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1.  Knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of hospital health-care workers regarding influenza A/H1N1: a cross sectional survey 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2014;14:208.
Background
To assess the knowledge, the attitudes, and the behaviour towards influenza A/H1N1 and the vaccination among health-care workers (HCWs).
Methods
A sample of HCWs was selected from a random sample of non-teaching public hospitals, located in the cities of Naples and Avellino (Italy), received a self-administered anonymous questionnaire including questions about socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge on modes of transmission and preventative measures, attitudes and behaviour relating to influenza A/H1N1.
Results
Only 36.1% correctly knew the main modes of transmission, and that HCWs are a risk category and this level of knowledge was significantly higher in HCWs having received information through scientific journals. A higher perceived risk of contracting influenza A/H1N1 has been observed in the HCWs more knowledgeable, in those considering influenza A/H1N1 a serious disease, and in those working in surgical wards. Only 16.7% have received the influenza A/H1N1 vaccination and HCWs with more fear of contracting influenza A/H1N1, those considering vaccine more useful and less dangerous were more likely to receive vaccine.
Conclusions
Education and communication strategies for improving the level of knowledge and for the immunization uptake regarding influenza A/H1N1 HCWs are strongly needed.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-14-208
PMCID: PMC4021506  PMID: 24739890
Attitudes; Behaviour; Health-care workers; Influenza A/H1N1; Knowledge
2.  Rapid identification of Candida species in oral rinse solutions by PCR 
Journal of Clinical Pathology  2007;60(9):1035-1039.
Aims
To determine the sensitivity and specificity of a multiplex PCR assay for the contemporary identification of major species involved in oral candidiasis, without extraction and purification of DNA from the samples under investigation; and evaluation of this method in comparison with routine phenotypic culture identification.
Methods
78 oral rinse solutions were collected. The concentrated oral rinse technique was used for a quantitative and qualitative study. Research and identification of Candida spp, with routine phenotypic culture identification (germ‐tube test in serum at 37°C for 3 hours and sugar assimilation strip analysis), were performed. Each sample was analysed with multiplex PCR directly on oral rinse solution. Samples giving discrepant results between routine phenotypic and PCR identification methods were resubcultured on CHROMagar Candida plates. The fungus‐specific primers ITS1, ITS2, CA3, and CA4 were used. For the identification of other species (C kefyr, C famata and C dubliniensis), ITS1F, ITS1K, and ITS2D primers were designed.
Results
Multiplex PCR correctly identified all samples, including those with single species, or with mixed species, negative samples and positive samples which appeared to be negative from routine phenotypic methods.
Conclusion
This multiplex PCR assay provides a rapid alternative to the conventional culture based technique for the identification and speciation of the most frequently isolated Candida species. The absence of an extraction method made identification of 10 species possible in a few hours.
doi:10.1136/jcp.2006.040782
PMCID: PMC1972426  PMID: 17761740
candida; PCR; rapid identification; molecular pathology
3.  Healthcare workers and health care-associated infections: knowledge, attitudes, and behavior in emergency departments in Italy 
Background
This survey assessed knowledge, attitudes, and compliance regarding standard precautions about health care-associated infections (HAIs) and the associated determinants among healthcare workers (HCWs) in emergency departments in Italy.
Methods
An anonymous questionnaire, self-administered by all HCWs in eight randomly selected non-academic acute general public hospitals, comprised questions on demographic and occupational characteristics; knowledge about the risks of acquiring and/or transmitting HAIs from/to a patient and standard precautions; attitudes toward guidelines and risk perceived of acquiring a HAI; practice of standard precautions; and sources of information.
Results
HCWs who know the risk of acquiring Hepatitis C (HCV) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) from a patient were in practice from less years, worked fewer hours per week, knew that a HCW can transmit HCV and HIV to a patient, knew that HCV and HIV infections can be serious, and have received information from educational courses and scientific journals. Those who know that gloves, mask, protective eyewear, and hands hygiene after removing gloves are control measures were nurses, provided care to fewer patients, knew that HCWs' hands are vehicle for transmission of nosocomial pathogens, did not know that a HCW can transmit HCV and HIV to a patient, and have received information from educational courses and scientific journals. Being a nurse, knowing that HCWs' hands are vehicle for transmission of nosocomial pathogens, obtaining information from educational courses and scientific journals, and needing information were associated with a higher perceived risk of acquiring a HAI. HCWs who often or always used gloves and performed hands hygiene measures after removing gloves were nurses, provided care to fewer patients, and knew that hands hygiene after removing gloves was a control measure.
