PMCC PMCC

Search tips
Search criteria

Advanced
Results 1-13 (13)
 

Clipboard (0)
None

Select a Filter Below

Journals
more »
Year of Publication
Document Types
1.  Morphine-induced early delays in wound closure: involvement of sensory neuropeptides and modification of neurokinin receptor expression 
Biochemical pharmacology  2009;77(11):1747-1755.
Dose-limiting side effects of centrally-acting opioid drugs have led to the use of topical opioids to reduce the pain associated with chronic cutaneous wounds. However, previous studies indicate that topical morphine application impairs wound healing. This study was designed to elucidate the mechanisms by which morphine delays wound closure. Rats were depleted of sensory neuropeptides by treatment with capsaicin, and full-thickness 4 mm diameter wounds were excised from the intrascapular region. Wounds were treated topically twice daily with 5 mM morphine sulfate, 1 mM substance P, 1 mM neurokinin A, or 5 mM morphine combined with 1 m M substance P or neurokinin A and wound areas assessed. During closure, wound tissue was taken 1, 3, 5, and 8 days post-wounding from control and morphine-treated rats and immunostained for neurokinin receptors and markers for macrophages, myofibroblasts, and vasculature. Results obtained from capsaicin-treated animals demonstrated a significant delay in the early stages of wound contraction that was reversed by neuropeptide application. Treatment of capsaicin-treated rats with topical morphine did not further delay wound closure, suggesting that topical opioids impair wound closure via the inhibition of peripheral neuropeptide release into the healing wound. Morphine application altered neurokinin-1 and neurokinin-2 receptor expression in inflammatory and parenchymal cells essential for wound healing in a cell-specific manner, demonstrating a direct effect of morphine on neurokinin receptor regulation within an array of cells involved in wound healing. These data provide evidence indicating a potentially detrimental effect of topical morphine application on the dynamic wound healing process.
doi:10.1016/j.bcp.2009.03.003
PMCID: PMC4159122  PMID: 19428329
substance P; neurokinin A; primary afferent neuron; skin; macrophage; myofibroblast
2.  Characterization of GABA Receptors 
Described in this unit are ligand binding assays for GABAA, GABAB, and the homomeric ρ GABAA (formerly GABAC) receptor recognition sites in brain tissue. Although GABA binding sites are present in peripheral organs, most research is directed toward examining these receptors in the CNS. These assays may also be used to determine the affinity of an unlabeled compound for the GABA binding sites. Excluded from the unit are ligand binding assays for other components of the GABAA receptor complex, such as the benzodiazepine (Unit 1.16) or ion channel (Unit 1.18) binding sites.
doi:10.1002/0471141755.ph0107s63
PMCID: PMC3927317  PMID: 24510754
3.  Sex Differences in Behavior and Expression of CGRP-related Genes in a Rodent Model of Chronic Migraine 
Headache  2011;51(5):674-692.
a. Objective
The objectives of this study were to develop a preclinical rodent model that produces migraine-like behaviors based on International Headache Society diagnostic criteria, to determine whether sex differences are present, and to determine whether expression of CGRP and the genes encoding its receptor in trigeminal ganglion or medulla correlates with those behaviors.
b. Background
Few animal studies of migraine have tested behaviors associated with migraine diagnostic criteria. In this study, changes in activity and in mechanical sensitivity of facial regions following application of inflammatory soup (IS) or vehicle (PBS) to the dura were measured to model changes in routine activity and allodynia. Calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP), an important mediator of migraine pathogenesis, and the three components of its receptor, calcitonin-like receptor (CLR), receptor activity-modifying protein (RAMP1), and receptor component protein (RCP) mRNAs were quantified in the trigeminal ganglion and medulla to identify baseline sex differences and changes associated with application of IS or PBS to the dura.
c. Methods
Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with a dural cannula. Groups of rats were treated with 10 or 20 microliter volumes of IS or PBS. Baseline behavioral testing was conducted prior to surgery and again at 7 days postsurgery, and dural application of IS or PBS was performed repeatedly for a total of 8 applications. Locomotor activity was assessed using force plate actimetry during and following application to provide information on distance traveled, bouts of low mobility, spatial confinement, and focused energy. Periorbital and perimasseter sensory testing was performed 20 min post-application to measure allodynia. The rats were sacrificed 30 minutes following the final dural treatment, tissue was dissected and total RNAs were isolated from ipsilateral trigeminal ganglia and ipsilateral medulla. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reactions were used to measure the expression of amplified constructs using gene-specific primers for CGRP, RAMP1, CLR, and RCP.
