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1.  Use of sevoflurane inhalation sedation for outpatient third molar surgery. 
Anesthesia Progress  1999;46(1):21-29.
This study attempted to determine if sevoflurane in oxygen inhaled via a nasal hood as a sole sedative agent would provide an appropriate level of deep sedation for outpatient third molar surgery. Twenty-four patients scheduled for third molar removal were randomly assigned to receive either nasal hood inhalation sevoflurane or an intravenous deep sedation using midazolam and fentanyl followed by a propofol infusion. In addition to measuring patient, surgeon, and dentist anesthesiologist subjective satisfaction with the technique, physiological parameters, amnesia, and psychomotor recovery were also assessed. No statistically significant difference was found between the sevoflurane and midazolam-fentanyl-propofol sedative groups in physiological parameters, degree of amnesia, reported quality of sedation, or patient willingness to again undergo a similar deep sedation. A trend toward earlier recovery in the sevoflurane group was identified. Sevoflurane can be successfully employed as a deep sedative rather than a general anesthetic for extraction of third molars in healthy subjects.
PMCID: PMC2148884  PMID: 10551056
2.  Pheromone response elements are necessary and sufficient for basal and pheromone-induced transcription of the FUS1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  1991;11(6):2952-2961.
The FUS1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is transcribed in a and alpha cells, not in a/alpha diploids, and its transcription increases dramatically when haploid cells are exposed to the appropriate mating pheromone. In addition, FUS1 transcription is absolutely dependent on STE4, STE5, STE7, STE11, and STE12, genes thought to encode components of the pheromone response pathway. We now have determined that the pheromone response element (PRE), which occurs in four copies within the FUS1 upstream region, functions as the FUS1 upstream activation sequence (UAS) and is responsible for all known aspects of FUS1 regulation. In particular, deletion of 55 bp that includes the PREs abolished all transcription, and a 139-bp fragment that includes the PREs conferred FUS1-like expression to a CYC1-lacZ reporter gene. Moreover, three or four copies of a synthetic PRE closely mimicked the activity conferred by the 139-bp fragment, and even a single copy of PRE conferred a trace of activity that was haploid specific and pheromone inducible. In the FUS1 promoter context, four copies of the synthetic PRE inserted at the site of the 55-bp deletion restored full FUS1 transcription. Sequences upstream and downstream from the PRE cluster were important for maximal PRE-directed expression but, by themselves, did not have UAS activity. Other yeast genes with PREs, e.g., STE2 and BAR1, are more modestly inducible and have additional UAS elements contributing to the overall activity. In the FUS1 promoter, the PREs apparently act alone to confer activity that is highly stimulated by pheromone.
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PMCID: PMC360123  PMID: 1903837
3.  Identification and regulation of a gene required for cell fusion during mating of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  1987;7(8):2680-2690.
We have devised a screen for genes from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae whose expression is affected by cell type or by the mating pheromones. From this screen we identified a gene, FUS1, whose pattern of expression revealed interesting regulatory strategies and whose product was required for efficient cell fusion during mating. Transcription of FUS1 occurred only in a and alpha cells, not in a/alpha cells, where it was repressed by a1 X alpha 2, a regulatory activity present uniquely in a/alpha cells. Transcription of FUS1 showed an absolute requirement for the products of five STE genes, STE4, STE5, STE7, STE11, and STE12. Since the activators STE4, STE5, and STE12 are themselves repressed by a1 X alpha 2, the failure to express FUS1 in a/alpha cells is probably the result of a cascade of regulatory activities; repression of the activators by a1 X alpha 2 in turn precludes transcription of FUS1. In addition to regulation of FUS1 by cell type, transcription from the locus increased 10-fold or more when a or alpha cells were exposed to the opposing mating pheromone. To investigate the function of the Fus1 protein, we created fus1 null mutants. In fus1 X fus1 matings, the cells of a mating pair adhered tightly and appeared to form zygotes. However, the zygotes were abnormal. Within the conjugation bridge the contained a partition that prevented nuclear fusion and mixing of organelles. The predicted sequence of the Fus1 protein (deduced from the FUS1 DNA sequence) and subcellular fractionation studies with Fus1-beta-galactosidase hybrid proteins suggest that Fus1 is a membrane or secreted protein. Thus, Fus1 may be located at a position within the cell where it is poised to catalyze cell wall or plasma membrane fusion.
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PMCID: PMC367884  PMID: 3313002

Results 1-3 (3)