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1.  Assessment of the Accuracy of Pharmacy Students’ Compounded Solutions Using Vapor Pressure Osmometry 
Objective. To assess the effectiveness of using a vapor pressure osmometer to measure the accuracy of pharmacy students’ compounding skills.
Design. Students calculated the theoretical osmotic pressure (mmol/kg) of a solution as a pre-laboratory exercise, compared their calculations with actual values, and then attempted to determine the cause of any errors found.
Assessment. After the introduction of the vapor pressure osmometer, the first-time pass rate for solution compounding has varied from 85% to 100%. Approximately 85% of students surveyed reported that the instrument was valuable as a teaching tool because it objectively assessed their work and provided immediate formative assessment.
Conclusions. This simple technique of measuring compounding accuracy using a vapor pressure osmometer allowed students to see the importance of quality control and assessment in practice for both pharmacists and technicians.
PMCID: PMC3631733  PMID: 23610476
assessment; compounding; pharmaceutics; osmolality
2.  Independent Community Pharmacists' Perspectives on Compounding in Contemporary Pharmacy Education 
To identify compounding practices of independent community pharmacy practitioners in order to make recommendations for the development of curricular objectives for doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) programs.
Independent community practitioners were asked about compounding regarding their motivations, common activities, educational exposures, and recommendations for PharmD education.
Most respondents (69%) accepted compounding as a component of pharmaceutical care and compounded dermatological preparations for local effects, oral solutions, and suspensions at least once a week. Ninety-five percent were exposed to compounding in required pharmacy school courses and most (98%) who identified compounding as a professional service offered in their pharmacy sought additional postgraduate compounding education. Regardless of the extent of compounding emphasis in the practices surveyed, 84% stated that PharmD curricula should include compounding.
Pharmacy schools should define compounding curricular objectives and develop compounding abilities in a required laboratory course to prepare graduates for pharmaceutical care practice.
PMCID: PMC2703281  PMID: 19564997
pharmaceutical care; compounding; independent community pharmacy; curricula

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