d. Results
Both males and females showed behavioral effects of IS application, but there were pronounced sex differences. Females showed effects at the lower dose, and activity changes were present for a longer duration, but males required fewer applications of IS to exhibit behavioral changes. Females showed increased withdrawal responses for periorbital and perimasseter mechanical testing (10 µl IS groups), and males showed increased perimasseter withdrawal responses (20 µl IS group). In the trigeminal ganglion, there were no baseline sex differences in CGRP-encoding mRNA, but females had lower baseline expression of RAMP1, CLR, and RCP-encoding mRNAs. In the medulla, females had higher baseline levels of CGRP-encoding mRNAs and lower baseline levels of RAMP1, CLR, and RCP-encoding mRNAs than males. Both IS and PBS increased expression of mRNAs encoding CGRP, RAMP1, RCP and CLR in the trigeminal ganglion in males, but in females, only CLR and RCP were increased. In the medulla both IS and PBS increased expression of CGRP, CLR in males and CLR and RCP in females. Thus, expression of CGRP related genes did not mirror the behavioral differences between IS and PBS groups. Instead, CGRP related genes were upregulated by both IS and PBS applications.
e. Conclusions
This study demonstrates significant changes in locomotor activity and facial allodynia associated with application of IS to the dura as well as significant sex differences, demonstrating that International Headache Society diagnostic criteria can be used to design a rodent behavioral model of migraine. In addition, there were prominent baseline sex differences in expression of CGRP and its receptor in both the trigeminal ganglion and medulla, but the majority of changes in expression of CGRP and its receptor were present in both the IS and PBS treated rats. This suggests that the CGRP pathway responds to changes in intracranial pressure or meningeal stretch, while migraine-like behaviors occur after meningeal inflammation.
doi:10.1111/j.1526-4610.2011.01882.x
PMCID: PMC4079043  PMID: 21521205
Chronic migraine; inflammatory soup; rat; facial allodynia; trigeminal; locomotor; activity; sex differences; pain; inflammation; dura mater; CGRP
4.  Role of the estrogen receptors GPR30 and ERα in peripheral sensitization: relevance to trigeminal pain disorders in women 
Estrogen increases facial allodynia through its actions on activation of the MAP kinase ERK in trigeminal ganglion neurons. This goal of study was to determine which estrogen receptor is required for behavioral sensitization. Immunohistochemical studies demonstrated the presence of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) in nuclei of larger neurons and cytoplasm of smaller neurons, and the novel estrogen receptor G-protein coupled receptor 30 (GPR30) in small diameter neurons that also contained peripherin, a marker of unmyelinated C-fibers. Specific agonists for ERα (PPT) and GPR30 (G-1), but not ERβ (DPN), activated ERK in trigeminal ganglion neurons in vitro. Both G-1 and PPT treatment increased allodynia after CFA injections in to the masseter of ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley rats. Treatment with estrogen increased expression of ERα but not GPR30, while masseter inflammation increased GRP30 but not ERα. Differential modulation of these ERK-coupled receptors by estrogen and inflammation may play a role in painful episodes of TMD and migraine.
doi:10.1111/j.1468-2982.2008.01789.x
PMCID: PMC4054707  PMID: 19220308
GPR30; estrogen receptor α; allodynia; trigeminal ganglion; ERK; estrogen
5.  Temporal effects of topical morphine application on cutaneous wound healing 
Anesthesiology  2008;109(1):130-136.
Background
Studies have shown that topical administration of exogenous opioid drugs impairs wound healing by inhibiting the peripheral release of neuropeptides, thereby inhibiting neurogenic inflammation. This delay is immediate and peaks during the first days of wound closure. This study examined the effects of topical morphine treatment in a cutaneous wound healing model in the rat.
Methods
Full-thickness 4mm diameter wounds were placed on the periscapular region of rats that subsequently received twice-daily topical applications of IntraSite Gel (Smith+Nephew, Hull, United Kingdom) alone or gel infused with 5 mM morphine sulfate on days 0–3 or 4–10 post-wounding or throughout the time course. Wound tissue was taken on days 1, 3, 5, 8, and 18 post-wounding and immunostained for myofibroblast and macrophage markers or stained with hematoxylin and eosin.
