Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening rates are increasing, but they are still low, particularly in ethnic minority groups. In many resource-poor settings, fecal occult blood test (FOBT) is the main screening option.
Culturally tailored telephone counseling by community health advisors employed by a community-based organization, culturally tailored brochures, and customized FOBT kits.
RCT. Participants were randomized to (1) basic intervention: culturally tailored brochure plus FOBT kit (n=765); (2) enhanced intervention: brochure, FOBT plus telephone counseling (n=768); or (3) usual care (n=256).
Latino and Vietnamese primary care patients at a large public hospital.
Main outcome measures
Self-reported receipt of FOBT or any CRC screening at 1-year follow-up.
1358 individuals (718 Latinos and 640 Vietnamese) completed the follow-up survey. Self-reported FOBT screening rates increased by 7.8 % in the control group, by 15.1 % in the brochure group, and by 25.1 % in the brochure/telephone counseling group (p<0.01 for differences between each intervention and usual care and for the difference between brochure/telephone counseling and brochure alone). For any CRC screening, rates increased by 4.1 % in the usual care group, by 11.9 % in the FOBT/brochure group, and by 21.4 % in the brochure/telephone counseling group (p<0.01 for differences between each intervention and usual care and for the difference between the basic and the enhanced intervention).
An intervention that included culturally tailored brochures and tailored telephone counseling increased CRC screening in Latinos and the Vietnamese. Brochure and telephone counseling together had the greatest impact. Future research should address replication and dissemination of this model for Latinos and Vietnamese in other communities, and adaptation of the model for other groups.
Vietnamese-American women underutilize breast cancer screening.
An RCT was conducted comparing the effect of lay health workers (LHWs) and media education (ME) to ME alone on breast cancer screening among these women.
Conducted in California from 2004 to 2007, the study included 1100 Vietnamese-American women aged ≥40 years who were recruited through LHW social networks. Data were analyzed from 2007 to 2009.
Both groups received targeted ME. The intervention group received two LHW educational sessions and two telephone calls.
Main outcome measures
Change in self-reported receipt of mammography ever, mammography within 2 years, clinical breast examination (CBE) ever, or CBE within 2 years.
The LHW+ME group increased receipt of mammography ever and mammography in the past 2 years (84.1% to 91.6% and 64.7% to 82.1%, p<0.001) while the ME group did not. Both ME (73.1% to 79.0%, p<0.001) and LHW+ME (68.1% to 85.5%, p<0.001) groups increased receipt of CBE ever, but the LHW+ME group had a significantly greater increase. The results were similar for CBE within 2 years. In multivariate analyses, LHW+ME was significantly more effective than ME for all four outcomes, with ORs of 3.62 (95% CI=1.35, 9.76) for mammography ever; 3.14 (95% CI=1.98, 5.01) for mammography within 2 years; 2.94 (95% CI=1.63, 5.30) for CBE ever; and 3.04 (95% CI=2.11, 4.37) for CBE within 2 years.
Increased breast cancer screening by LHWs among Vietnamese-American women. Future research should focus on how LHWs work and whether LHW outreach can be disseminated to other ethnic groups.
To determine proportions of provider advice to quit smoking for Asian-American smokers and to describe factors that may affect the provision of such advice.
Secondary data analysis of population-based survey.
Current smokers from the California Tobacco Use Surveys for Chinese-Americans (n = 2117, participation rate = 52%), Korean-Americans (n = 2545, participation rate 5 48%), and Vietnamese-Americans (n = 2179, participation rate = 63.5%).
Sociodemographics including insurance status, smoking frequency, provider visit in past year, and provider advice to quit.
Multivariate logistic regression models examined dependent outcomes of (1) provider visit in past year and (2) provider advice to quit.
Less than a third (30.5%) of smokers in our study reported both seeing a provider (50.8%) and then receiving advice to quit (60.1%). Factors associated with provider visits included being female, being 45 years or older, having health insurance, and being Vietnamese. Among smokers who saw a provider, factors associated with provider advice to quit included having health insurance and being a daily smoker.
Asian-American smokers reported low proportions of provider advice to quit in the past year, largely because only half of smokers saw a provider. Providers who see such smokers may need greater awareness that several effective cessation treatments do not require health insurance, and that intermittent smokers need advice to quit.
