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1.  Human Leukocyte Antigens and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: A Protective Role for the HLA-DR6 Alleles DRB1*13:02 and *14:03 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(2):e87792.
Many studies on associations between human leukocyte antigen (HLA) allele frequencies and susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have been performed. However, few protective associations with HLA-DRB1 alleles have been reported. Here, we sought protective, as well as predispositional, alleles of HLA-DRB1 in Japanese SLE patients. An association study was conducted for HLA-DRB1 in Japanese SLE patients. Relative predispositional effects were analyzed by sequential elimination of carriers of each allele with the strongest association. We also explored the association of DRB1 alleles with SLE phenotypes including the presence of autoantibody and clinical manifestations. Significantly different carrier frequencies of certain DRB1 alleles were found to be associated with SLE as follows: increased DRB1*15:01 (P = 5.48×10−10, corrected P (Pc) = 1.59×10−8, odds ratio [OR] 2.17, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.69–2.79), decreased DRB1*13:02 (P = 7.17×10−5, Pc = 0.0020, OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.34–0.63) and decreased DRB1*14:03 (P = 0.0010, Pc = 0.0272, OR 0.34, 95% CI 0.18–0.63). Additionally, the “*15:01/*13:02 or *14:03” genotype tended to be negatively associated with SLE (P = 0.4209, OR 0.66), despite there being significant positive associations with *15:01 when present together with alleles other than *13:02 or *14:03 (P = 1.79×10−11, OR 2.39, 95% CI 1.84–3.10). This protective effect of *13:02 and *14:03 was also confirmed in SLE patients with different clinical phenotypes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a protective association between the carrier frequencies of HLA-DRB1*13:02 and *14:03 and SLE in the Japanese population.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0087792
PMCID: PMC3912000  PMID: 24498373
2.  Total port-access lobectomy via a subcostal trans-diaphragmatic approach for lung cancer† 
Video-assisted thoracic surgery has been recognized as an acceptable technique for the treatment of early-stage lung cancer, with the potential advantage of lower postoperative pain than that experienced after open thoracotomy. However, the procedure cannot completely alleviate postoperative pain and paraesthesia and causes some degree of intercostal nerve damage. To minimize postoperative pain in video-assisted thoracic surgery, several new approaches have recently been reported. We describe the case of a 51-year old woman who successfully underwent total port-access, video-assisted thoracoscopic lobectomy for Stage IA lung cancer via the subcostal trans-diaphragmatic approach. Our results demonstrate the feasibility and safety of this procedure, which offers the advantages of minimizing intercostal nerve damage and facilitating better handling of staplers.
doi:10.1093/icvts/ivs446
PMCID: PMC3548529  PMID: 23115101
Lung cancer surgery; Lobectomy; Video-assisted thoracic surgery; Minimally invasive surgery
3.  Activation of Invariant NKT Cells with Glycolipid Ligand α-Galactosylceramide Ameliorates Glucose-6-Phosphate Isomerase Peptide-Induced Arthritis 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(12):e51215.
Objective
Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells regulate collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) when activated by their potent glycolipid ligand, alpha-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer). Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI)-induced arthritis is a closer model of human rheumatoid arthritis based on its association with CD4+ T cells and cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-6 than CIA. Dominant T cell epitope peptide of GPI (GPI325-339) can induce arthritis similar to GPI-induced arthritis. In this study, we investigated the roles of activation of iNKT cells by α-GalCer in GPI peptide-induced arthritis.
Methods
Arthritis was induced in susceptible DBA1 mice with GPI peptide and its severity was assessed clinically. The arthritic mice were treated with either the vehicle (DMSO) or α-GalCer. iNKT cells were detected in draining lymph nodes (dLNs) by flow cytometry, while serum anti-GPI antibody levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. To evaluate GPI peptide-specific cytokine production from CD4+ T cells, immunized mice were euthanized and dLN CD4+ cells were re-stimulated by GPI-peptide in the presence of antigen-presenting cells.