Results
Delays in wound closure observed during morphine application on days 0–3 post-wounding mimicked those seen in wounds treated with morphine throughout the entire healing process. However, no significant delays in closure were seen in wounds treated with morphine beginning on day 4 post-wounding. Treatment of wounds with morphine significantly reduced the number of myofibroblasts and macrophages in the closing wound. Additionally, morphine application resulted in decreases in skin thickness and an increase in residual scar tissue in healed skin.
Conclusions
These findings demonstrate the time-dependent and persistent nature of the detrimental effects of topical morphine on cutaneous wound healing. The data identify specific limitations that could be ameliorated to optimize topical opioid administration as an analgesic therapeutic strategy in the treatment of painful cutaneous wounds.
doi:10.1097/ALN.0b013e31817b5ac3
PMCID: PMC2598738  PMID: 18580183
6.  Delay of cutaneous wound closure by morphine via local blockade of peripheral tachykinin release 
Biochemical pharmacology  2007;74(5):752-757.
Topically applied morphine is routinely used to alleviate pain in cutaneous wounds such as burns and pressure sores. Evidence suggests the topical administration of exogenous opioid drugs may impair wound closure. This study examined the effects of topical morphine on a standardized model of cutaneous wound healing in the rat. Full-thickness 4mm diameter circular skin flaps were excised from the intrascapular region of male Sprague-Dawley rats. IntraSite™® Gel infused with either morphine-sulfate, neurokinin-1 (NK-1) or neurokinin-2 (NK-2) receptor antagonists, substance P (SP), neurokinin A (NKA), SP + morphine-sulfate, or NKA + morphine-sulfate was applied to the wound twice daily. Results demonstrated a significant overall delay in the time course of wound contraction in morphine-treated animals when compared with gel-only treated controls. The delay in wound contraction seen in morphine-treated animals increased in a concentration-dependent manner. Topical application of NK-1 or NK-2 receptor antagonists mimicked the effects of morphine in delaying wound closure, suggesting topical opioids impair wound closure via the inhibition of SP and NKA release peripherally into the healing wound. Additionally, no significant delays in closure were seen in rats receiving morphine combined with SP or NKA, demonstrating the ability of each neuropeptide to attenuate the effects of morphine in delaying wound closure and restore normal wound closure rates. The combination of SP or NKA and morphine-sulfate for wound therapy may provide local analgesia while maintaining normal closure rates.
doi:10.1016/j.bcp.2007.06.005
PMCID: PMC1997302  PMID: 17632084
Substance P; neurokinin A; neurokinin-1 receptor; neurokinin-2 receptor; opioid; primary afferent neuron
7.  Neurochemical Analysis of Primary Motor Cortex in Chronic Low Back Pain 
Brain sciences  2012;2(3):319-331.
The involvement of the primary motor cortex (M1) in chronic low back pain (LBP) is a relatively new concept. Decreased M1 excitability and an analgesic effect after M1 stimulation have been recently reported. However, the neurochemical changes underlying these functional M1 changes are unknown. The current study investigated whether neurochemicals specific to neurons and glial cells in both right and left M1 are altered. N-Acetylaspartate (NAA) and myo-inositol (mI) were measured with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in 19 subjects with chronic LBP and 14 healthy controls. We also examined correlations among neurochemicals within and between M1 and relationships between neurochemical concentrations and clinical features of pain. Right M1 NAA was lower in subjects with LBP compared to controls (p = 0.008). Left M1 NAA and mI were not significantly different between LBP and control groups. Correlations between neurochemical concentrations across M1s were different between groups (p = 0.008). There were no significant correlations between M1 neurochemicals and pain characteristics. These findings provide preliminary evidence of neuronal depression and altered neuronalglial interactions across M1 in chronic LBP.
doi:10.3390/brainsci2030319
PMCID: PMC3678773  PMID: 23766894
chronic low back pain; primary motor cortex; magnetic resonance spectroscopy; N-acetylaspartate; myo-inositol
8.  Neurochemical Analysis of Primary Motor Cortex in Chronic Low Back Pain 
Brain Sciences  2012;2(3):319-331.