Tobacco; Cessation; Asian; Chinese; Korean; Vietnamese; Prevention Research
Population-based studies have reported high rates of smoking prevalence among Chinese and Vietnamese American men. Although nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) is effective, recommended, and accessible without prescription, these populations underuse NRT for smoking cessation. The aim of this study was to assess understanding and use of NRT and nonpharmacologic treatments among Chinese and Vietnamese American male smokers and their families.
In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 13 smoker–family pairs, followed by individual interviews with each participant. A total of 39 interviews were conducted in Vietnamese or Chinese, recorded, translated, and transcribed into English for analysis.
Four themes were identified: use and understanding of NRT, nonpharmacologic strategies, familial and religious approaches, and willpower. Both smokers and their family members believed strongly in willpower and a sense of personal responsibility as the primary drivers for stopping smoking. Lack of these 2 qualities keeps many Chinese and Vietnamese men from using NRT to quit smoking. Those who do use NRT often use it incorrectly, following their own preferences rather than product instructions.
Our findings indicate the importance of culturally appropriate patient education about NRT. It may be necessary to teach smokers and their families at an individual level about NRT as a complementary approach that can strengthen their resolve to quit smoking. At a community level, public health education on the indication and appropriate use of evidence-based smoking cessation resources, such as NRT, would be an important component of effective tobacco control.
We conducted a controlled trial of a public education and provider intervention to increase colorectal cancer (CRC) screening rates among Vietnamese Americans, who typically have lower rates than non-Hispanic Whites.
The public education intervention included a Vietnamese-language CRC screening media campaign, distribution of health educational material, and a hotline. The provider intervention consisted of continuing medical education seminars, newsletters, and DVDs. Vietnamese in Alameda and Santa Clara Counties, California, received the intervention from 2004 to 2006; Vietnamese in Harris County, Texas, were controls and received no intervention. A quasi-experimental study design with pre- and postintervention surveys of the same 533 participants was used to evaluate the combined intervention.
The postintervention-to-preintervention odds ratio for having ever had a sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy was 1.4 times greater in the intervention community than in the control community. Knowledge and attitudes mediated the effect of the intervention on CRC screening behavior. Media exposure mediated the effect of the intervention on knowledge.
Improving CRC knowledge through the media contributed to the effectiveness of the intervention.
Vaccination data for Asian Americans are comparable to those for whites, possibly because they are reported in aggregate rather than for subgroups. We compared influenza and pneumococcal vaccination rates among eligible Asian Americans and white Americans, and for Vietnamese Americans as a subgroup, and assessed factors associated with these vaccinations.
Cross-sectional study of data collected from three ethnic groups over 4 years by telephone survey. Data were weighted for selection probability and population estimates and analyzed by multivariate logistic regression.
Vietnamese Americans had a higher rate of influenza vaccination (61%) than Asian Americans (45%) and white Americans (52%), and lower rate of pneumococcal vaccination (41%) than Asian Americans (56%), both lower than white Americans (67%).
When analyzed as a subgroup, Vietnamese Americans had a higher influenza vaccination rate, but a lower pneumococcal vaccination rate, compared to Asian Americans and white Americans, which may indicate that health behaviors and outcomes can differ widely among Asian subgroups. Analyses of preventive care measures in Asian Americans should focus on subgroups to ensure accuracy and quality of assessments.
Vietnamese Americans; Adult immunizations; Racial/Ethnic disparities
The purpose of this paper is to describe the epidemiology of cancer in Vietnamese Americans and reviews some of the successful intervention strategies that have been accomplished in Northern California.
Preventable cancers are among the leading causes of death in Vietnamese Americans, who have higher than average rates of smoking and lower than average rates for breast and cervical cancer screening, and lower rates of hepatitis B vaccination. Community-based intervention trials have shown good success in reducing these risk factors.
Despite successes, more work needs to be done. Continuing research and dissemination of successful intervention strategies will help improve the health of Vietnamese Americans, one of the fastest growing populations in the U.S.
