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1.  Sex-different abnormalities in the right second to fourth digit ratio in Japanese individuals with autism spectrum disorders 
Molecular Autism  2015;6:34.
The prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) is higher in men than in women. The extreme male brain theory proposes that excessive prenatal testosterone activity could be a risk factor for ASDs. However, it is unclear whether prenatal sex hormone activity is a risk factor for women. The ratio of the length of the second to fourth digits (2D:4D) is considered to be a biomarker of the prenatal ratio of testosterone to estrogen. Therefore, this study compared the 2D:4D ratios of women with and without ASDs to determine if prenatal sex hormone activity could be a risk factor for ASDs in women.
The study included 35 Japanese men with ASDs, 17 Japanese women with ASDs, 59 typically developed (TD) Japanese men, and 57 TD Japanese women. We measured digit lengths and compared the 2D:4D ratios among the four groups. We also examined the relationship between the 2D:4D ratio and the autism-spectrum quotient score of each group.
In our cohort, men with ASDs tended to have lower right-hand 2D:4D ratios relative to TD men. In contrast, the right 2D:4D ratios in women with ASDs were higher compared to those of TD women. No significant correlations were found between the 2D:4D ratios and the autism-spectrum quotient scores in any group. The higher right 2D:4D ratios in women could not be explained by age or full-scale intelligent quotients. This group difference was not found for the left 2D:4D or right–left 2D:4D ratios.
We found a reverse direction of abnormality in the right 2D:4D ratio for men and women with ASDs. It has been posited that high prenatal testosterone levels lead to a lower 2D:4D ratio. However, a recent animal study showed that testosterone injection to dam leads to a higher right 2D:4D ratio especially for female offspring, which might be mediated by abnormal adipose accumulation in the fingertip. Therefore, the present findings suggest that high prenatal testosterone could be a risk factor both for Japanese men and women with ASDs, elucidating one potential etiology of ASDs in women.
PMCID: PMC4460687  PMID: 26060570
Sex difference; Autism spectrum disorders; Digit ratio; Prenatal testosterone; Prenatal estrogen; Etiology
2.  The prophylactic effects of a traditional Japanese medicine, goshajinkigan, on paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy and its mechanism of action 
Molecular Pain  2014;10:61.
This study aimed to evaluate the prophylactic effect of goshajinkigan (GJG) on paclitaxel (PTX)-induced neuropathy and to elucidate the mechanism of action.
There was a time-dependent irreversible decrease in pain threshold in PTX group. In PTX/GJG group, pain threshold showed changes in the same level as control. Electron microscope showed that although the ganglion cells of control and PTX/GJG groups were normal, degeneration of the nucleus and swelling of the mitochondria were observed in PTX group. Expression of transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) gene in PTX group significantly increased compared with that in control and PTX/GJG groups. In TRPV4 knock-out mice, no PTX-induced hyperalgesia was observed, and there was no significant difference in pain threshold between the 3 groups.
These results showed that PTX induced hyperalgesia by enhancing TRPV4 expression, and suggested that GJG might alleviate hyperalgesia by preventing degeneration of the ganglion cells and suppressing TRPV4 expression.
PMCID: PMC4176860  PMID: 25240613
Paclitaxel; Goshajinkigan; Peripheral neuropathy; Degeneration of the ganglion cells; TRPV4
3.  Presentation of two patients with malignant granulosa cell tumors, with a review of the literature 
Granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) of the ovary account for 2 to 5 of ovarian malignancies. We present two patients with malignant ovarian adult GCT. In one patient, a combination of bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin was effective after initial surgery for malignant GCT. In the other, an aromatase inhibitor was effective for recurrent malignant GCT. We also review the literature for further management of this tumor. Because GCT of the ovary is rare, it will be necessary to elucidate the clinical phenotype and establish treatment protocols by accumulating and analyzing more patients.
PMCID: PMC3490972  PMID: 22963202
Ovarian malignant granulosa cell tumor; BEP combination therapy; Aromatase inhibitor

Results 1-3 (3)