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1.  Analysis of whole-cell fatty acid profiles of verotoxigenic Escherichia coli and Salmonella enteritidis with the microbial identification system. 
Differentiation of strains within bacterial species, based on gas chromatographic analysis of whole-cell fatty acid profiles, was assessed with 115 strains of verotoxigenic Escherichia coli and 315 strains of Salmonella enteritidis. Fatty acid-based subgroups within each of the two species were generated. Variability of fatty acid profiles observed in repeat preparations from the same strain approached that observed between subgroups, limiting the usefulness of using fatty acid profiles to subgroup verotoxigenic E. coli and S. enteritidis strains.
PMCID: PMC168365  PMID: 9023953
2.  A serological survey of bovine syncytial virus in Ontario: associations with bovine leukemia and immunodeficiency-like viruses, production records, and management practices. 
Of the 920 cows tested, 56.7% showed antiretroviral serological reactivity. Prevalence rates (95% confidence interval) of antiretroviral antibodies among individual dairy cows in Ontario were: BIV 5.5% (4.0-7.0), BLV 25.7% (22.9-28.6), and BSV 39.6% (36.4-42.8). The following percentages of cows showed serological reactivity against the specified retroviruses: BIV 2.3%, BLV 14.0%, BSV 27.5%, BIV and BSV 1.3%, BIV and BLV 0.9%, BLV and BSV 9.9%, BIV and BLV and BSV 0.9%. These rates of sero-positivity are similar to those found in other countries. Serological test results were not adjusted for sensitivity and specificity. The prevalence rates of antibodies to the three retroviruses (BIV, BLV, and BSV) were significantly different, but no associations were observed between specific retroviral serological test results among individual cows. The prevalence rates of BIV and BSV seropositivity were constant across Ontario, whereas, there was a significant trend for the prevalence rate of BLV seropositivity to decrease going from southwestern to eastern Ontario; cows in eastern Ontario had approximately half the prevalence rate of those in southwestern Ontario. Cows that were seropositive for BSV were significantly older than BSV seronegative cows. There was no association between culling rate and BSV serology. Significant negative associations were found with winter or summer housing of calves separate from adults and summer outdoor exercise for dry cows. The use of calf hutches in the summer had a significant positive association with BSV seropositivity. Regression analyses were done to assess the association of retroviral (BIV, BLV, and BSV) seropositivity on calving interval, milk somatic cell count, and milk production. Serological test results for BIV, BLV, and BSV were entered into all models and all models were adjusted for intra-cluster (intraherd) correlation. Herd size and age were found to be important confounding variables. BIV seropositivity was not associated with any changes in production using this approach, however when considered in isolation BIV seropositivity remained associated with decreased milk production. BLV seropositivity was significantly associated with longer calving intervals and higher somatic cell counts in older cows. As well, in older cows, BSV seropositivity was significantly associated with higher milk production.
PMCID: PMC1263781  PMID: 8548688
3.  A serological survey for bovine immunodeficiency-like virus in Ontario dairy cattle and associations between test results, production records and management practices. 
A chemiluminescence Western blot analysis (WBA) for detecting antibovine immunodeficiency-like virus (BIV) antibodies, had good repeatability. The test was subsequently applied to a bank of serum samples from 928 adult cows from 265 herds in Ontario; the number of cows sampled within each herd ranged from 1 to 13. The overall prevalence of anti-BIV antibodies among cows was 5.5% with a 95% confidence interval of 4.2% to 7.2%. In contrast, 18.1% of herds had at least one reactor among cows tested, resulting in a herd-prevalence confidence interval of 13.8% to 23.4%. These estimates of prevalence were in the same range as previous reports from the US and Europe. Bovine immunodeficiency-like virus may have a worldwide distribution. Unfortunately, BIV test sensitivity and specificity are difficult to estimate because virus isolation is inefficient. Therefore, the apparent prevalences could not be adjusted for test sensitivity and specificity, to estimate the true prevalence of infection. The serum samples had previously been tested for antibodies to bovine leukemia virus (BLV). There were no significant associations between BIV and BLV test results. Least squares regression was used to investigate potential associations between BIV test results and selected production indices.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
PMCID: PMC1263657  PMID: 8143251
4.  Evaluation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of antibodies to caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus in goat serum. 