“Topics in Primary Care Medicine” presents articles on common diagnostic or therapeutic problems (such as dizziness, pruritus, insomnia, shoulder pain and urinary tract infections) encountered in primary care practice that generally do not fall into well-defined subspecialty areas and are rarely discussed thoroughly in medical school, house staff training, textbooks and journals. Often the pathophysiology is poorly understood and clinical trials to assess the effectiveness of diagnostic tests or therapies may be lacking. Nevertheless, these problems confront practitioners with practical management questions.
The articles in this series discuss new tests and therapies and suggest reasonable approaches even when definitive studies are not available. Each article has several general references for suggested further reading. We hope this new series will be of interest and we welcome comments, criticisms and suggestions.
The Asian American Network for Cancer Awareness, Research, and Training in San Francisco (AANCART-SF) consists of two distinct entities, working in cooperation to advance cancer awareness, research, and training among Asian Americans: a university-based group with expertise in the Vietnamese community and a community-based health plan with expertise in the Chinese community. In addition to the goals shared with other AANCART sites, AANCART-SF is a unique effort in capacity building in that it aims to expand and export community-academic research expertise from one Asian population, the Vietnamese, to other Asian populations. It also aims to build the research capability of those serving the Chinese community through a health plan.
AANCART; cancer; Asian; community outreach; cancer awareness
Chronic infection with the hepatitis B virus is endemic in Southeast Asian populations, including Vietnamese. Previous research has documented low rates of hepatitis B vaccine coverage among Vietnamese-American children and adolescents ages 3 to 18. To address this problem, we designed and tested in a controlled trial 2 public health outreach “catch-up” campaigns for this population.
In the Houston, Texas metropolitan area, we mounted a media-led information and education campaign, and in the Dallas metropolitan area, we organized a community mobilization strategy. We evaluated the success of these interventions in a controlled trial, using the Washington, DC metropolitan area as a control site. To do so, we conducted computer-assisted telephone interviews with random samples of ~500 Vietnamese-American households in each of the 3 study sites both before and after the interventions. We assessed respondents’ awareness and knowledge of hepatitis B and asked for hepatitis B vaccination dates for a randomly selected child in each household. When possible, we validated vaccination dates through direct contact with each child’s providers.
Awareness of hepatitis B increased significantly between the pre- and postintervention surveys in all 3 areas, and the increase in the media education area (+21.5 percentage points) was significantly larger than in the control area (+9.0 percentage points). At postintervention, significantly more parents knew that free vaccines were available for children in the media education (+31.9 percentage points) and community mobilization (+16.7 percentage points) areas than in the control area (+4.7 percentage points). An increase in knowledge of sexual transmission of hepatitis B virus was significant in the media education area (+14.0 percentage points) and community mobilization (+13.6 percentage points) areas compared with the control area (+5.2 percentage points). Parent- or provider-reported data (n = 783 for pre- and n = 784 for postintervention surveys) suggest that receipt of 3 hepatitis B vaccinations increased significantly in the community mobilization area (from 26.6% at pre- to 38.8% at postintervention) and in the media intervention area (28.5% at pre- and 39.4% at postintervention), but declined slightly in the control community (37.8% at pre- and 33.5% at postintervention). Multiple logistic regression analyses estimated that the odds of receiving 3 hepatitis B vaccine doses were significantly greater for both community mobilization (odds ratio 2.15, 95% confidence interval 1.16–3.97) and media campaign (odds ratio 3.02, 95% confidence interval 1.62–5.64) interventions compared with the control area. The odds of being vaccinated were significantly greater for children who had had at least 1 diphtheria-tetanuspertussis shot, and whose parents were married, knew someone with liver disease, had heard of hepatitis B, and had greater knowledge about hepatitis B. The odds of being vaccinated were significantly lower for older children.
