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author:("melinonii, R")
1.  Incidence of hepatitis C virus infection in Italian patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. 
Thorax  1996;51(3):315-317.
BACKGROUND: A viral cause of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) was recently suggested by a Japanese study in which a high prevalence of anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibodies was detected. A subsequent British study failed to confirm these results. METHODS: Antibodies to HCV were evaluated in 60 patients with IPF, 130 patients with non-interstitial lung disease, and in 4614 blood donors. HCV-RNA and HCV genotypes were evaluated in the anti-HCV positive patients with IPF. Anti-HCV antibodies were evaluated by ELISA and confirmed by recombinant immunoblotting assay (RIBA). HCV-RNA and genotypes were detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR). RESULTS: Eight patients with IPF had anti-HCV antibodies detected by ELISA (13.3%). In the blood donor control group the prevalence of HCV antibodies was lower (0.3%). In patients with non-interstitial lung disease HCV antibody prevalence was 6.1%. In all eight patients with IPF found to be anti-HCV positive by ELISA, HCV antibodies were also detected by RIBA. Furthermore, all were HCV-RNA positive by PCR assay. HCV genotypes were identified in four of these eight patients. In all four genotype II was present and in two it was associated with genotype III and/or genotype IV. In the remaining four cases the genotype was not identified. CONCLUSION: Italian patients with IPF show an increased prevalence (approximately 13%) of HCV infection and viral replication, but the prevalence of anti-HCV antibodies does not differ from other lung diseases.
PMCID: PMC1090647  PMID: 8779139
2.  Endothelin-1 in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. 
Journal of Clinical Pathology  1995;48(4):330-334.
AIMS--To evaluate whether endothelin-1 is involved in the pathology of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). METHODS--Plasma endothelin-1 concentrations were evaluated in 37 patients with IPF and 27 normal controls by radioimmunoassay. In addition, expression of endothelin-1 in lung tissue was evaluated in biopsy specimens obtained from four patients with IPF. Three biopsy specimens of normal lung were used as controls. Endothelin-1 immunoreactivity was detected using immunohistochemistry. RESULTS--Elevated endothelin-1 plasma concentrations were found in patients with IPF compared with controls and a positive correlation was found with duration of disease. No significant difference was observed between treated and untreated patients with IPF. Increased endothelin-1 immunoreactivity was found in lungs of three of four patients with IPF. Endothelin-1 positive consisted mainly of small vessel endothelial cells. Some scattered macrophages were also positive. CONCLUSIONS--Elevated plasma concentrations and expression of endothelin-1 in lung tissue are suggestive of increased production of endothelin-1 in at least a proportion of patients with IPF. Consequently, endothelin-1 activity could play a role in the fibrogenic process of the disease.
PMCID: PMC502551  PMID: 7615852
3.  Serum amyloid A protein concentration in bone marrow transplantation for beta thalassaemia. 
Journal of Clinical Pathology  1992;45(4):348-351.
AIMS: To investigate whether serum amyloid A protein (SAA) and C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations could be used in the management of beta thalassaemic patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation (BMT). METHODS: Serum SAA and CRP concentrations were determined in paired samples from 66 patients with beta thalassaemia before and after BMT. Serum SAA concentrations were determined by an enzyme linked immunoassay (EIA); serum CRP concentrations were determined by a nephelometric assay. RESULTS: Serum SAA concentrations before transplantation were significantly higher in the group that subsequently rejected the transplant than the group without complications. SAA concentrations increased after BMT in acute graft versus host disease (GvHD) and rejection. No significant increase in SAA or CRP was found in chronic GvHD. Increases in serum in SAA and CRP concentrations were not related to concomitant infection episodes. CONCLUSIONS: The different acute phase response in acute GvHD and rejection compared with chronic GvHD suggests that different immunopathogenic mechanisms are responsible.
PMCID: PMC495278  PMID: 1577974
4.  Increased serum concentrations of tumour necrosis factor in beta thalassaemia: effect of bone marrow transplantation. 
Journal of Clinical Pathology  1992;45(1):61-65.