Results
α-GalCer induced iNKT cell expansion in dLNs and significantly decreased the severity of GPI peptide-induced arthritis. In α-GalCer-treated mice, anti-GPI antibody production (total IgG, IgG1, IgG2b) and IL-17, IFN-γ, IL-2, and TNF-α produced by GPI peptide-specific T cells were significantly suppressed at day 10. Moreover, GPI-reactive T cells from mice immunized with GPI and α-GalCer did not generate any cytokines even when these cells were co-cultured with APC from mice immunized with GPI alone. In vitro depletion of iNKT cells did not alter the suppressive effect of α-GalCer on CD4+ T cells.
Conclusion
α-GalCer significantly suppressed GPI peptide-induced arthritis through the suppression of GPI-specific CD4+ T cells.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0051215
PMCID: PMC3520964  PMID: 23251456
4.  Analysis of IgG4 class switch-related molecules in IgG4-related disease 
Arthritis Research & Therapy  2012;14(4):R171.
Introduction
Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a new disease entity characterized by high serum IgG4 levels, IgG4-positive plasmacytic infiltration, and fibrosis in various organs. The purpose of this study was to determine the mechanism of upregulation of IgG4 class switch recombination in IgG4-RD.
Methods
We extracted RNA from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of patients with IgG4-RD (n = 6), Sjögren syndrome (SS) (n = 6), and healthy controls (n = 8), from CD3-positive T cells and CD20-positive B cells sorted from PBMCs of patients with IgG4-RD (n = 3), SS (n = 4), and healthy controls (n = 4), as well as from labial salivary glands (LSGs) of patients with IgG4-RD (n = 11), SS (n = 13), and healthy controls (n = 3). The mRNA expression levels of IgG4-specific class switch-related molecules, such as Th2 cytokines (IL-4 and IL-13), Treg cytokines (IL-10 and TGF-β), and transcriptional factors (GATA3 and Foxp3) were examined with quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). IgG4-nonspecific class switch-related molecules, such as CD40, CD154, BAFF, APRIL, IRF4, and AID, were also examined.
Results
The expression levels of Treg cytokines (IL-10 and TGF-β) and AID were significantly higher in LSGs of IgG4-RD than in SS and the controls (P < 0.05, each). In contrast, those of CD40 and CD154 were significantly lower in PBMCs of IgG4-RD than in SS (P < 0.05, each), whereas CD40 in CD20-positive B cells and CD154 in CD3-positive T cells were comparable in the three groups.
Conclusion
Overexpression of IL-10, TGF-β, and AID in LSGs might play important roles in the pathogenesis of IgG4-RD, such as IgG4-specific class-switch recombination and fibrosis. IgG4 class-switch recombination seems to be mainly upregulated in affected organs.
doi:10.1186/ar3924
PMCID: PMC3580565  PMID: 22824292
5.  Interleukin-6 regulates anti-arthritic effect of methotrexate via reduction of SLC19A1 expression in a mouse arthritis model 
Introduction
Methotrexate (MTX) enters cells via the reduced folate carrier SLC19A1, suggesting that SLC19A1 is associated with the efficacy of MTX. We here examined the relationship between the efficacy of MTX and the expression of SLC19A1 in glucose 6-phosphate isomerase (GPI)-induced arthritis. We found that interleukin-6 (IL-6) regulated the expression of SLC19A1, so we studied the effect of a combination of MTX and anti-mouse IL-6 receptor antibody (MR16-1).
Methods
GPI-induced arthritis was induced by intradermal immunization with recombinant GPI. MTX was given from the first day of immunization. Mice were injected once with MR16-1 10 days after immunization. The levels of SLC19A1 mRNA in whole hind limbs and immune cells were measured. Synovial cells from arthritic mice were cultured with cytokines, and cell proliferation and gene expressions were measured.
Results
MTX inhibited the development of GPI-induced arthritis; however, the efficacy of MTX gradually diminished. SLC19A1 expression in immunized mice with arthritis was lower than in intact mice; moreover, SLC19A1 expression in arthritic mice was further decreased when they were treated with MTX. IL-6 was highly expressed in whole hind limbs of arthritic mice. In an in vitro study using synovial cells from arthritic mice, IL-6 + soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R) weakened the anti-proliferative effect of MTX and reduced SLC19A1 expression. Finally, although MR16-1 did not improve arthritis at all when administered on day 10, MTX in combination with MR16-1 more potently reduced the development of arthritis than did MTX alone. When used in combination with MTX, MR16-1 apparently reversed the decrease in SLC19A1 induced by MTX alone.