Both community mobilization and media campaigns significantly increased the knowledge of Vietnamese-American parents about hepatitis B vaccination, and the receipt of “catch-up” vaccinations among their children.
hepatitis B vaccination; catch-up; Vietnamese-Americans; HBV, hepatitis B virus; HepB, hepatitis B vaccine; CDC, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; DTP, diphtheria, tetanus toxoid and pertussis; VFC, Vaccines for Children; EDCC, East Dallas Counseling Center; OR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval
Smoking prevalence among Vietnamese American males remains higher than the U.S. general population. This study examined the associations of individual and family factors with quit intention among Vietnamese male smokers in California to guide intervention development to reduce their smoking prevalence. Data for Vietnamese male current smokers (n = 234) in the 2008 California Vietnamese Adult Tobacco Use Survey (N=1,101 males) were analyzed to describe quit intention and previous quit attempts. One-third of Vietnamese male smokers (33%) had no intention to quit at any time, 36% intended to quit soon (in the next 30 days), and 31% intended to quit later (beyond the next 30 days). Half (51.7%) of the sample was in “precontemplation,” indicating no intention to quit within 6 months. Many (71%) had made a serious quit attempt in the past year, but 68% of those who tried to quit used no cessation assistance. Multivariate logistic regression adjusting for age, depression, smoking intensity, nicotine dependence, health knowledge, children in the household and home smoking ban revealed that having smoking-related family conflicts and a quit attempt in the past year with or without assistance were independently associated with an intention to quit either in the next 30 days or later. Higher education was associated with no intention to quit. Findings underscore the importance of designing strategic interventions that meet the needs of smokers at both individual and family levels to promote quit intention and to facilitate successful quitting in this population.
tobacco use; smoking cessation; intention to quit; Asian Americans; Vietnamese Americans
Reports of cases of primary and secondary syphilis are increasing in the United States, particularly in urban areas and among homosexual men. While primary syphilis poses little diagnostic difficulty, many physicians are unfamiliar with the multisystem nature of secondary lues. Patients who have secondary syphilis commonly present with systemic signs, skin rash, mucous membrane lesions and generalized adenopathy. Less commonly, secondary syphilis may occur as acute meningitis, sensorineural hearing loss, iritis, anterior uveitis, optic neuritis, Bell's palsy, gastropathy, proctitis, hepatitis, pulmonary infiltration, nephrotic syndrome, glomerulonephritis, periostitis, tenosynovitis and polyarthritis. The diagnosis of secondary syphilis is easily confirmed. Its various manifestations are readily treated with penicillin and, if treated early, are entirely reversible. Two recent cases of secondary syphilis, one presenting as nephrotic syndrome and one as chorioretinitis and ptosis, illustrate the usual and unusual features of this common infection.
Understanding the costs and risks of medical care, as well as the benefits, is essential to good medical practice. The literature on this topic transcends disciplines, making it a challenge for clinicians and medical educators to compile information on costs and risks for use in patient care. This annotated bibliography presents summaries of pertinent references on (1) financial costs of care, (2) excessive use of medical services, (3) clinical risks of care, (4) decision analysis, (5) cost-benefit analyses, (6) factors affecting physician use of services and (7) strategies to improve physician ordering patterns.
Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening rates are lower in Vietnamese Americans than in non-Hispanic Whites. Most Vietnamese Americans have ethnically concordant physicians and are willing to have CRC screening if their physicians recommend it. We conducted two continuing medical education (CME) seminars with participants recruited from the Vietnamese Physician Association of Northern California to increase their CRC screening knowledge. We used pre- and post-CME surveys to evaluate the CMEs and per-item McNemar’s tests to assess changes in knowledge. Correct responses increased significantly from pre- to post-CME for all 5 items on CRC burden and 4 of 11 items on screening guidelines and practices at the first CME and for 5 of 7 items on screening guidelines and practices at the second CME. CME seminars were effective in increasing CRC screening knowledge among Vietnamese American physicians. This increase may lead to physicians’ recommending and their patients’ completing CRC screening tests.
CME; colorectal cancer screening; Vietnamese Americans; health disparities
Chronic hepatitis B and hepatitis B-associated liver cancer is a major health disparity among Vietnamese Americans, who have a chronic hepatitis B prevalence rate of 7–14% and an incidence rate for liver cancer six times that of non-Latino whites.
Describe factors associated with hepatitis B testing among Vietnamese Americans.
A population-based telephone survey conducted in 2007–2008.
Vietnamese Americans age 18–64 and living in the Northern California and Washington, DC areas (N = 1,704).
Variables included self-reports of sociodemographics, health care factors, and hepatitis B-related behaviors, knowledge, beliefs, and communication with others. The main outcome variable was self-reported receipt of hepatitis B testing.
