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1.  The Effect of a Smoking Ban on Hospitalization Rates for Cardiovascular and Respiratory Conditions in Prince Edward Island, Canada 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(3):e56102.
This is the first study to have examined the effect of smoking bans on hospitalizations in the Atlantic Canadian socio-economic, cultural and climatic context. On June 1, 2003 Prince Edward Island (PEI) enacted a province-wide smoking ban in public places and workplaces. Changes in hospital admission rates for cardiovascular (acute myocardial infarction, angina, and stroke) and respiratory (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma) conditions were examined before and after the smoking ban.
Crude annual and monthly admission rates for the above conditions were calculated from April 1, 1995 to December 31, 2008 in all PEI acute care hospitals. Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average time series models were used to test for changes in mean and trend of monthly admission rates for study conditions, control conditions and a control province after the comprehensive smoking ban. Age- and sex-based analyses were completed.
The mean rate of acute myocardial infarctions was reduced by 5.92 cases per 100,000 person-months (P = 0.04) immediately after the smoking ban. The trend of monthly angina admissions in men was reduced by −0.44 cases per 100,000 person-months (P = 0.01) in the 67 months after the smoking ban. All other cardiovascular and respiratory admission changes were non-significant.
A comprehensive smoking ban in PEI reduced the overall mean number of acute myocardial infarction admissions and the trend of angina hospital admissions.
PMCID: PMC3592861  PMID: 23520450
2.  Seroprevalence of Lawsonia intracellularis in different swine populations in 3 provinces in Canada 
Porcine proliferative enteropathy caused by Lawsonia intracellularis is an important enteric disease in swine throughout the world. Information regarding the distribution of this pathogen in Canadian swine herds would be beneficial for the creation of control protocols. Pigs from Ontario, Quebec, and Alberta were tested by using an indirect immunofluorescence assay for antibodies to L. intracellularis. Pig seroprevalence was calculated as the proportion of pigs positive from total pigs tested in the targeted population. Seroprevalence (± standard error [sχ̄]) in market hogs in Ontario from farrow-finish (FF) farms and finishing (FIN) farms were significantly different at 77% (sχ̄ = 7%) and 29% (sχ̄ = 15%), respectively. Seroprevalence for sows and gilts in FF and farrowing and nursery (FAR + NUR) farms in Ontario were 90% (sχ̄ = 3%) and 93% (sχ̄ = 6%), respectively. Seroprevalence in breeding females in Quebec from FF and FAR farms was 82% (sχ̄ = 5%) and 87% (sχ̄ = 3%), respectively. Seroprevalence (57%, sχ̄ = 8%) in finishing pigs in Alberta from FF farms was significantly different from that of multisite (MS) farms and FIN farms, 6% (sχ̄ = 6%) and 9% (sχ̄ = 5%), respectively. Lawsonia intracellularis appears to be widespread in Canada and the seroprevalence on FF farms is higher than that on FIN and MS farms, possibly due to the presence of breeding females or management differences.
PMCID: PMC1716739  PMID: 17310623
3.  Pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in Canadian infants and children younger than five years of age: Recommendations and expected benefits 
Streptococcus pneumoniae infection may result in invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), such as bacteremia, meningitis and bacteremic pneumonia, or in non-IPD, such as pneumonia, sinusitis and otitis media. In June 2001, a heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) (Prevnar, Wyeth Pharmaceuticals, Canada) was approved for use in children in Canada. The objective of the present paper is to review S pneumoniae-induced disease incidence and vaccine recommendations in Canadian infants and children younger than five years of age. Particular attention is given to the expected benefits of vaccination in Canada based on postmarketing data and economic modelling.
Searches were performed on PubMed and Web of Science databases and specific Canadian journals using the key words 'pneumococc*', 'vaccine', 'conjugate', 'infant' and 'Canadian'.
Results and Discussion
PCV7 appears to be safe and effective against IPD and non-IPD in children younger than five years of age and, more importantly, in children younger than two years of age (who are at highest risk for IPD). An examination of postmarketing data showed a reduction in incidence of pneumococcal disease in age groups that were vaccinated and in older age groups, indicating the likelihood of herd protection. Concurrently, there was a reduction in the occurrence of antimicrobial-resistant isolates.
The results from the present review suggest that PCV7 is currently benefiting Canadian children and society by lowering S pneumoniae-associated disease. Additional gains from herd protection and further reductions in antimicrobial resistance will be achieved as more Canadian children younger than five years of age are routinely vaccinated with PCV7.
PMCID: PMC2095050  PMID: 18418479
Conjugate; Economic; Infant; Pneumococcus; Post-marketing; Prevnar; Streptococcus pneumoniae

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