Conclusions
In the present study, we demonstrated for the first time that IL-6 reduced the efficacy of MTX by decreasing the expression of SLC19A1, which is important for MTX uptake into cells.
doi:10.1186/ar3821
PMCID: PMC3446470  PMID: 22546471
6.  Pathogenic diversity of Phytophthora sojae and breeding strategies to develop Phytophthora-resistant soybeans 
Breeding Science  2012;61(5):511-522.
Phytophthora stem and root rot, caused by Phytophthora sojae, is one of the most destructive diseases of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], and the incidence of this disease has been increasing in several soybean-producing areas around the world. This presents serious limitations for soybean production, with yield losses from 4 to 100%. The most effective method to reduce damage would be to grow Phytophthora-resistant soybean cultivars, and two types of host resistance have been described. Race-specific resistance conditioned by single dominant Rps (“resistance to Phytophthora sojae”) genes and quantitatively inherited partial resistance conferred by multiple genes could both provide protection from the pathogen. Molecular markers linked to Rps genes or quantitative trait loci (QTLs) underlying partial resistance have been identified on several molecular linkage groups corresponding to chromosomes. These markers can be used to screen for Phytophthora-resistant plants rapidly and efficiently, and to combine multiple resistance genes in the same background. This paper reviews what is currently known about pathogenic races of P. sojae in the USA and Japan, selection of sources of Rps genes or minor genes providing partial resistance, and the current state and future scope of breeding Phytophthora-resistant soybean cultivars.
doi:10.1270/jsbbs.61.511
PMCID: PMC3406798  PMID: 23136490
race-specific resistance; partial resistance; Phytophthora sojae; Phytophthora stem and root rot; Rps gene; soybean
7.  TLR7 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the 3' untranslated region and intron 2 independently contribute to systemic lupus erythematosus in Japanese women: a case-control association study 
Introduction
The Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) gene, encoded on human chromosome Xp22.3, is crucial for type I interferon production. A recent multicenter study in East Asian populations, comprising Chinese, Korean and Japanese participants, identified an association of a TLR7 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) located in the 3' untranslated region (3' UTR), rs3853839, with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), especially in males, although some difference was observed among the tested populations. To test whether additional polymorphisms contribute to SLE in Japanese, we systematically analyzed the association of TLR7 with SLE in a Japanese female population.
Methods
A case-control association study was conducted on eight tag SNPs in the TLR7 region, including rs3853839, in 344 Japanese females with SLE and 274 healthy female controls.
Results
In addition to rs3853839, two SNPs in intron 2, rs179019 and rs179010, which were in moderate linkage disequilibrium with each other (r2 = 0.53), showed an association with SLE (rs179019: P = 0.016, odds ratio (OR) 2.02, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.15 to 3.54; rs179010: P = 0.018, OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.10 to 2.80 (both under the recessive model)). Conditional logistic regression analysis revealed that the association of the intronic SNPs and the 3' UTR SNP remained significant after we adjusted them for each other. When only the patients and controls carrying the risk genotypes at the 3' UTR SNPpositionwere analyzed, the risk of SLE was significantly increased when the individuals also carried the risk genotypes at both of the intronic SNPs (P = 0.0043, OR 2.45, 95% CI 1.31 to 4.60). Furthermore, the haplotype containing the intronic risk alleles in addition to the 3' UTR risk allele was associated with SLE under the recessive model (P = 0.016, OR 2.37, 95% CI 1.17 to 4.80), but other haplotypes were not associated with SLE.
Conclusions
The TLR7 intronic SNPs rs179019 and rs179010 are associated with SLE independently of the 3' UTR SNP rs3853839 in Japanese women. Our findings support a role of TLR7 in predisposition for SLE in Asian populations.
doi:10.1186/ar3277
PMCID: PMC3132023  PMID: 21396113
8.  Association of TNFAIP3 interacting protein 1, TNIP1 with systemic lupus erythematosus in a Japanese population: a case-control association study 
Arthritis Research & Therapy  2010;12(5):R174.
