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author:("Mehdi, safer")
1.  A Novel Botrytis Species Is Associated with a Newly Emergent Foliar Disease in Cultivated Hemerocallis 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(6):e89272.
Foliar tissue samples of cultivated daylilies (Hemerocallis hybrids) showing the symptoms of a newly emergent foliar disease known as ‘spring sickness’ were investigated for associated fungi. The cause(s) of this disease remain obscure. We isolated repeatedly a fungal species which proved to be member of the genus Botrytis, based on immunological tests. DNA sequence analysis of these isolates, using several different phyogenetically informative genes, indicated that they represent a new Botrytis species, most closely related to B. elliptica (lily blight, fire blight) which is a major pathogen of cultivated Lilium. The distinction of the isolates was confirmed by morphological analysis of asexual sporulating cultures. Pathogenicity tests on Hemerocallis tissues in vitro demonstrated that this new species was able to induce lesions and rapid tissue necrosis. Based on this data, we infer that this new species, described here as B. deweyae, is likely to be an important contributor to the development of ‘spring sickness’ symptoms. Pathogenesis may be promoted by developmental and environmental factors that favour assault by this necrotrophic pathogen. The emergence of this disease is suggested to have been triggered by breeding-related changes in cultivated hybrids, particularly the erosion of genetic diversity. Our investigation confirms that emergent plant diseases are important and deserve close monitoring, especially in intensively in-bred plants.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0089272
PMCID: PMC4041564  PMID: 24887415
2.  Interaction of PLS and PIN and hormonal crosstalk in Arabidopsis root development 
Understanding how hormones and genes interact to coordinate plant growth is a major challenge in developmental biology. The activities of auxin, ethylene, and cytokinin depend on cellular context and exhibit either synergistic or antagonistic interactions. Here we use experimentation and network construction to elucidate the role of the interaction of the POLARIS peptide (PLS) and the auxin efflux carrier PIN proteins in the crosstalk of three hormones (auxin, ethylene, and cytokinin) in Arabidopsis root development. In ethylene hypersignaling mutants such as polaris (pls), we show experimentally that expression of both PIN1 and PIN2 significantly increases. This relationship is analyzed in the context of the crosstalk between auxin, ethylene, and cytokinin: in pls, endogenous auxin, ethylene and cytokinin concentration decreases, approximately remains unchanged and increases, respectively. Experimental data are integrated into a hormonal crosstalk network through combination with information in literature. Network construction reveals that the regulation of both PIN1 and PIN2 is predominantly via ethylene signaling. In addition, it is deduced that the relationship between cytokinin and PIN1 and PIN2 levels implies a regulatory role of cytokinin in addition to its regulation to auxin, ethylene, and PLS levels. We discuss how the network of hormones and genes coordinates plant growth by simultaneously regulating the activities of auxin, ethylene, and cytokinin signaling pathways.
doi:10.3389/fpls.2013.00075
PMCID: PMC3617403  PMID: 23577016
hormonal crosstalk; root development; auxin flux; PIN proteins; PLS protein; signaling network
3.  Modelling and experimental analysis of hormonal crosstalk in Arabidopsis 
An important question in plant biology is how genes influence the crosstalk between hormones to regulate growth. We have developed the first hormonal crosstalk network in Arabidopsis by iteratively combining modelling with experimental analysis.We have revealed that the POLARIS gene interacts with the ethylene receptor and regulates both auxin transport and biosynthesis.Our modelling analysis has reproduced all known mutants. With new experimental data, it has provided new insights into how the POLARIS gene regulates auxin concentration for root development in Arabidopsis, by controlling the relative contribution of auxin transport and biosynthesis and by integrating auxin, ethylene and cytokinin signalling.Modelling and experimental analysis have revealed that a bell-shaped dose–response relationship between endogenous auxin and root length is established via POLARIS.
Hormone signalling systems coordinate plant growth and development through a range of complex interactions. The activities of plant hormones, such as auxin, ethylene and cytokinin, depend on cellular context and exhibit interactions that can be either synergistic or antagonistic. An important question regarding the understanding of those interactions is how genes act on the crosstalk between hormones to regulate plant growth.
