. This enhanced cytotoxicity also proceeded via the alternate complement pathway. Factors that enhanced cytotoxicity were characterized as parasite-specific immunoglobulin G: they eluted with immunoglobulin G on column chromatography, were adsorbed by immobilized staphylococcal protein A, and were not removed from the parasite surface by extensive washing. Thus, infection of individuals with L. donovani resulted in the production of a new, qualitatively and quantitatively distinct immune mechanism directed against the amastigote form of the parasite, namely, antibody-directed, alternate complement pathway-mediated cytotoxicity. These results provide a mechanistic framework for a role of humoral factors in human resistance to reinfection with L. donovani.
PMCID: PMC261503  PMID: 3917426
19.  Serum containing tumor necrosis factor is cytotoxic for the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. 
Infection and Immunity  1983;42(1):385-393.
Sera (BCG-lipopolysaccharide [LPS] serum) were obtained from mice infected with Mycobacterium bovis BCG 2 h after intravenous administration of bacterial endotoxin (LPS). Varying concentrations of sera were added to cultures of Plasmodium falciparum-infected human erythrocytes; parasite viability was assessed by hypoxanthine incorporation after 4 days in culture. At concentrations of 1 to 3%, cultures treated with BCG-LPS serum showed a two- to threefold increase in hypoxanthine incorporation; at higher concentrations (4 to 8%), hypoxanthine incorporation fell to 2 to 5% of that in control cultures. Concurrent assays with control sera (from untreated mice or mice treated with BCG or LPS alone) caused some stimulation but no inhibition at up to 8% concentration. Examination of cultures treated with BCG-LPS serum showed morphological, deterioration of parasites within erythrocytes. The presence of tumor necrosis factor in the BCG-LPS serum was confirmed by using a standard L-cell cytotoxicity assay. In addition, rabbit antiserum against partially purified tumor necrosis factor protected intraerythrocytic forms of P. falciparum from the toxic effects of BCG-LPS serum. These data suggest that the factor in BCG-LPS serum that is toxic to P. falciparum in human erythrocytes is antigenically similar or identical to tumor necrosis factor. This nonantibody mediator of killing may play a role in human malaria.
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PMCID: PMC264569  PMID: 6352501
20.  Activation of macrophages for microbicidal and tumoricidal effector functions by soluble factors from EL-4, a continuous T cell line. 
Infection and Immunity  1983;40(2):820-824.
Macrophages treated with culture fluids from EL-4 cells, a continuous T cell line, were activated to kill mKSA-TU-5 fibrosarcoma cells, amastigotes of Leishmania tropica, and schistosomula of Schistosoma mansoni. Active EL-4 factors eluted from Sephadex G-100 in two distinct regions: molecular weight 45,000 (activities induced killing of unrelated intracellular and extracellular targets) and molecular weight 23,000 (activities induced killing of extracellular targets only). These results confirm heterogeneity among activation signals for the induction of macrophage microbicidal and tumoricidal activities. Factors that induced cytocidal activity against extracellular tumor cells and schistosomula were distinct from those that induced destruction of intracellular amastigotes.
PMCID: PMC264928  PMID: 6601625
21.  Macrophages in resistance to rickettsial infection: strains of mice susceptible to the lethal effects of Rickettsia akari show defective macrophage Rickettsicidal activity in vitro. 
Infection and Immunity  1982;36(3):1096-1101.
Activation of macrophages was assessed in strains of mice inoculated intraperitoneally with 1,000 times the 50% lethal dose of Rickettsia akari. Macrophages from mice resistant to R. akari infection (C3H/HeN, C57BL/10J, and BALB/cN) were nonspecifically tumoricidal 2 to 4 days after rickettsial inoculation. Moreover, these macrophages were microbial for R. akari in vitro; cells were resistant to infection with the bacterium and were capable of killing intracellular rickettsiae. In contrast, macrophages from strains of mice susceptible to R. akari (C3H/HeJ, C57BL/10SnCR, and A/J) failed to develop nonspecific tumoricidal activity over the course of lethal disease and became infected with R. akari in vivo within 2 days of rickettsial inoculation. Macrophages from uninfected mice of strains susceptible to R. akari also could not be activated for rickettsicidal or tumoricidal activities by treatment with macrophage-activating agents (Mycobacterium bovis BCG) in vivo or by treatment with lymphokines in vitro.
