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1.  HIV-1 Capsid-Targeting Domain of Cleavage and Polyadenylation Specificity Factor 6 
Journal of Virology  2012;86(7):3851-3860.
The antiviral factor CPSF6-358 restricts human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection through an interaction with capsid (CA), preventing virus nuclear entry and integration. HIV-1 acquires resistance to CPSF6-358 through an N74D mutation of CA that impairs binding of the antiviral factor. Here we examined the determinants within CPSF6-358 that are necessary for CA-specific interaction. Residues 314 to 322 include amino acids that are essential for CPSF6-358 restriction of HIV-1. Fusion of CPSF6 residues 301 to 358 to rhesus TRIM5α is also sufficient to restrict wild-type but not N74D HIV-1. Restriction is lost if CPSF6 residues in the amino acid 314 to 322 interaction motif are mutated. Examination of the CA targeting motif in CPSF6-358 did not reveal evidence of positive selection. Given the sensitivity of different primate lentiviruses to CPSF6-358 and apparent conservation of this interaction, our data suggest that CPSF6-358-mediated targeting of HIV-1 could provide a broadly effective antiviral strategy.
PMCID: PMC3302544  PMID: 22301135
2.  Flexible Use of Nuclear Import Pathways by HIV-1 
Cell host & microbe  2010;7(3):221-233.
The cellular and viral determinants required for HIV-1 infection of nondividing cells have been a subject of intense scrutiny. Here we identify the 68 kDa subunit of cleavage factor Im, CPSF6, as an inhibitor of HIV-1 infection. When enriched in the cytoplasm by high level expression or mutation, CPSF6 prevents nuclear entry of the virus. Similar to TRIM5 and Fv1 type restrictions, CPSF6 targets the viral capsid (CA). N74D mutation of the HIV-1 CA leads to a loss of interaction with CPSF6 and evasion of the nuclear import restriction. Interestingly, N74D mutation of CA changes HIV-1 nucleoporin (NUP) requirements. Whereas wild-type HIV-1 requires NUP153, N74D HIV-1 mimics the NUP requirements of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and is more sensitive to NUP155 depletion. These findings reveal a remarkable flexibility in HIV-1 nuclear transport and highlight a single residue in CA as essential in regulating interactions with NUPs.
PMCID: PMC2841689  PMID: 20227665
3.  Elevated Expression of GM3 in Receptor-Bearing Targets Confers Resistance to Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Fusion 
Journal of Virology  2004;78(14):7360-7368.
GM3, a major ganglioside of T lymphocytes, promotes human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) entry via interactions with HIV-1 receptors and the viral envelope glycoprotein (Env). Increased GM3 levels in T lymphocytes and the appearance of anti-GM3 antibodies in AIDS patients have been reported earlier. In this study, we investigated the effect of GM3 regulation on HIV-1 entry by utilizing a mouse cell line (B16F10), which expresses exceptionally high levels of GM3. Strikingly, B16 cells bearing CD4, CXCR4, and/or CCR5 were highly resistant to CD4-dependent HIV-1 Env-mediated membrane fusion. In contrast, these targets supported membrane fusion mediated by CD4-requiring HIV-2, SIV, and CD4-independent HIV-1 Envs. Coreceptor function was not impaired by GM3 overexpression as indicated by Ca2+ fluxes mediated by the CXCR4 ligand SDF-1α and the CCR5 ligand MIP-1β. Reduction in GM3 levels of B16 target cells resulted in a significant recovery of CD4-dependent HIV-1 Env-mediated fusion. We propose that GM3 in the plasma membrane blocks HIV-1 Env-mediated fusion by interfering with the lateral association of HIV-1 receptors. Our findings offer a novel mechanism of interplay between membrane lipids and receptors by which host cells may escape viral infections.
PMCID: PMC434090  PMID: 15220409
4.  Trans-dominant cellular inhibition of DC-SIGN-mediated HIV-1 transmission 
Retrovirology  2004;1:14.
Dendritic cell (DC) transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) to CD4+ T cells occurs across a point of cell-cell contact referred to as the infectious synapse. The relationship between the infectious synapse and the classically defined immunological synapse is not currently understood. We have recently demonstrated that human B cells expressing exogenous DC-SIGN, DC-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3 (ICAM-3)-grabbing nonintegrin, efficiently transmit captured HIV type 1 (HIV-1) to CD4+ T cells. K562, another human cell line of hematopoietic origin that has been extensively used in functional analyses of DC-SIGN and related molecules, lacks the principal molecules involved in the formation of immunological synaptic junctions, namely major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules and leukocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1). We thus examined whether K562 erythroleukemic cells could recapitulate efficient DC-SIGN-mediated HIV-1 transmission (DMHT).
Here we demonstrate that DMHT requires cell-cell contact. Despite similar expression of functional DC-SIGN, K562/DC-SIGN cells were inefficient in the transmission of HIV-1 to CD4+ T cells when compared with Raji/DC-SIGN cells. Expression of MHC class II molecules or LFA-1 on K562/DC-SIGN cells was insufficient to rescue HIV-1 transmission efficiency. Strikingly, we observed that co-culture of K562 cells with Raji/DC-SIGN cells impaired DMHT to CD4+ T cells. The K562 cell inhibition of transmission was not directly exerted on the CD4+ T cell targets and required contact between K562 and Raji/DC-SIGN cells.