Introduction
TNFAIP3 interacting protein 1, TNIP1 (ABIN-1) is involved in inhibition of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation by interacting with TNF alpha-induced protein 3, A20 (TNFAIP3), an established susceptibility gene to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Recent genome-wide association studies revealed association of TNIP1 with SLE in the Caucasian and Chinese populations. In this study, we investigated whether the association of TNIP1 with SLE was replicated in a Japanese population. In addition, association of TNIP1 with RA was also examined.
Methods
A case-control association study was conducted on the TNIP1 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs7708392 in 364 Japanese SLE patients, 553 RA patients and 513 healthy controls.
Results
Association of TNIP1 rs7708392C was replicated in Japanese SLE (allele frequency in SLE: 76.5%, control: 69.9%, P = 0.0022, odds ratio [OR] 1.40, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.13-1.74). Notably, the risk allele frequency in the healthy controls was considerably greater in Japanese (69.9%) than in Caucasians (24.3%). A tendency of stronger association was observed in the SLE patients with renal disorder (P = 0.00065, OR 1.60 [95%CI 1.22-2.10]) than in all SLE patients (P = 0.0022, OR 1.40 [95%CI 1.13-1.74]). Significant association with RA was not observed, regardless of the carriage of human leukocyte antigen DR β1 (HLA-DRB1) shared epitope. Significant gene-gene interaction between TNIP1 and TNFAIP3 was detected neither in SLE nor RA.
Conclusions
Association of TNIP1 with SLE was confirmed in a Japanese population. TNIP1 is a shared SLE susceptibility gene in the Caucasian and Asian populations, but the genetic contribution appeared to be greater in the Japanese and Chinese populations because of the higher risk allele frequency. Taken together with the association of TNFAIP3, these observations underscore the crucial role of NF-κB regulation in the pathogenesis of SLE.
doi:10.1186/ar3134
PMCID: PMC2991001  PMID: 20849588
10.  Association of TNFAIP3 Polymorphism with Susceptibility to Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in a Japanese Population 
Recent genome-wide association studies demonstrated association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the TNFAIP3 region at 6q23 with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in European-American populations. In this study, we investigated whether SNPs in the TNFAIP3 region are associated with SLE also in a Japanese population. A case-control association study was performed on the SNPs rs13192841, rs2230926, and rs6922466 in 318 Japanese SLE patients and 444 healthy controls. Association of rs2230926 G allele with SLE was replicated in Japanese (allelic association P = .033, odds ratio [OR] 1.47, recessive model P = .023, OR 8.52). The association was preferentially observed in the SLE patients with nephritis. When the TNFAIP3 mRNA levels of the HapMap samples were examined using GENEVAR database, the presence of TNFAIP3 rs2230926 G allele was associated with lower mRNA expression of TNFAIP3 (P = .013). These results indicated that TNFAIP3 is a susceptibility gene to SLE both in the Caucasian and Asian populations.
doi:10.1155/2010/207578
PMCID: PMC2896654  PMID: 20617138
11.  Significance of antiprothrombin antibodies in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: clinical evaluation of the antiprothrombin assay and the antiphosphatidylserine/prothrombin assay, and comparison with other antiphospholipid antibody assays 
Modern Rheumatology  2006;16(3):158-164.
Antibodies against prothrombin are detected by enzyme immunoassays (EIA) in sera of patients with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). However, there are two methods for antiprothrombin EIA; one that uses high binding plates (aPT-A), and another that utilizes phosphatidylserine bound plates (aPS/PT). We aimed to evaluate and compare aPT-A and aPS/PT in a clinical setting. We performed EIA for anti-PT, anti-PS/PT, IgG, and IgM anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL), and IgG β2-glycoprotein I-dependent aCL (aβ2GPI/CL) with serum samples from 139 systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients (16 with history of at least one thrombotic episode) and 148 controls. We observed that: (1) although titers of anti-PT and anti-PS/PT were significantly related with each other (P < 0.0001, ρ = 0.548), titer of anti-PT and anti-PS/PT differed greatly in some samples; (2) odds ratio and 95% confidence interval for each assay was 3.556 (1.221–10.355) for aPT-A, 4.591 (1.555–15.560) for aPS/PT, 4.204 (1.250–14.148) for IgG aCL, 1.809 (0.354–9.232) for IgM aCL, and 7.246 (2.391–21.966) for aβ2GPI/CL. We conclude that, while all EIA performed in this study except IgM aCL are of potential value in assessing the risk of thrombosis, aPS/PT and aβ2GPI/CL seemed to be highly valuable in clinical practice, and that autoantibodies detected by anti-PT and anti-PS/PT are not completely identical.