The cooperation rate was 63.1% and the response rate was 27.4%. Only 62% of respondents reported having received a hepatitis B test and 26%, hepatitis B vaccination. Only 54% knew that hepatitis B could be transmitted by sexual intercourse. In multivariable analyses, factors negatively associated with testing included: age 30–49 years, US residence for >10 years, less Vietnamese fluency, lower income, and believing that hepatitis B can be deadly. Factors positively associated with testing included: Northern California residence, having had hepatitis B vaccination, having discussed hepatitis B with family/friends, and employer requested testing. Physician recommendation of hepatitis B testing (OR 4.46, 95% CI 3.36, 5.93) and respondent's request for hepatitis B testing (OR 8.37, 95% CI 5.95, 11.78) were strongly associated with test receipt.
Self-reports of hepatitis B testing among Vietnamese Americans remain unacceptably low. Physician recommendation and patient request were the factors most strongly associated with test receipt. A comprehensive effort is needed to promote hepatitis B testing in this population, including culturally-targeted community outreach, increased access to testing, and physician education.
hepatitis B; Vietnamese Americans; testing
Census data show that the US Vietnamese population now exceeds 1,250,000. Cervical cancer among Vietnamese American women has been identified as an important health disparity. Available data indicate the cervical cancer disparity may be due to low Pap testing rates rather than variations in HPV infection rates and/or types. The cervical cancer incidence rates among Vietnamese and non-Latina white women in California during 2000–2002 were 14.0 and 7.3 per 100,000, respectively. Only 70% of Vietnamese women who participated in the 2003 California Health Interview Survey reported a recent Pap smear, compared to 84% of non-Latina white women. Higher levels of cervical cancer screening participation among Vietnamese women are strongly associated with current/previous marriage, having a usual source of care/doctor, and previous physician recommendation. Vietnamese language media campaigns and lay health worker intervention programs have been effective in increasing Pap smear use in Vietnamese American communities. Cervical cancer control programs for Vietnamese women should address knowledge deficits; enable women who are without a usual source of care to find a primary care doctor; and improve patient-provider communication by encouraging health care providers to recommend Pap testing, as well as by empowering women to ask for testing.
Cervical cancer; Pap testing; Vietnamese Americans
There are few population-based studies of cardiovascular risk factors, knowledge, and related behaviors among Vietnamese Americans.
To describe cardiovascular risk factors, knowledge, and related behaviors among Vietnamese Americans and compare the results to non-Hispanic whites.
Comparison of data from two population-based, cross-sectional telephone surveys.
Vietnamese Americans in Santa Clara County, California, and non-Hispanic whites in California, aged 18 and older.
Survey measures included sociodemographics, diagnoses, body mass index, fruit and vegetable intake, exercise, and tobacco use. Knowledge of symptoms of heart attack and stroke was collected for Vietnamese Americans.
Compared to non-Hispanic whites (n = 19,324), Vietnamese Americans (n = 4,254) reported lower prevalences of obesity, diabetes mellitus, coronary heart disease, and hypertension, and similar prevalences of stroke and hypercholesterolemia. Fewer Vietnamese Americans consumed fruits and vegetables five or more times daily (27.8% vs 16.3%, p < 0.05), and more reported no moderate or vigorous physical activity (12.1% vs 40.1%, p < 0.05). More Vietnamese men than non-Hispanic White men were current smokers (29.8% vs 19.0%, p < 0.05). Vietnamese Americans who spoke Vietnamese were more likely than those who spoke English to eat fruits and vegetables less frequently, engage in no moderate or vigorous physical activity, and, among men, be current smokers. Only 59% of Vietnamese Americans knew that chest pain was a symptom of heart attack.
There are significant disparities in risk factors and knowledge of symptoms of cardiovascular diseases among Vietnamese Americans. Culturally appropriate studies and interventions are needed to understand and to reduce these disparities.
Vietnamese; Asian; cardiovascular disease; epidemiology; disparities
Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer in Vietnamese Americans. Their colorectal screening rates are lower than the rates of whites.
Four focus groups were conducted to identify Vietnamese American sources and credibility of health information, media utilization, and intervention approaches.