DMHT is cell type dependent and requires cell-cell contact. We also find that the cellular milieu can negatively regulate DC-SIGN transmission of HIV-1 in trans.
PMCID: PMC446230  PMID: 15222882
5.  Novel Member of the CD209 (DC-SIGN) Gene Family in Primates 
Journal of Virology  2003;77(1):217-227.
Two CD209 family genes identified in humans, CD209 (DC-SIGN) and CD209L (DC-SIGNR/L-SIGN), encode C-type lectins that serve as adhesion receptors for ICAM-2 and ICAM-3 and participate in the transmission of human and simian immunodeficiency viruses (HIV and SIV, respectively) to target cells in vitro. Here we characterize the CD209 gene family in nonhuman primates and show that recent evolutionary alterations have occurred in this family across primate species. All of the primate species tested, specifically, Old World monkeys (OWM) and apes, have orthologues of human CD209. In contrast, CD209L is missing in OWM but present in apes. A third family member, that we have named CD209L2, was cloned from rhesus monkey cDNA and subsequently identified in OWM and apes but not in humans. Rhesus CD209L2 mRNA was prominently expressed in the liver and axillary lymph nodes, although preliminary data suggest that levels of expression may vary among individuals. Despite a high level of sequence similarity to both human and rhesus CD209, rhesus CD209L2 was substantially less effective at binding ICAM-3 and poorly transmitted HIV type 1 and SIV to target cells relative to CD209. Our data suggest that the CD209 gene family has undergone recent evolutionary processes involving duplications and deletions, the latter of which may be tolerated because of potentially redundant functional activities of the molecules encoded by these genes.
PMCID: PMC140574  PMID: 12477827
6.  Functional Evaluation of DC-SIGN Monoclonal Antibodies Reveals DC-SIGN Interactions with ICAM-3 Do Not Promote Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Transmission 
Journal of Virology  2002;76(12):5905-5914.
DC-SIGN, a type II membrane-spanning C-type lectin that is expressed on the surface of dendritic cells (DC), captures and promotes human and simian immunodeficiency virus (HIV and SIV) infection of CD4+ T cells in trans. To better understand the mechanism of DC-SIGN-mediated virus transmission, we generated and functionally evaluated a panel of seven monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against DC-SIGN family molecules. Six of the MAbs reacted with myeloid-lineage DC, whereas one MAb preferentially bound DC-SIGNR/L-SIGN, a homolog of DC-SIGN. Characterization of hematopoietic cells also revealed that stimulation of monocytes with interleukin-4 (IL-4) or IL-13 was sufficient to induce expression of DC-SIGN. All DC-SIGN-reactive MAbs competed with intercellular adhesion molecule 3 (ICAM-3) for adhesion to DC-SIGN and blocked HIV-1 transmission to T cells that was mediated by THP-1 cells expressing DC-SIGN. Similar but less efficient MAb blocking of DC-mediated HIV-1 transmission was observed, indicating that HIV-1 transmission to target cells via DC may not be dependent solely on DC-SIGN. Attempts to neutralize DC-SIGN capture and transmission of HIV-1 with soluble ICAM-3 prophylaxis were limited in success, with a maximal inhibition of 60%. In addition, disrupting DC-SIGN/ICAM-3 interactions between cells with MAbs did not impair DC-SIGN-mediated HIV-1 transmission. Finally, forced expression of ICAM-3 on target cells did not increase their susceptibility to HIV-1 transmission mediated by DC-SIGN. While these findings do not discount the role of intercellular contact in facilitating HIV-1 transmission, our in vitro data indicate that DC-SIGN interactions with ICAM-3 do not promote DC-SIGN-mediated virus transmission.
PMCID: PMC136240  PMID: 12021323
7.  A Dendritic Cell–Specific Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 3–Grabbing Nonintegrin (Dc-Sign)–Related Protein Is Highly Expressed on Human Liver Sinusoidal Endothelial Cells and Promotes HIV-1 Infection 
The discovery of dendritic cell (DC)-specific intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-3–grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN) as a DC-specific ICAM-3 binding receptor that enhances HIV-1 infection of T cells in trans has indicated a potentially important role for adhesion molecules in AIDS pathogenesis. A related molecule called DC-SIGNR exhibits 77% amino acid sequence identity with DC-SIGN. The DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNR genes map within a 30-kb region on chromosome 19p13.2-3. Their strong homology and close physical location indicate a recent duplication of the original gene. Messenger RNA and protein expression patterns demonstrate that the DC-SIGN–related molecule is highly expressed on liver sinusoidal cells and in the lymph node but not on DCs, in contrast to DC-SIGN. Therefore, we suggest that a more appropriate name for the DC-SIGN–related molecule is L-SIGN, liver/lymph node–specific ICAM-3–grabbing nonintegrin. We show that in the liver, L-SIGN is expressed by sinusoidal endothelial cells. Functional studies indicate that L-SIGN behaves similarly to DC-SIGN in that it has a high affinity for ICAM-3, captures HIV-1 through gp120 binding, and enhances HIV-1 infection of T cells in trans. We propose that L-SIGN may play an important role in the interaction between liver sinusoidal endothelium and trafficking lymphocytes, as well as function in the pathogenesis of HIV-1.
PMCID: PMC2193415  PMID: 11257134
L-SIGN; adhesion receptor; chromosome 19p13.2-3; ICAM-3; HIV-1 gp120

Results 1-7 (7)