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1.  Psoriasis Causes Significant Economic Burden to Patients 
Dermatology and Therapy  2014;4(1):115-124.
Psoriasis results in expenses to patients from many cost sources. Psoriasis treatments may result in considerable time and traveling costs, yet many studies fail to account for these costs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the multidimensional economic burden of psoriasis to patients.
The study was based on 232 Finnish patients with psoriasis or psoriatic arthritis visiting a tertiary level dermatological clinic during a 1-year study period between October 1, 2009 and September 30, 2010. The data were based on a patient questionnaire, clinical data from the medical records and reimbursement data from the Finnish Social Insurance Institution. Item costs were based on true costs charged from the patients and all time cost estimates were based on the Human Capital Approach method.
199 patients with psoriasis and 33 with psoriatic arthritis were included in the study. Total costs were higher for patients receiving traditional systemic medications or phototherapy than those not receiving such treatment. Travel costs and travel time costs accounted for more than 60% of the costs of phototherapy. Skin care at home was time consuming and thus caused significant burden to patients. The majority of the visit costs arose from hospital visits and only a small proportion were attributed to visiting primary health care providers.
Visit charges and other patient co-payments were estimated to play a minor role in the total cost of psoriasis incurred by patients, while travel costs and lost time comprised the majority of the costs, which should not be omitted in future studies regarding costs of treatments.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s13555-014-0053-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC4065269  PMID: 24865468
Cost; Dermatology; Patient; Phototherapy; Psoriasis; Psoriatic arthritis; Travel costs
2.  Surgical treatment of partial tears of the proximal origin of the hamstring muscles 
Hamstring injuries are common especially in athletes. Partial and complete tears of the proximal origin may cause pain and functional loss.
To evaluate the results of surgical treatment for partial proximal hamstring tears.
Between 1994 and 2005, 47 athletes (48 cases, 1 bilateral) with partial proximal hamstring tears were operated on. The cases were retrospectively analysed. Before surgery, 42 of the patients had undergone conservative treatment with unsatisfactory results, whereas in five patients the operation was performed within four weeks of the injury.
The mean length of the follow up was 36 months (range 6–72). The result of the operation was rated excellent in 33 cases, good in nine, fair in four, and poor in two. Forty one patients were able to return to their former level of sport after an average of five months (range 1–12).
In most cases, excellent or good results can be expected after surgical repair of partial proximal hamstring tears even after conservative treatment has failed.
PMCID: PMC2579455  PMID: 16790482
hamstring; muscle; partial tear; surgical treatment; injury
4.  Dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase 1 (DCP1) and butyrylcholinesterase (BCHE) gene interactions with the apolipoprotein E ε4 allele as risk factors in Alzheimer's disease and in Parkinson's disease with coexisting Alzheimer pathology 
Journal of Medical Genetics  2000;37(10):766-770.
Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) are genetically heterogeneous. Dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase 1 (DCP1) and butyrylcholinesterase (BCHE) genes may modify the risk of these disorders. We investigated whether common polymorphisms present in these genes operate as risk factors for AD and PD in Finnish subjects, independently or in concert with the apolipoprotein E ε4 allele (APOE ε4). Eighty late onset sporadic AD patients, 53 PD patients (34 of whom had concomitant AD pathology), and 67 control subjects were genotyped for the insertion (I)/deletion (D) polymorphism of DCP1 and the K variant of BCHE. In logistic regression analysis, the DCP1 *I allele in combination with APOE ε4 significantly increased the risk of AD (OR 30.0, 95% CI 7.3-123.7), compared to subjects carrying neither of the alleles. Similar analysis showed that the risk of AD was significantly increased in subjects carrying both the BCHE wild type (*WT/*WT) genotype and ε4 (OR 9.9, 95% CI 2.9-33.8), compared to those without this BCHE genotype and ε4. Further, the risk of PD with AD pathology was significantly increased for carriers of DCP1 *I and ε4 (OR 8.0, 95% CI 2.1-31.1). We thus conclude that, in Finns, interaction between DCP1 *I and ε4 increases the risk of AD as well as of PD with coexisting Alzheimer pathology, which underlines the importance of the DCP1 I/D polymorphism in the development of Alzheimer neuropathology, whereas the wild type BCHE genotype in combination with ε4 had a combined effect with regard to the risk of AD.

Keywords: Alzheimer's disease; Parkinson's disease; dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase 1; butyrylcholinesterase
PMCID: PMC1757160  PMID: 11015454
5.  Multiserotype Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay as a Diagnostic Aid for Periodontitis in Large-Scale Studies 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2002;40(2):512-518.
Periodontitis is a common chronic oral infection caused by gram-negative bacteria, including Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis. Periodontitis evokes inflammatory host response locally in the periodontium but also systemically. The systemic humoral antibody response against oral pathogens can conveniently be measured by an immunoassay. The aim of the study was to measure serum immunoglobulin G class antibodies against A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in which mixtures of several serotypes of the pathogens were used as antigens to avoid biasing of the results in favor of a particular strain. For A. actinomycetemcomitans the antigen consisted of six strains representing serotypes a, b, c, d, and e and one nonserotypeable strain. In the P. gingivalis ELISA, antigens representing serotypes a, b, and c were used. Serum samples from 90 subjects, including 35 samples from patients with diagnosed periodontitis, 10 samples from periodontally healthy controls, and 45 samples from randomly selected apparently healthy volunteers (referred to as “healthy subjects”), were tested. For both pathogens the antibody levels (means ± standard deviations) of the patients—expressed as area under the dilution curve—were significantly higher than those for healthy controls or healthy subjects, with values for A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis, respectively, as follows: patients, 22.60 ± 9.94 mm2 and 26.72 ± 11.13 mm2; healthy controls, 9.99 ± 3.92 mm2 and 6.90 ± 3.38 mm2; and healthy subjects, 16.85 ± 6.67 mm2 and 8.51 ± 4.23 mm2. The serotype mixture ELISA is suitable for measuring antibodies against periodontal pathogens in large epidemiological studies in order to evaluate the role of periodontitis as a risk factor for other diseases.
PMCID: PMC153358  PMID: 11825965
6.  Association between dental health and acute myocardial infarction. 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1989;298(6676):779-781.
Known risk factors for coronary heart disease do not explain all of the clinical and epidemiological features of the disease. To examine the role of chronic bacterial infections as risk factors for the disease the association between poor dental health and acute myocardial infarction was investigated in two separate case-control studies of a total of 100 patients with acute myocardial infarction and 102 controls selected from the community at random. Dental health was graded by using two indexes, one of which was assessed blind. Based on these indexes dental health was significantly worse in patients with acute myocardial infarction than in controls. The association remained valid after adjustment for age, social class, smoking, serum lipid concentrations, and the presence of diabetes. Further prospective studies are required in different populations to confirm the association and to elucidate its nature.
PMCID: PMC1836063  PMID: 2496855

Results 1-7 (7)