doi:10.1007/s10165-006-0481-7
PMCID: PMC2778700  PMID: 16767554
Antiphospholipid syndrome; Antiprothrombin antibody; Enzyme immunoassay; Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
12.  Altered peptide ligands inhibit arthritis induced by glucose-6-phosphate isomerase peptide 
Arthritis Research & Therapy  2009;11(6):R167.
Introduction
Immunosuppressants, including anti-TNFα antibodies, have remarkable effects in rheumatoid arthritis; however, they increase infectious events. The present study was designed to examine the effects and immunological change of action of altered peptide ligands (APLs) on glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI) peptide-induced arthritis.
Methods
DBA/1 mice were immunized with hGPI325-339, and cells of draining lymph node (DLN) were stimulated with hGPI325-339 to investigate the T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells by flow cytometry. Twenty types of APLs with one amino acid substitution at a TCR contact site of hGPI325-339 were synthesized. CD4+ T cells primed with human GPI and antigen-presenting cells were co-cultured with each APL and cytokine production was measured by ELISA to identify antagonistic APLs. Antagonistic APLs were co-immunized with hGPI325-339 to investigate whether arthritis could be antigen-specifically inhibited by APL. After co-immunization, DLN cells were stimulated with hGPI325-339 or APL to investigate Th17 and regulatory T-cell population by flow cytometry, and anti-mouse GPI antibodies were measured by ELISA.
Results
Human GPI325-339-specific Th17 cells showed predominant usage of TCRVβ8.1 8.2. Among the 20 synthesized APLs, four (APL 6; N329S, APL 7; N329T, APL 12; G332A, APL 13; G332V) significantly reduced IL-17 production by CD4+ T cells in the presence of hGPI325-339. Co-immunization with each antagonistic APL markedly prevented the development of arthritis, especially APL 13 (G332V). Although co-immunization with APL did not affect the population of Th17 and regulatory T cells, the titers of anti-mouse GPI antibodies in mice co-immunized with APL were significantly lower than in those without APL.
Conclusions
We prepared antagonistic APLs that antigen-specifically inhibited the development of experimental arthritis. Understanding the inhibitory mechanisms of APLs may pave the way for the development of novel therapies for arthritis induced by autoimmune responses to ubiquitous antigens.
doi:10.1186/ar2854
PMCID: PMC3003534  PMID: 19900268
13.  Tumor necrosis factor α-induced adipose-related protein expression in experimental arthritis and in rheumatoid arthritis 
Arthritis Research & Therapy  2009;11(4):R118.
Introduction
Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) plays a pivotal role in rheumatoid arthritis (RA); however, the mechanism of action of TNFα antagonists in RA is poorly defined. Immunization of DBA/1 mice with glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI) induces severe acute arthritis. This arthritis can be controlled by TNFα antagonists, suggesting similar etiology to RA. In this study, we explored TNFα-related mechanisms of arthritis.
Methods
First, we performed GeneChip analysis using splenocytes of mice with GPI-induced arthritis. Expression of TNFα-induced adipose-related protein (TIARP) mRNA and protein in spleens, joints and lymph nodes was evaluated, and fluctuation of TIARP mRNA was analyzed after administration of anti-TNFα monoclonal antibody (mAb). Localization of TIARP in spleen and joints was also explored. Six-transmembrane epithelial antigen of the prostate (STEAP) families of proteins, the human ortholog of TIARP gene, were also evaluated in human peripheral blood mononucleocytes and synovium.