Vietnamese Americans trusted doctors and patient testimonials, and had access to, and received most of their health information from, Vietnamese-language print and electronic media. Recommended intervention approaches include promoting doctors' recommendation of screening and using Vietnamese-language mass media, print materials, and oral presentations.
Focus groups are useful in determining communication channels and intervention approaches.
Reducing substance use and unprotected sex by HIV-positive persons improves individual health status while decreasing the risk of HIV transmission. Despite recommendations that health care providers screen and counsel their HIV-positive patients for ongoing behavioral risks, it is unknown how to best provide “prevention with positives” in clinical settings. Positive Choice, an interactive, patient-tailored computer program, was developed in the United States to improve clinic-based assessment and counseling for risky behaviors.
Methodology and Findings
We conducted a parallel groups randomized controlled trial (December 2003–September 2006) at 5 San Francisco area outpatient HIV clinics. Eligible patients (HIV-positive English-speaking adults) completed an in-depth computerized risk assessment. Participants reporting substance use or sexual risks (n = 476) were randomized in stratified blocks. The intervention group received tailored risk-reduction counseling from a “Video Doctor” via laptop computer and a printed Educational Worksheet; providers received a Cueing Sheet on reported risks. Compared with control, fewer intervention participants reported continuing illicit drug use (RR 0.81, 95% CI: 0.689, 0.957, p = 0.014 at 3 months; and RR 0.65, 95% CI: 0.540, 0.785, p<0.001 at 6 months) and unprotected sex (RR 0.88, 95% CI: 0.773, 0.993, p = 0.039 at 3 months; and RR 0.80, 95% CI: 0.686, 0.941, p = 0.007 at 6 months). Intervention participants reported fewer mean days of ongoing illicit drug use (-4.0 days vs. -1.3 days, p = 0.346, at 3 months; and -4.7 days vs. -0.7 days, p = 0.130, at 6 months) than did controls, and had fewer casual sex partners at (−2.3 vs. −1.4, p = 0.461, at 3 months; and −2.7 vs. −0.6, p = 0.042, at 6 months).
The Positive Choice intervention achieved significant cessation of illicit drug use and unprotected sex at the group-level, and modest individual-level reductions in days of ongoing drug use and number of casual sex partners compared with the control group. Positive Choice, including Video Doctor counseling, is an efficacious and appropriate adjunct to risk-reduction efforts in outpatient settings, and holds promise as a public health HIV intervention.
Little is known about physicians’ screening patterns for liver cancer despite its rising incidence.
Describe physician factors associated with liver cancer screening.
Physicians practicing in family practice, internal medicine, gastroenterology, or nephrology in 3 northern California counties in 2004.
Sociodemographic and practice measures, liver cancer knowledge, attitudes, and self-reported screening behaviors.
The response rate was 61.8% (N = 459). Gastroenterologists (100%) were more likely than Internists (88.4%), family practitioners (84.2%), or nephrologists (75.0%) to screen for liver cancer in high-risk patients (p = 0.016). In multivariate analysis, screeners were more likely than nonscreeners to think that screening for liver cancer reduced mortality (odds ratio [OR] 1.60, CI 1.09–2.34) and that not screening was a malpractice risk (OR 1.88, CI 1.29–2.75). Screeners were more likely than nonscreeners to order any screening test if it was a quality of care measure (OR 4.39, CI 1.79–10.81).
Despite debate about screening efficacy, many physicians screen for liver cancer. Their screening behavior is influenced by malpractice and quality control concerns. More research is needed to develop better screening tests for liver cancer, to evaluate their effectiveness, and to understand how physicians behave when there is insufficient evidence.
liver cancer; screening; prevention
To evaluate the effectiveness of modifying and applying a Quit & Win contest model to Vietnamese Americans.
Uncontrolled trial, multicomponent program, including two Quit & Win incentive contests, smoking cessation classes, videotape broadcasts, and newspaper articles.
Subjects and setting
Vietnamese smokers living in Santa Clara County, California.
Main outcome measures
Contest participation rates and quit rates at six month follow up; saliva cotinine validation of quitting.