PMCID: PMC551443  PMID: 7047390
22.  Stability of polyoma DNA sequences and virus-coded proteins during tumor formation. 
Journal of Virology  1982;41(3):1000-1006.
To determine the stability of polyoma viral DNA in transformed rat cells during their growth in vivo, we compared the state and arrangement of polyoma virus DNA sequences in virus-transformed rat cell lines before and after their passage in vivo. In cell lines from 12 independent tumors induced by the inoculation of animals with three different transformed cell lines, we could detect no significant changes in the arrangement of viral DNA sequences associated with the in vivo passage of these cell lines. In 13 of 14 tumor cell lines examined, the pattern of polyoma virus tumor antigens, characterized by the presence of the polyoma virus large, middle, and small tumor antigens, was unchanged.
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PMCID: PMC256837  PMID: 6284956
23.  Inhibition of nonspecific tumoricidal activity by activated macrophages with antiserum against a soluble cytotoxic factor. 
Infection and Immunity  1981;33(1):156-164.
Mouse peritoneal macrophages activated for tumor cytotoxicity by any of several in vivo or in vitro treatments released a soluble cytotoxin into culture fluids only after exposure to small amounts of bacterial lipopolysaccharides. This cytotoxic factor was physicochemically similar to the cytotoxic factor (tumor necrosis factor) in sera of BCG-infected mice injected with lipopolysaccharide. A rabbit antiserum against partially purified serum cytotoxic factor also inhibited the activity of macrophage-derived cytotoxic factor. Of special interest was the observation that rabbit anti-cytotoxic factor inhibited the cytotoxic activity of macrophages both in the presence and in the absence of exogenously added lipopolysaccharide. Inhibition was not complete but was consistent in all experiments. Thus, cytotoxic factor was implicated as a possible effector molecule in the nonspecific tumoricidal activity of activated macrophages.
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PMCID: PMC350670  PMID: 7021422
24.  Generation and characterization of a lipopolysaccharide-induced and serum-derived cytotoxic factor for tumor cells. 
Infection and Immunity  1980;28(1):204-211.
Serum from Mycobacterium bovis BCG-infected mice treated with lipopolysaccharide was cytotoxic to tumor cells in vitro. Serum-induced cytotoxicity was estimated by measuring release of [3H]thymidine into culture supernatants of prelabeled tumor target cells. Serum from BCG-infected mice not treated with lipopolysaccharide or from uninfected mice treated with lipopolysaccharide was inactive. Moreover, although serum cytotoxic activity was evident with 10 syngeneic or allogeneic tumor cell lines, little or no effect was observed with normal embryonic fibroblast target cells. Maximal titers of serum cytotoxic activity were detected 14 days after BCG infection and 2 h after LPS treatment. Serum of BCT-infected, T-cell-deficient nude mice developed strong cytotoxic activity after LPS treatment; however, lipopolysaccharide-insensitive C3H/HeJ mice could produce this cytotoxic activity only after adoptive transfer with lipopolysaccharide-responsive C3H/HeN bone marrow. Physicochemical characterization of the serum cytotoxic activity revealed a heat-stable (56 degrees C, 30 min) entity with a molecular weight of about 60,000 and an isoelectric point at pH 4.8. Biological and physicochemical characteristics of this serum cytotoxic activity as defined by an in vitro assay were very similar to characteristics of tumor necrosis factor and suggest that this molecule may be a major effector mechanism for the antitumor actions of lipopolysaccharide.
PMCID: PMC550913  PMID: 7380563
25.  Failure of trehalose-6,6'-dimycolate (P3 or cord factor) to enhance endotoxin lethality in mice. 
Infection and Immunity  1976;14(6):1375-1377.
The increased endotoxin lethality in mice pretreated with BCG was not observed in mice pretreated with trehalose-6,6'-dimycolate instead of BCG.
PMCID: PMC415541  PMID: 793994

Results 1-25 (28)