Results
Among the arrayed TNFα-related genes, the expression of TIARP mRNA was the highest (more than 20 times the control). TIARP mRNA was detected specifically in joints and spleens of arthritic mice, and their levels in the synovia correlated with severity of joint swelling. Treatment with anti-TNF mAb significantly reduced TIARP mRNA expression in splenocytes. Among the splenocytes, CD11b+ cells were the main source of TIARP mRNA. Immunohistochemistry showed that TIARP protein was mainly localized in hyperplastic synovium. Among the STEAP family of proteins, STEAP4 was highly upregulated in joints of patients with RA and especially co-localized with CD68+ macrophages.
Conclusions
The results shed light on the new mechanism of action of TNFα antagonists in autoimmune arthritis, suggesting that TIARP plays an important role in inflammatory arthritis, through the regulation of inflammatory cytokines.
doi:10.1186/ar2779
PMCID: PMC2745801  PMID: 19660107
14.  A new low-field extremity magnetic resonance imaging and proposed compact MRI score: evaluation of anti-tumor necrosis factor biologics on rheumatoid arthritis 
Modern Rheumatology  2009;19(4):358-365.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a useful tool for evaluating disease activity and therapeutic efficacy in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, conventional whole-body MRI is inconvenient on several levels. We have therefore developed a new low-field extremity MRI (compact MRI, cMRI) and examined its clinical utility. Thirteen RA patients treated with anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) biologics were included in the study. The MRI was performed twice using a 0.21-T extremity MRI system. The MRI images were scored using our proposed cMRI scoring system, which we devised with reference to the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology Clinical Trials RA MRI score (OMERACT RAMRIS). In our cMRI scoring system, synovitis, bone edema, and bone erosion are separately graded on a scale from 0 to 3 by imaging over the whole hand, including the proximal interphalangeal joint. The total cMRI score (cMRIS) is then obtained by calculating the total bone erosion score × 1.5 + total bone edema score × 1.25 + total synovitis score. In this study, one patient showed a progression of bone destruction even under low clinical activity, as assessed by the disease activity score on 28 joints (DAS28); however, another patient’s cMRIS decreased concurrently with the decrease in DAS28, with the positive correlation observed between ΔDAS28 and ΔcMRIS (R = 0.055, P < 0.05). We conclude that cMRI and cMRIS are useful for assessing total disease activity and as a method linking MRI image evaluation to clinical evaluation.
doi:10.1007/s10165-009-0172-2
PMCID: PMC2720580  PMID: 19370385
Anti-TNF biologics; Bone edema; Bone erosion; Low-field extremity MRI; MRI scoring system; Rheumatoid arthritis
15.  Efficacy of mizoribine pulse therapy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis who show a reduced or insufficient response to infliximab 
Modern Rheumatology  2009;19(3):229-234.
The efficacy of infliximab, a chimeric antibody against tumor necrosis factor-α used to treat patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), tends to decrease as patients develop human antichimeric antibody against infliximab (HACA). The clinical study reported here was designed to evaluate the efficacy of mizoribine (MZR) pulse therapy in patients who show a reduced or insufficient response to infliximab. Ten RA patients who had active arthritis despite infliximab therapy were treated with MZR pulse therapy at a dose of 100 mg MZR and methotrexate (MTX) and the disease activity assessed at baseline and at weeks 4–8, 12–16, and 20–24. The dose was increased to 150 mg in those patients who showed an insufficient response to MZR. The mean 28-joint disease activity score (DAS28) at weeks 12–16 and 20–24 of therapy was significantly lower than that at baseline. A moderate or good European League against Rheumatism (EULAR) response was achieved in seven patients (70%) at weeks 12–16 and in five patients (50%) at weeks 20–24. The dose of 150 mg MZR was effective in one of the three patients who showed an insufficient response to pulse therapy with 100 mg MZR. Based on these results, we propose that MZR pulse therapy should be attempted before the patient is switched to other biologics.
doi:10.1007/s10165-009-0162-4
PMCID: PMC2689357  PMID: 19326186
Infliximab; Mizoribine; Rheumatoid arthritis
16.  Arthritogenic T cell epitope in glucose-6-phosphate isomerase-induced arthritis 
Arthritis Research & Therapy  2008;10(6):R130.
Introduction
Arthritis induced by immunisation with glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI) in DBA/1 mice was proven to be T helper (Th) 17 dependent. We undertook this study to identify GPI-specific T cell epitopes in DBA/1 mice (H-2q) and investigate the mechanisms of arthritis generation.