The involvement of the primary motor cortex (M1) in chronic low back pain (LBP) is a relatively new concept. Decreased M1 excitability and an analgesic effect after M1 stimulation have been recently reported. However, the neurochemical changes underlying these functional M1 changes are unknown. The current study investigated whether neurochemicals specific to neurons and glial cells in both right and left M1 are altered. N-Acetylaspartate (NAA) and myo-inositol (mI) were measured with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in 19 subjects with chronic LBP and 14 healthy controls. We also examined correlations among neurochemicals within and between M1 and relationships between neurochemical concentrations and clinical features of pain. Right M1 NAA was lower in subjects with LBP compared to controls (p = 0.008). Left M1 NAA and mI were not significantly different between LBP and control groups. Correlations between neurochemical concentrations across M1s were different between groups (p = 0.008). There were no significant correlations between M1 neurochemicals and pain characteristics. These findings provide preliminary evidence of neuronal depression and altered neuronal-glial interactions across M1 in chronic LBP.
doi:10.3390/brainsci2030319
PMCID: PMC3678773  PMID: 23766894
chronic low back pain; primary motor cortex; magnetic resonance spectroscopy; N-acetylaspartate; myo-inositol
9.  Hypersensitivity and Hyperinnervation of the Rat Hind Paw Following Carrageenan-induced Inflammation 
Neuroscience letters  2011;495(1):67-71.
Studies of human tissue show that many chronic pain syndromes are accompanied by abnormal increases in numbers of peripheral sensory nerve fibers. It is not known if sensory nerve sprouting occurs as a result of inflammation present in these conditions, or other factors such as infection or extensive tissue damage. In the present study, we used a well established model of inflammation to examine cutaneous innervation density in relation to mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity. Adult female rats were ovariectomized to eliminate fluctuations in female reproductive hormones and one week later, a hind paw was injected with carrageenan or saline vehicle. Behavioral testing showed that saline vehicle injection did not alter thermal or mechanical thresholds compared to pre-injection baselines. Carrageenan injections resulted in markedly reduced paw withdrawal thresholds at 24 and 72 h after injection; this was accompanied by increased mechanical sensitivity of the contralateral paw at 72h. Analysis of innervation density using PGP9.5 as a pan-neuronal marker at 72h showed that inflammation resulted in a 2-fold increase in cutaneous innervation density. We conclude that inflammation alone is sufficient to induce sprouting of sensory cutaneous axon endings leading local tissue hyperinnervation, which may contribute to hypersensitivity that occurs in painful inflammatory conditions.
doi:10.1016/j.neulet.2011.03.043
PMCID: PMC3119508  PMID: 21439352
Pain; sensory nerves; axon sprouting; skin
10.  Vitamin D Deficiency Promotes Skeletal Muscle Hypersensitivity and Sensory Hyperinnervation 
The Journal of Neuroscience  2011;31(39):13728-13738.
Musculoskeletal pain affects nearly half of all adults, most of whom are vitamin D deficient. Previous findings demonstrated that putative nociceptors (“pain-sensing” nerves) express vitamin D receptors (VDRs), suggesting responsiveness to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. In the present study, rats receiving vitamin D-deficient diets for 2– 4 weeks showed mechanical deep muscle hypersensitivity, but not cutaneous hypersensitivity. Muscle hypersensitivity was accompanied by balance deficits and occurred before onset of overt muscle or bone pathology. Hypersensitivity was not due to hypocalcemia and was actually accelerated by increased dietary calcium. Morphometry of skeletal muscle innervation showed increased numbers of presumptive nociceptor axons (peripherin-positive axons containing calcitonin gene-related peptide), without changes in sympathetic or skeletal muscle motor innervation. Similarly, there was no change in epidermal innervation. In culture, sensory neurons displayed enriched VDR expression in growth cones, and sprouting was regulated by VDR-mediated rapid response signaling pathways, while sympathetic outgrowth was not affected by different concentrations of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. These findings indicate that vitamin D deficiency can lead to selective alterations in target innervation, resulting in presumptive nociceptor hyperinnervation of skeletal muscle, which in turn is likely to contribute to muscular hypersensitivity and pain.
doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3637-11.2011
PMCID: PMC3319727  PMID: 21957236
11.  DECREASED BRAIN DOCOSAHEXAENOIC ACID CONTENT PRODUCES NEUROBIOLOGICAL EFFECTS ASSOCIATED WITH DEPRESSION: INTERACTIONS WITH REPRODUCTIVE STATUS IN FEMALE RATS 
Psychoneuroendocrinology  2008;33(9):1279-1292.