An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), was evaluated for its ability to detect serum antibodies against caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV). The ELISA was compared to three other serological immunoassays, agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGIDT), immunoblot assay (IBA), and a fixed-cell immunoperoxidase assay (FCIPA). A total of 511 samples, from 40 farms representing a variety of goat breeds and ages were tested. An estimate of the ELISA sensitivity and specificity was made, relative to combined test results of the three other CAEV serological assays. The degree of agreement of test results among these four assays was evaluated. The number of positives detected by the ELISA, AGIDT, IBA and IPA tests was 193, 154, 204 and 163, respectively. Of the 511 sera tested, 172 were positive to any two or all three of these tests, and were defined as reference positive. A total of 237 samples were negative to all three reference tests, and were defined as reference negative. Relative to these references, the ELISA had a point estimate of 98.3% sensitivity and 97.9% specificity. There was good agreement between the ELISA and the other three assays with a kappa statistic of agreement greater than 0.7 for all three comparisons. The ELISA is therefore considered a suitable assay, with high sensitivity and specificity, for detection of antibodies to CAEV in serum.
PMCID: PMC1263545  PMID: 1330278
5.  Associations between dairy production indices and lipoarabinomannan enzyme-immunoassay results for paratuberculosis. 
Data from an epidemiological study in Ontario, involving 304 dairy herds, were used to identify associations between selected production indices and lipoarabinomannan antigen serological test results for paratuberculosis (LAM-ELISA). Analyses were conducted at both the herd and individual cow levels of organization. After analytically controlling for management and cow factors in the respective regression models, positive serological paratuberculosis status (as defined by the LAM-ELISA test), was associated with higher milk somatic cell counts at both the herd average (p less than 0.01), and individual cow levels of organization (p less than 0.0001). In contrast, LAM-ELISA test results were consistently not associated with calving intervals in either the herd average or individual cow level analyses. Associations between LAM-ELISA results and milk production were inconsistent. No associations were found at the herd level of organization, and LAM-ELISA results were not associated with a change in breed class average (BCA) for milk, between the previous and the most recent lactations of individual cattle. However, at the individual cow level, LAM-ELISA results were positively associated with higher milk production as measured by the current BCA (p less than 0.05), and individual cow average kg of milk produced per year of life since two years of age (p less than 0.0001).
PMCID: PMC1263483  PMID: 1790492
6.  An evaluation of selected screening tests for bovine paratuberculosis. 
The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of the lipoarabinomannan antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (LAM-ELISA), carbohydrate antigen complement fixation (CH-CFT), and protein D antigen agar gel immunodiffusion (D-AGID) tests for bovine paratuberculosis, relative to histopathology, and to culture and isolation of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis from tissues and feces. Samples for test evaluation were collected from four sources including blood and tissues from 400 cull cows at three abattoirs in Ontario, blood and feces from a paratuberculosis survey of cattle from 120 dairy farms in Ontario, a serum bank containing samples from cattle from Ontario and Québec, and a bank of sera from cattle from Pennsylvania and the northeastern United States. The data were analyzed using receiver operator characteristic curves, estimates of relative sensitivity and specificity, and kappa statistics of agreement between tests. The LAM-ELISA performed significantly better than both the CH-CFT and the D-AGID tests. The LAM-ELISA was better at predicting fecal shedding status than tissue infection. However, the LAM-ELISA also had limitations. When interpreted as positive or negative (+/-), at a critical optical density of 0.675, its sensitivity and specificity relative to bacteriology were 49% and 87% respectively. Although the serological tests examined in this study provided some information, they did not predict well the infection status of individual animals.
PMCID: PMC1263460  PMID: 1909601

Results 1-6 (6)