AIMS: Serum concentrations of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) were determined in beta thalassemic patients before and after bone marrow transplantation (BMT) to evaluate whether changes in TNF concentrations after BMT were related to immune mediated complications. METHODS: Serum TNF concentrations were determined by enzyme linked immunoassay (EIA) in paired samples from 71 patients with beta thalassemia before and after BMT. Serial samples from 13 patients were also studied for up to six months after BMT. Forty one normal healthy children matched for sex and age were studied as controls. RESULTS: beta thalassemic patients had high serum TNF concentrations before transplantation compared with controls. These were not related to sex, age, duration of disease, number of blood transfusions, transferrin concentrations or splenectomy. DQw1 positive patients showed significantly lower TNF concentrations than non-DQw1 cases. Patients with severe liver fibrosis had significantly higher TNF concentrations. No correlation was found between TNF values and BMT outcome before transplantation but TNF alpha values fell significantly after BMT. The decrease persisted only in patients with successful engraftment. In serial samples studied for up to six months after BMT, TNF values decreased but in four out of five patients with graft rejection and in all five with acute graft versus host disease (GVHD) sharp increases occurred at the time of clinical symptoms. No correlation was found between the degree of GVHD and serum TNF-alpha concentrations nor between TNF-alpha concentrations after BMT and the presence of bacterial, viral, and fungal infections. CONCLUSIONS: About 50% of beta thalassemic patients have increased serum TNF, and the changes after BMT are related to the occurrence of immune mediate complications. The persistence of low TNF concentrations after successful engraftment may be due to the preparative regimen and the lack of adverse immune reactions.
PMCID: PMC495819  PMID: 1740519
5.  Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: can cell mediated immunity markers predict clinical outcome? 
Thorax  1990;45(7):536-540.
Most of the cells found in lung parenchyma in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis are activated T lymphocytes and macrophages. The serum levels of three markers of cell mediated immunity were measured in 20 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, in 20 normal subjects and in 12 patients with sarcoidosis to evaluate their clinical and prognostic significance in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. The three markers were: soluble CD8 (from activated suppressor-cytotoxic lymphocytes), soluble interleukin (IL)-2 receptors (from activated T cells and macrophages), and neopterin (from activated macrophages). Patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis had higher levels of all three markers than the control subjects. Soluble IL-2 receptor and neopterin tended to be lower (though not significantly) in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis than in those with sarcoidosis, whereas soluble CD8 was similar in the two groups of patients. No correlation was found between soluble IL-2 receptors or soluble CD8 and the clinical, radiological, and physiological measures of disease activity or with clinical outcome (after a mean follow up of 23 months). Tumour necrosis factor levels were also determined. Only 30% of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis or sarcoidosis had detectable circulating tumour necrosis factor; these patients had a lower percentage of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid neutrophils in their lavage fluid. Tumour necrosis factor levels did not correlate with clinical measures of severity or outcome. Thus our data support the hypothesis that cell mediated alveolitis occurs in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. They do not, however, provide evidence to support the use of these markers of cell mediated immunity to monitor the clinical course in these patients.
PMCID: PMC462584  PMID: 2118691
6.  Detection of immunoglobulins G and A on the cell membrane of hepatocytes from patients with alcoholic liver disease. 
Journal of Clinical Pathology  1983;36(5):530-534.
The presence of immunoglobulins (Ig) G, A, and M and of complement fractions (C3-C4) on the liver cell surface was investigated by direct immunofluorescence in 40 patients with alcoholic liver disease. IgG was detected on the liver cell membrane with a linear staining pattern in 29 patients. The percentage of IgG-positive hepatocytes correlated with transaminase activities, independently of the histological findings. IgA was demonstrable with a coarse granular staining pattern in 11 of the 14 cases with established cirrhosis. The finding of IgG bound to the hepatocyte surface in patients with alcohol-induced liver damage suggests that alcohol could be responsible for antigenic modifications of hepatocyte membrane with consequent triggering of a humoral immune response.
PMCID: PMC498280  PMID: 6341413
7.  Anti-LSP antibodies in acute liver disease. 
Gut  1982;23(7):603-607.
Sera from 71 patients with acute liver injury have been tested for antibodies to hepatocyte membrane lipoprotein complex (LSP) using a sensitive radioimmunoassay. Two main patterns of anti-LSP response were seen. In the first, seen in patients with type A and B viral hepatitis, anti-LSP antibodies were detectable at presentation, with the highest titres two to 10 days before the peak in serum aminotransferases and, in the hepatitis B patients, when viral DNA polymerase concentrations were still high, indicating active viral replication. These findings are consistent with the anti-LSP response being consequent on an interaction between T cells and neoantigens on the liver cell surface. A similar pattern was found in halothane hepatitis where immune responses to a halothane-altered liver membrane antigen are present early in the course of the disease. In the second type of response, exemplified by cases with paracetamol-induced hepatic necrosis, anti-LSP was only occasionally detectable at presentation, although present in very low titre later in the clinical course. This may be due to the release of altered antigen at the time of hepatocellular injury. The same pattern was found in a selected group of patients with uncomplicated acute alcoholic hepatitis, suggesting that in both these groups of patients the liver damage may have been due to a direct toxic effect on liver cells.
PMCID: PMC1419772  PMID: 7084806

Results 1-7 (7)