Previously, we identified the POLARIS (PLS) gene of Arabidopsis, which transcribes a short mRNA encoding a 36-amino acid peptide that is required for correct root growth and vascular development (Casson et al, 2002). Experimental evidence shows that there is a link between PLS, ethylene signalling, auxin homeostasis and microtubule cytoskeleton dynamics (Chilley et al, 2006). Specifically, mutation of PLS results in an enhanced ethylene-response phenotype, defective auxin transport and homeostasis, and altered sensitivity to microtubule inhibitors. These defects, along with the short-root phenotype, are suppressed by genetic and pharmacological inhibition of ethylene action. The expression of PLS is itself repressed by ethylene and induced by auxin. It was also shown that pls mutant roots are hyper-responsive to exogenous cytokinins and show increased expression of the cytokinin inducible gene ARR5/IBC6 compared with the wild type (Casson et al, 2002). Therefore, PLS may also be required for correct auxin–cytokinin homeostasis to modulate root growth.
In this study, we model PLS gene function and crosstalk between auxin, ethylene and cytokinin in Arabidopsis.
Experimental evidence suggests that PLS acts on or close to the ethylene receptor ETR1, and a mathematical model describing possible PLS–ethylene pathway interactions is developed, and used to make quantitative predictions about PLS–hormone interactions. Modelling correctly predicts experimental results for the effect of the pls gene mutation on endogenous cytokinin concentration. Modelling also reveals a role for PLS in auxin biosynthesis in addition to a role in auxin transport (Figures 1 and 4).
The model reproduces available mutants, and with new experimental data provides new insights into how PLS regulates auxin concentration, by controlling the relative contribution of auxin transport and biosynthesis and by integrating auxin, ethylene and cytokinin signalling. Modelling further reveals that a bell-shaped dose–response relationship between endogenous auxin and root length is established via PLS.
In summary, we developed the first hormonal crosstalk model in Arabidopsis and revealed a hormonal crosstalk circuit through PLS and the downstream of ethylene signalling. Our study provides a platform to further integrate hormonal crosstalk in space and time in Arabidopsis.
An important question in plant biology is how genes influence the crosstalk between hormones to regulate growth. In this study, we model POLARIS (PLS) gene function and crosstalk between auxin, ethylene and cytokinin in Arabidopsis. Experimental evidence suggests that PLS acts on or close to the ethylene receptor ETR1, and a mathematical model describing possible PLS–ethylene pathway interactions is developed, and used to make quantitative predictions about PLS–hormone interactions. Modelling correctly predicts experimental results for the effect of the pls gene mutation on endogenous cytokinin concentration. Modelling also reveals a role for PLS in auxin biosynthesis in addition to a role in auxin transport. The model reproduces available mutants, and with new experimental data provides new insights into how PLS regulates auxin concentration, by controlling the relative contribution of auxin transport and biosynthesis and by integrating auxin, ethylene and cytokinin signalling. Modelling further reveals that a bell-shaped dose–response relationship between endogenous auxin and root length is established via PLS. This combined modelling and experimental analysis provides new insights into the integration of hormonal signals in plants.
doi:10.1038/msb.2010.26
PMCID: PMC2913391  PMID: 20531403
hormonal crosstalk; mathematical model; POLARIS gene; root development
4.  MicroRNA and tasiRNA diversity in mature pollen of Arabidopsis thaliana 
BMC Genomics  2009;10:643.
Background
New generation sequencing technology has allowed investigation of the small RNA populations of flowering plants at great depth. However, little is known about small RNAs in their reproductive cells, especially in post-meiotic cells of the gametophyte generation. Pollen - the male gametophyte - is the specialised haploid structure that generates and delivers the sperm cells to the female gametes at fertilisation. Whether development and differentiation of the male gametophyte depends on the action of microRNAs and trans-acting siRNAs guiding changes in gene expression is largely unknown. Here we have used 454 sequencing to survey the various small RNA populations present in mature pollen of Arabidopsis thaliana.
Results
In this study we detected the presence of 33 different microRNA families in mature pollen and validated the expression levels of 17 selected miRNAs by Q-RT-PCR. The majority of the selected miRNAs showed pollen-enriched expression compared with leaves. Furthermore, we report for the first time the presence of trans-acting siRNAs in pollen. In addition to describing new patterns of expression for known small RNAs in each of these classes, we identified 7 putative novel microRNAs. One of these, ath-MIR2939, targets a pollen-specific F-box transcript and we demonstrate cleavage of its target mRNA in mature pollen.
Conclusions
Despite the apparent simplicity of the male gametophyte, comprising just two different cell types, pollen not only utilises many miRNAs and trans-acting siRNAs expressed in the somatic tissues but also expresses novel miRNAs.
doi:10.1186/1471-2164-10-643
PMCID: PMC2808329  PMID: 20042113

Results 1-4 (4)