Conclusions
HCWs have high knowledge, positive attitudes, but low compliance concerning standard precautions. Nurses had higher knowledge, perceived risk, and appropriate HAIs' control measures than physicians and HCWs answered correctly and used appropriately control measures if have received information from educational courses and scientific journals.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-10-35
PMCID: PMC2848042  PMID: 20178573
4.  Paediatricians knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding immunizations for infants in Italy 
BMC Public Health  2009;9:463.
Background
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether paediatricians have appropriate knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours regarding vaccinations for infants in Italy.
Methods
A random sample of 500 paediatricians received a self-administered anonymous questionnaire covering demographic and professional characteristics; knowledge about the mandatory, recommended, and not indicated vaccinations for infants; attitudes about vaccinations for infants; behaviour regarding current administration or willingness to administer mandatory or recommended vaccinations for infants and immunization education programs of the parents.
Results
Only 42.3% paediatricians knew all recommended vaccinations for infants and this knowledge was significantly higher in females, in those who worked a higher number of hours for week, and in those who use guidelines for immunization practice. Only 10.3% had a very favourable attitude towards the utility of the recommended vaccinations for infants and this was significantly higher in those who administered recommended vaccinations for infants. A large proportion (82.7%) of paediatricians routinely informed the parents about the recommended vaccinations for infants and this appropriate behaviour was significantly higher among younger, in those with a higher number of years in practice, and in those who administered the recommended vaccinations for infants.
Conclusion
Training and educational interventions are needed in order to improve knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours regarding vaccinations for infants among paediatricians.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-9-463
PMCID: PMC2801680  PMID: 20003434
5.  Use of television, videogames, and computer among children and adolescents in Italy 
BMC Public Health  2009;9:139.
Background
This survey determined the practices about television (video inclusive), videogames, and computer use in children and adolescents in Italy.
Methods
A self-administered anonymous questionnaire covered socio-demographics; behaviour about television, videogames, computer, and sports; parental control over television, videogames, and computer.
Results
Overall, 54.1% and 61% always ate lunch or dinner in front of the television, 89.5% had a television in the bedroom while 52.5% of them always watched television there, and 49% indicated that parents controlled the content of what was watched on television. The overall mean length of time daily spent on television viewing (2.8 hours) and the frequency of watching for at least two hours per day (74.9%) were significantly associated with older age, always ate lunch or dinner while watching television, spent more time playing videogames and using computer. Those with parents from a lower socio-economic level were also more likely to spend more minutes viewing television. Two-thirds played videogames for 1.6 daily hours and more time was spent by those younger, males, with parents that do not control them, who watched more television, and who spent more time at the computer. The computer was used by 85% of the sample for 1.6 daily hours and those older, with a computer in the bedroom, with a higher number of computers in home, who view more television and play videogames were more likely to use the computer.
Conclusion
Immediate and comprehensive actions are needed in order to diminish time spent at the television, videogames, and computer.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-9-139
PMCID: PMC2696431  PMID: 19439070
6.  Knowledge, attitudes, and preventive practices about colorectal cancer among adults in an area of Southern Italy 
BMC Cancer  2008;8:171.
Background
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer for both sexes in developed countries. This study assessed the knowledge, attitudes, and preventive practices regarding CRC of adults in Italy.
Methods
A random sample of 1165 adults received a self-administered questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics; knowledge regarding definition, risk factors, and screening; attitudes regarding perceived risk of contracting CRC and utility of screening tests; health-related behaviors and health care use; source of information.