Methods
For epitope mapping, the binding motif of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II (I-Aq) from DBA/1 mice was identified from the amino acid sequence of T cell epitopes and candidate peptides of T cell epitopes in GPI-induced arthritis were synthesised. Human GPI-primed CD4+ T cells and antigen-presenting cells (APCs) were co-cultured with each synthetic peptide and the cytokine production was measured by ELISA to identify the major epitopes. Synthetic peptides were immunised in DBA/1 mice to investigate whether arthritis could be induced by peptides. After immunisation with the major epitope, anti-interleukin (IL) 17 monoclonal antibody (mAb) was injected to monitor arthritis score. To investigate the mechanisms of arthritis induced by a major epitope, cross-reactivity to mouse GPI peptide was analysed by flow cytometry and anti-GPI antibodies were measured by ELISA. Deposition of anti-GPI antibodies on the cartilage surface was detected by immunohistology.
Results
We selected 32 types of peptides as core sequences from the human GPI 558 amino acid sequence, which binds the binding motif, and synthesised 25 kinds of 20-mer peptides for screening, each containing the core sequence at its centre. By epitope mapping, human GPI325–339 was found to induce interferon (IFN) γ and IL-17 production most prominently. Immunisation with human GPI325–339 could induce polyarthritis similar to arthritis induced by human GPI protein, and administration of anti-IL-17 mAb significantly ameliorated arthritis (p < 0.01). Th17 cells primed with human GPI325–339 cross-reacted with mouse GPI325–339, and led B cells to produce anti-mouse GPI antibodies, which were deposited on cartilage surface.
Conclusions
Human GPI325–339 was identified as a major epitope in GPI-induced arthritis, and proved to have the potential to induce polyarthritis. Understanding the pathological mechanism of arthritis induced by an immune reaction to a single short peptide could help elucidate the pathogenic mechanisms of autoimmune arthritis.
doi:10.1186/ar2545
PMCID: PMC2656230  PMID: 18992137
17.  Role of STAT4 polymorphisms in systemic lupus erythematosus in a Japanese population: a case-control association study of the STAT1-STAT4 region 
Arthritis Research & Therapy  2008;10(5):R113.
Introduction
Recent studies identified STAT4 (signal transducers and activators of transcription-4) as a susceptibility gene for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). STAT1 is encoded adjacently to STAT4 on 2q32.2-q32.3, upregulated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from SLE patients, and functionally relevant to SLE. This study was conducted to test whether STAT4 is associated with SLE in a Japanese population also, to identify the risk haplotype, and to examine the potential genetic contribution of STAT1. To accomplish these aims, we carried out a comprehensive association analysis of 52 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) encompassing the STAT1-STAT4 region.
Methods
In the first screening, 52 tag SNPs were selected based on HapMap Phase II JPT (Japanese in Tokyo, Japan) data, and case-control association analysis was carried out on 105 Japanese female patients with SLE and 102 female controls. For associated SNPs, additional cases and controls were genotyped and association was analyzed using 308 SLE patients and 306 controls. Estimation of haplotype frequencies and an association study using the permutation test were performed with Haploview version 4.0 software. Population attributable risk percentage was estimated to compare the epidemiological significance of the risk genotype among populations.
Results
In the first screening, rs7574865, rs11889341, and rs10168266 in STAT4 were most significantly associated (P < 0.01). Significant association was not observed for STAT1. Subsequent association studies of the three SNPs using 308 SLE patients and 306 controls confirmed a strong association of the rs7574865T allele (SLE patients: 46.3%, controls: 33.5%, P = 4.9 × 10-6, odds ratio 1.71) as well as TTT haplotype (rs10168266/rs11889341/rs7574865) (P = 1.5 × 10-6). The association was stronger in subgroups of SLE with nephritis and anti-double-stranded DNA antibodies. Population attributable risk percentage was estimated to be higher in the Japanese population (40.2%) than in Americans of European descent (19.5%).
