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1.  Individual differences in children’s private speech: The role of imaginary companions 
Journal of experimental child psychology  2013;116(3):10.1016/j.jecp.2013.06.010.
Relations between children’s imaginary companion status and their engagement in private speech during free play were investigated in a socially diverse sample of 5-year-olds (N = 148). Controlling for socioeconomic status, receptive verbal ability, total number of utterances, and duration of observation, there was a main effect of imaginary companion status on type of private speech. Children who had imaginary companions were more likely to engage in covert private speech compared with their peers who did not have imaginary companions. These results suggest that the private speech of children with imaginary companions is more internalized than that of their peers who do not have imaginary companions and that social engagement with imaginary beings may fulfill a similar role to social engagement with real-life partners in the developmental progression of private speech.
doi:10.1016/j.jecp.2013.06.010
PMCID: PMC3870270  PMID: 23978382
Private speech; Imaginary companions; Play; Internalization; Social interaction; Imagination
2.  Assessing negative cognitive style: Development and validation of a Short-Form version of the Cognitive Style Questionnaire 
The Cognitive Style Questionnaire (CSQ) is a frequently employed measure of negative cognitive style, associated with vulnerability to anxiety and depression. However, the CSQ's length can limit its utility in research. We describe the development of a Short-Form version of the CSQ. After evaluation and modification of two pilot versions, the 8-item CSQ Short Form (CSQ-SF) was administered to a convenience sample of adults (N = 278). The CSQ-SF was found to have satisfactory internal reliability and test-retest reliability. It also exhibited construct validity by demonstrating predicted correlations with measures of depression and anxiety. Results suggest that the CSQ-SF is suitable for administration via the Internet.
doi:10.1016/j.paid.2011.11.026
PMCID: PMC3289144  PMID: 22389545
Cognitive style; Depression; Anxiety
3.  Assessing negative cognitive style: Development and validation of a Short-Form version of the Cognitive Style Questionnaire 
Highlights
► We developed a Short-Form version of the Cognitive Style Questionnaire (CSQ). ► The CSQ Short Form (CSQ-SF) demonstrated satisfactory internal reliability. ► Test–retest reliability was also satisfactory. ► Scores demonstrated predicted correlations with measures of depression and anxiety. ► The CSQ-SF may be a useful research tool in assessing vulnerability to depression.
The Cognitive Style Questionnaire (CSQ) is a frequently employed measure of negative cognitive style, associated with vulnerability to anxiety and depression. However, the CSQ’s length can limit its utility in research. We describe the development of a Short-Form version of the CSQ. After evaluation and modification of two pilot versions, the 8-item CSQ Short Form (CSQ-SF) was administered to a convenience sample of adults (N = 278). The CSQ-SF was found to have satisfactory internal reliability and test–retest reliability. It also exhibited construct validity by demonstrating predicted correlations with measures of depression and anxiety. Results suggest that the CSQ-SF is suitable for administration via the Internet.
doi:10.1016/j.paid.2011.11.026
PMCID: PMC3289144  PMID: 22389545
Cognitive style; Depression; Anxiety
4.  Children with Imaginary Companions Focus on Mental Characteristics When Describing Their Real-Life Friends 
Infant and Child Development  2014;23(6):622-633.
Relations between having an imaginary companion (IC) and (i) descriptions of a real-life friend, (ii) theory of mind performance, and (iii) reported prosocial behaviour and behavioural difficulties were investigated in a sample of 5-year-olds (N = 159). Children who had an IC were more likely than their peers without an IC to describe their best friends with reference to their mental characteristics, but IC status was unrelated to children's theory of mind performance and reported prosocial behaviour and behavioural difficulties. These findings are discussed in the context of the proposal that there is a competence–performance gap in children's mentalizing abilities. © 2014 The Authors. Infant and Child Development published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
doi:10.1002/icd.1869
PMCID: PMC4321191
imaginary companions; friendship; mind-mindedness; theory of mind; peer relationships

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