Results
Only 18.5% knew the two main modifiable risk factors (low physical activity, high caloric intake from fat) and this knowledge was significantly associated with higher educational level, performing physical activity, modification of dietary habits and physical activity for fear of contracting CRC, and lower risk perception of contracting CRC. Half of respondents identified fecal occult blood testing (FOBT) as main test for CRC prevention and were more knowledgeable those unmarried, more educated, who knew the main risk factors of CRC, and have received advice by physician of performing FOBT. Personal opinion that screening is useful for CRC prevention was high with a mean score of 8.3 and it was predicted by respondents' lower education, beliefs that CRC can be prevented, higher personal perceived risk of contracting CRC, and information received by physician about CRC. An appropriate behavior of performing FOBT if eligible or not performing if not eligible was significantly higher in female, younger, more educated, in those who have been recommended by physician for undergo or not undergo FOBT, and who have not personal history of precancerous lesions and familial history of precancerous lesions or CRC.
Conclusion
Linkages between health care and educational systems are needed to improve the levels of knowledge and to raise CRC screening adherence.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-8-171
PMCID: PMC2474634  PMID: 18547435
7.  Characteristics of patients returning to emergency departments in Naples, Italy 
Background
Crowding in hospital Emergency Departments (EDs) is a problem in several countries. We evaluated the number and characteristics of patients who make repeated visits to the EDs in Naples, Italy.
Methods
All patients (≥ 16 years) who presented to the EDs of three randomly selected non-academic acute care public hospitals, within randomly selected week periods, were studied. The two outcomes of interest were the re-utilization, within 72 hours, of the ED and the number of visits in the previous year.
Results
Of the 1430 sampled patients, 51.9% self-reported multiple visits in the previous year and 10.9% and 1.6% used the ED for 3 and ≥4 times, respectively. The number of visits in the previous year was significantly higher in those who live closer to hospital, with a more severe burden of overall comorbidity, and who were on pharmacological treatment. Overall, 72-hours return visits were found in 215 patients (15.8%). Patients were more likely to re-use within 72 hours the ED if younger, were not on pharmacological treatment, attended the ED more times in the previous year, were referred by a physician, arrived at the ED by car driven by other person, had problems of longer duration prior to arrival at the ED, had a surgical ED discharge diagnosis, and were admitted to the hospital.
Conclusion
The data may assist policymakers in the development and implementation of protocols to track changes in the re-utilization of the ED for the high financial impact and for the benefit of the patients.
doi:10.1186/1472-6963-8-97
PMCID: PMC2409318  PMID: 18644100
8.  A survey of knowledge, attitudes and practices towards avian influenza in an adult population of Italy 
Background
Several public health strategic interventions are required for effective prevention and control of avian influenza (AI) and it is necessary to create a communication plan to keep families adequately informed on how to avoid or reduce exposure. This investigation determined the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors relating to AI among an adult population in Italy.
Methods
From December 2005 to February 2006 a random sample of 1020 adults received a questionnaire about socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge of transmission and prevention about AI, attitudes towards AI, behaviors regarding use of preventive measures and food-handling practices, and sources of information about AI.
Results
A response rate of 67% was achieved. Those in higher socioeconomic classes were more likely to identify the modes of transmission and the animals' vehicles for AI. Those older, who knew the modes of transmission and the animals' vehicles for AI, and who still need information, were more likely to know that washing hands soap before and after touching raw poultry meat and using gloves is recommended to avoid spreading of AI through food. The risk of being infected was significantly higher in those from lower socioeconomic classes, if they did not know the definition of AI, if they knew that AI could be transmitted by eating and touching raw eggs and poultry foods, and if they did not need information. Compliance with the hygienic practices during handling of raw poultry meat was more likely in those who perceived to be at higher risk, who knew the hygienic practices, who knew the modes of transmission and the animals' vehicles for AI, and who received information from health professionals and scientific journals.
Conclusion
Respondents demonstrate no detailed understanding of AI, a greater perceived risk, and a lower compliance with precautions behaviors and health educational strategies are strongly needed.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-8-36
PMCID: PMC2292195  PMID: 18366644
9.  Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices of Avian Influenza, Poultry Workers, Italy 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2006;12(11):1762-1765.
We asked Italian poultry workers about knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding avian influenza. It was perceived to be a low occupational hazard, and wearing protective equipment and handwashing were not routine practices. Knowledge of transmission and preventive measures should be improved. Employers and health professionals should provide more effective information.
doi:10.3201/eid1211.060671
PMCID: PMC3372355  PMID: 17283632
Avian influenza; attitude; behavior; Italy; knowledge; poultry workers; prevention; practices; dispatch

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