Conclusions
The same STAT4 risk allele is associated with SLE in Caucasian and Japanese populations. Evidence for a role of STAT1 in genetic susceptibility to SLE was not detected. The contribution of STAT4 for the genetic background of SLE may be greater in the Japanese population than in Americans of European descent.
doi:10.1186/ar2516
PMCID: PMC2592800  PMID: 18803832
18.  Therapeutic effects of antibodies to tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6 and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 immunoglobulin in mice with glucose-6-phosphate isomerase induced arthritis 
Introduction
Immunization with glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI) induces severe arthritis in DBA/1 mice. The present study was designed to identify the cytokines and co-stimulatory molecules involved in the development of GPI-induced arthritis.
Methods
Arthritis was induced in DBA/1 mice with 300 μg human recombinant GPI. CD4+ T cells and antigen-presenting cells from splenocytes of arthritic mice were cultured in the presence of GPI. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-12 levels were assessed using cytometric bead array. Monoclonal antibodies to TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-12, CD40L, inducible co-stimulator (ICOS), and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 immunoglobulin (CTLA-4Ig) were used to block TNF-α and IFN-γ production, examine clinical index in mice with GPI-induced arthritis, and determine anti-GPI antibody production.
Results
Large amounts of TNF-α and IFN-γ and small amounts of IL-2 and IL-6 were produced by splenocytes from mice with GPI-induced arthritis. Anti-TNF-α mAbs and CTLA-4Ig suppressed TNF-α production, whereas anti-IFN-γ mAbs, anti-IL-12 mAbs, and CTLA-4 Ig inhibited IFN-γ production. A single injection of anti-TNF-α and anti-IL-6 mAbs and two injections of CTLA-4Ig reduced the severity of arthritis in mice, whereas injections of anti-IFN-γ and anti-IL-12 mAbs tended to exacerbate arthritis. Therapeutic efficacy tended to correlate with reduction in anti-GPI antibodies.
Conclusion
TNF-α and IL-6 play an important role in GPI-induced arthritis, whereas IFN-γ appears to function as a regulator of arthritis. Because the therapeutic effects of the tested molecules used in this study are similar to those in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, GPI-induced arthritis appears to be a suitable tool with which to examine the effect of various therapies on rheumatoid arthritis.
doi:10.1186/ar2437
PMCID: PMC2483457  PMID: 18534002
19.  A functional variant of Fcγ receptor IIIA is associated with rheumatoid arthritis in individuals who are positive for anti-glucose-6-phosphate isomerase antibodies 
Arthritis Research & Therapy  2005;7(6):R1183-R1188.
Anti-glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI) antibodies are known to be arthritogenic autoantibodies in K/B×N mice, although some groups have reported that few healthy humans retain these antibodies. The expression of Fcγ receptors (FcγRs) is genetically regulated and has strong implications for the development of experimental arthritis. The interaction between immune complexes and FcγRs might therefore be involved in the pathogenesis of some arthritic conditions. To explore the relationship between functional polymorphisms in FcγRs (FCGR3A-158V/F and FCGR2A-131H/R) and arthritis in individuals positive for anti-GPI antibodies, we evaluated these individuals with respect to FCGR genotype. Genotyping for FCGR3A-158V/F and FCGR2A-131H/R was performed by PCR amplification of the polymorphic site, followed by site specific restriction digestion using the genome of 187 Japanese patients with rheumatoid arthritis (including 23 who were anti-GPI antibody positive) and 158 Japanese healthy individuals (including nine who were anti-GPI antibody positive). We report here on the association of FCGR3A-158V/F functional polymorphism with anti-GPI antibody positive status. Eight out of nine healthy individuals who were positive for anti-GPI antibodies possessed the homozygous, low affinity genotype FCGR3A-158F (odds ratio = 0.09, 95% confidence interval 0.01–0.89; P = 0.0199), and probably were 'protected' from arthritogenic antibodies. Moreover, among those who were homozygous for the high affinity genotype FCGR3A-158V/V, there were clear differences in anti-human and anti-rabbit GPI titres between patients with rheumatoid arthritis and healthy subjects (P = 0.0027 and P = 0.0015, respectively). Our findings provide a molecular model of the genetic regulation of autoantibody-induced arthritis by allele-specific affinity of the FcγRs.
doi:10.1186/ar1802
PMCID: PMC1297563  PMID: 16277670

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