Summary
Decreased tissue levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) are implicated in the etiologies of non-puerperal and postpartum depression. With the aim of determining neurobiological sequelae of decreased brain DHA content, this study examined the effects of a loss of brain DHA content and concurrent reproductive status in adult female Long-Evans rats. An α-linolenic acid-deficient diet and breeding protocols were used to produce virgin and parous female rats with cortical phospholipid DHA levels 23–26% lower than virgin and parous rats fed a control diet containing adequate α-linolenic acid. Parous dams were tested/euthanized at weaning (postnatal day 20) of the second litter; virgin females, during diestrus. Decreased brain DHA was associated with decreased hippocampal BDNF gene expression and increased relative corticosterone response to an intense stressor, regardless of reproductive status. In virgin females with decreased brain DHA, serotonin content and turnover in frontal cortex were decreased compared to virgin females with normal brain DHA. In parous dams with decreased brain DHA, the density of 5-HT1A receptors in the hippocampus was increased, corticosterone response to an intense stressor was increased, and the latency to immobility in the forced swim test was decreased compared to parous dams with normal DHA. These findings demonstrate neurobiological alterations attributable to decreased brain DHA or an interaction of parous status and brain DHA level. Furthermore, the data are consistent with findings in depressed humans, and thus support a role for DHA as a factor in the etiologies of depressive illnesses, particularly postpartum depression.
doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2008.06.012
PMCID: PMC2582014  PMID: 18707812
omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid; brain-derived neurotrophic factor; serotonin 1A receptor; forced swim; postpartum; corticosterone
12.  Neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene expression is differentially modulated in the rat spinal dorsal horn and hippocampus during inflammatory pain 
Molecular Pain  2007;3:32.
Persistent pain produces complex alterations in sensory pathways of the central nervous system (CNS) through activation of various nociceptive mechanisms. However, the effects of pain on higher brain centers, particularly the influence of the stressful component of pain on the limbic system, are poorly understood. Neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptors and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), known neuromediators of hyperalgesia and spinal central sensitization, have also been implicated in the plasticity and neurodegeneration occurring in the hippocampal formation during exposures to various stressors. Results of this study showed that injections of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) into the hind paw increased NK-1 receptor and BDNF mRNA levels in the ipsilateral dorsal horn, supporting an important role for these nociceptive mediators in the amplification of ascending pain signaling. An opposite effect was observed in the hippocampus, where CFA down-regulated NK-1 receptor and BDNF gene expression, phenomena previously observed in immobilization models of stress and depression. Western blot analyses demonstrated that in the spinal cord, CFA also increased levels of phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), while in the hippocampus the activation of this transcription factor was significantly reduced, further suggesting that tissue specific transcription of either NK-1 or BDNF genes may be partially regulated by common intracellular transduction mechanisms mediated through activation of CREB. These findings suggest that persistent nociception induces differential regional regulation of NK-1 receptor and BDNF gene expression and CREB activation in the CNS, potentially reflecting varied roles of these neuromodulators in the spinal cord during persistent sensory activation vs. modulation of the higher brain structures such as the hippocampus.
doi:10.1186/1744-8069-3-32
PMCID: PMC2174921  PMID: 17974009
13.  Dopamine receptor alterations in female rats with diet-induced decreased brain docosahexaenoic acid (DHA): interactions with reproductive status 
Nutritional Neuroscience  2010;13(4):161-169.
Decreased tissue levels of n-3 (omega-3) fatty acids, particularly docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are implicated in the etiologies of non-puerperal and postpartum depression. This study examined the effects of a diet-induced loss of brain DHA content and concurrent reproductive status on dopaminergic parameters in adult female Long–Evans rats. An α-linolenic acid-deficient diet and breeding protocols were used to produce virgin and parous female rats with cortical phospholipid DHA levels 20–22% lower than those fed a control diet containing adequate α-linolenic acid. Decreased brain DHA produced a significant main effect of decreased density of ventral striatal D2-like receptors. Virgin females with decreased DHA also exhibited higher density of D1-like receptors in the caudate nucleus than virgin females with normal DHA. These receptor alterations are similar to those found in several rodent models of depression, and are consistent with the proposed hypodopaminergic basis for anhedonia and motivational deficits in depression.
doi:10.1179/147683010X12611460764282
PMCID: PMC2955509  PMID: 20670471
omega-3; polyunsaturated fatty acid; dopamine receptor; postpartum; docosahexaenoic acid; rat

Results 1-13 (13)