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1.  Decreased Staphylococcus aureus and increased osteoblast density on nanostructured electrophoretic-deposited hydroxyapatite on titanium without the use of pharmaceuticals 
Background
Plasma-spray deposition of hydroxyapatite on titanium (Ti) has proven to be a suboptimal solution to improve orthopedic-implant success rates, as demonstrated by the increasing number of orthopedic revision surgeries due to infection, implant loosening, and a myriad of other reasons. This could be in part due to the high heat involved during plasma-spray deposition, which significantly increases hydroxyapatite crystal growth into the nonbiologically inspired micron regime. There has been a push to create nanotopographies on implant surfaces to mimic the physiological nanostructure of native bone and, thus, improve osteoblast (bone-forming cell) functions and inhibit bacteria functions. Among the several techniques that have been adopted to develop nanocoatings, electrophoretic deposition (EPD) is an attractive, versatile, and effective material-processing technique.
Objective
The in vitro study reported here aimed to determine for the first time bacteria responses to hydroxyapatite coated on Ti via EPD.
Results
There were six and three times more osteoblasts on the electrophoretic-deposited hydroxyapatite on Ti compared with Ti (control) and plasma-spray-deposited hydroxyapatite on Ti after 5 days of culture, respectively. Impressively, there were 2.9 and 31.7 times less Staphylococcus aureus on electrophoretic-deposited hydroxyapatite on Ti compared with Ti (control) and plasma-spray-deposited hydroxyapatite on Ti after 18 hours of culture, respectively.
Conclusion
Compared with uncoated Ti and plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite coated on Ti, the results provided significant promise for the use of EPD to improve bone-cell density and be used as an antibacterial coating without resorting to the use of antibiotics.
doi:10.2147/IJN.S55733
PMCID: PMC3986289  PMID: 24748789
bacteria; nanotechnology; electrophoretic deposition; inhibition
2.  Wingless Signaling at Synapses Is Through Cleavage and Nuclear Import of Receptor DFrizzled2 
Science (New York, N.Y.)  2005;310(5752):1344-1347.
Wingless secretion provides pivotal signals during development by activating transcription of target genes. At Drosophila synapses, Wingless is secreted from presynaptic terminals and is required for synaptic growth and differentiation. Wingless binds the seven-pass transmembrane DFrizzled2 receptor, but the ensuing events at synapses are not known. We show that DFrizzled2 is endocytosed from the postsynaptic membrane and transported to the nucleus. The C terminus of DFrizzled2 is cleaved and translocated into the nucleus; the N-terminal region remains just outside the nucleus. Translocation of DFrizzled2-C into the nucleus, but not its cleavage and transport, depends on Wingless signaling. We conclude that, at synapses, Wingless signal transduction occurs through the nuclear localization of DFrizzled2-C for potential transcriptional regulation of synapse development.
doi:10.1126/science.1117051
PMCID: PMC3535279  PMID: 16311339
3.  Controlling airborne cues to study small animal navigation 
Nature methods  2012;9(3):290-296.
Small animals like nematodes and insects analyze airborne chemical cues to infer the direction of favorable and noxious locations. In these animals, the study of navigational behavior evoked by airborne cues has been limited by the difficulty of precise stimulus control. We present a system that enables us to deliver gaseous stimuli in defined spatial and temporal patterns to freely moving small animals. We use this apparatus, in combination with machine vision algorithms, to assess and quantify navigational decision-making of Drosophila larvae in response to ethyl acetate (a volatile attractant) and carbon dioxide (a gaseous repellant).
doi:10.1038/nmeth.1853
PMCID: PMC3513333  PMID: 22245808
4.  WNTS AND TGFβ IN SYNAPTOGENESIS: OLD FRIENDS SIGNALLING AT NEW PLACES 
Nature reviews. Neuroscience  2003;4(2):113-120.
The formation of mature synaptic connections involves the targeted transport and aggregation of synaptic vesicles, the gathering of presynaptic release sites and the clustering of postsynaptic neurotransmitter receptors and ion channels. Positional cues are required to orient the cytoskeleton in the direction of neuronal outgrowth, and also to direct the juxtaposition of synaptic protein complexes at the pre- and postsynaptic membranes. Both anterograde and retrograde factors are thought to contribute positional information during synaptic differentiation, and recent studies in vertebrates and invertebrates have begun to uncover a new role in this process for proteins that are essential for pattern formation in the early embryo.
doi:10.1038/nrn1036
PMCID: PMC3503525  PMID: 12563282
5.  Similar Odorants Elicit Different Behavioral and Physiological Responses, Some Supersustained 
An intriguing question in the field of olfaction is how animals distinguish among structurally similar odorants. We systematically analyzed olfactory responses elicited by a panel of 25 pyrazines. We found that structurally similar pyrazines elicit a wide range of behavioral responses from Drosophila larvae. Each pyrazine was tested against all functional receptors of the larval Odor receptor (Or) repertoire, yielding 525 odorant–receptor combinations. Different pyrazines vary markedly in the responses they elicit from the Or repertoire, with most strong responses deriving from two receptors, Or33b and Or59a. Surprisingly, 2-ethylpyrazine and 2-methylpyrazine, which elicit strikingly similar physiological responses across the receptor repertoire, elicit dramatically different behavioral responses. A small fraction of odorant-receptor combinations elicit remarkably long responses. These responses, which we term “supersustained” responses, are receptor specific and odorant specific, and can last for minutes. Such supersustained responses may prevent olfactory neurons from reporting contemporaneous information about the local odor environment. Odors that elicit such responses could provide a novel means of controlling insect pests and vectors of human disease by impairing the location of human hosts, food sources, and mates.
doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.6254-10.2011
PMCID: PMC3116233  PMID: 21613503
6.  Translation of sensory input into behavioral output via an olfactory system 
Neuron  2008;59(1):110-124.
Summary
We investigate the logic by which sensory input is translated into behavioral output. First we provide a functional analysis of the entire odor receptor repertoire of an olfactory system. We construct tuning curves for the 21 functional odor receptors of the Drosophila larva, and show that they sharpen at lower odor doses. We construct a 21-dimensional odor space from the responses of the receptors and find that the distance between two odors correlates with the extent to which one odor masks the other. Mutational analysis shows that different receptors mediate the responses to different concentrations of an odorant. The summed response of the entire receptor repertoire correlates with the strength of the behavioral response. The activity of a small number of receptors is a surprisingly powerful predictor of behavior. Odors that inhibit more receptors are more likely to be repellents. Odor space is largely conserved between two dissimilar olfactory systems.
doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2008.06.010
PMCID: PMC2496968  PMID: 18614033
Olfaction; Drosophila; odor receptor; larva; behavior

Results 1-6 (6)