There were 57 eligible contest entrants to the 1995 contest, approximately 0.9% of the potential pool of smokers, and 32 entrants to the 1996 contest, approximately 0.5% of the potential pool. Overall, 48 of 49 (98%) individuals who said that they had quit smoking had validation of that fact by saliva cotinine testing. At six months, telephone follow up of 76 individuals revealed a self reported continued abstinence rate of 84.2%.
Modification and application of the Quit & Win contest model for Vietnamese resulted not only in reasonable participation by Vietnamese male smokers, but also good success in initial quitting and an unexpectedly high abstinence rate at six month follow up.
cessation; intervention; Vietnamese Americans
Access and satisfaction are determinants of preventive service use, but few studies have evaluated their role in breast and cervical cancer screening in multiethnic populations.
We sought to investigate the relationship between race/ethnicity, access, satisfaction, and regular mammogram and Papanicolaou test receipt in 5 racial/ethnic groups.
We conducted a telephone survey in 4 languages.
Our subjects were black, Chinese, Filipino, Latino, or white women aged 40 to 74 residing in Alameda County, California.
Outcome: regular mammograms (last test within 15 months and another within 2 years prior) and Papanicolaou tests (36 months and 3 years, respectively). Independent: race/ethnicity, sociodemographic variables, access (health insurance, usual site of care, regular doctor, check-up within 12 months, knowing where to go, copayment for tests), and satisfaction (overall satisfaction scale, waiting times, test-related pain and embarrassment, test satisfaction).
Among women who had ever had a mammogram or Papanicolaou test, 54% and 77%, respectively, received regular screening. In multivariate analyses, regular mammography was positively associated with increased age (odds ratio [OR] 1.05 per year), private insurance (OR 1.7), check-up in the past year (OR 2.3), knowing where to go for mammography (OR 3.0), and greater satisfaction with processes of care (OR 1.04 per unit), and negatively with not knowing copayment amount (OR 0.4), too many forms to fill out (OR 0.5), embarrassment at the last mammogram (OR 0.6), and Filipino race/ethnicity. Similar results were found for regular Papanicolaou tests.
Access and satisfaction are important predictors of screening but do little to explain racial/ethnic variation. Tailored interventions to improve regular mammography and Papanicolaou test screening in multiethnic populations are needed.
access to care; mammography; race and ethnicity; cancer screening; patient satisfaction
To ascertain the cost-effectiveness and benefit-cost ratios of 2 public health campaigns conducted in Dallas and Houston in 1998–2000 for “catch-up” hepatitis B vaccination of Vietnamese-Americans born 1984–1993.
Houston and Dallas, Texas.
A total of 14 349 Vietnamese-American children and adolescents.
Media-led information and education campaign in Houston, and community mobilization strategy in Dallas. Outcomes were compared with a control site: Washington, DC.
Main outcome measures
Receipt of 1, 2, or 3 doses of hepatitis B vaccine before and after the interventions, costs of interventions, cost-effectiveness ratios for intermediate outcomes, intervention cost per discounted year of life saved, and benefit-cost ratio of the interventions.
The number of children who completed the series of 3 hepatitis B vaccine doses increased by 1176 at a total cost of $313 904 for media intervention, and by 390 and at $169 561 for community mobilization. Costs per child receiving any dose, per dose, and per completed series were $363, $101, and $267 for media intervention and $387, $136, and $434 for community mobilization, respectively. For media intervention, the intervention cost per discounted year of life saved was $9954 and 131 years of life were saved; for community mobilization, estimates were $11 759 and 60 years of life. The benefit-cost ratio was 5.26:1 for media intervention and 4.47:1 for community mobilization.
Although the increases in the number of children who completed series of 3 doses were modest for both the Houston and Dallas areas, both media education and, to a lesser degree, community mobilization interventions proved cost-effective and cost-beneficial.
cost-effectiveness analysis; benefit-cost analysis; hepatitis B vaccination; media education; community mobilization; Vietnamese-Americans; HBV, hepatitis B virus; HepB, hepatitis B vaccine; VFC, Vaccines for Children; ACIP, Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices; CDC, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; API, Asian and Pacific Islander; VCHPP, Vietnamese Community Health Promotion Project; CE, cost-effectiveness