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1.  Hemostasis in laparoscopic renal surgery 
Hemorrhage is a potential risk at any step of laparoscopic nephrectomies (LNs). The advances in surgical equipment and tissue sealants have increased the safety and efficiency of performing LN and laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN). However, hemostasis remains a major issue and there is still scope for further development to improve haemostatic techniques and devices. In this article a literature review of the current methods and techniques of hemostasis was carried out using the MEDLINE ®/PubMed® resources. The results of the review were categorized according to the three main operative steps: Dissection, control of renal pedicle and excision of the renal lesion.
doi:10.4103/0970-1591.94939
PMCID: PMC3339782  PMID: 22557709
Haemostasis; laparoscopic nephrectomy; partial nephrectomy; review article
2.  Orthotopic Neobladder versus Ileal Conduit Urinary Diversion after Cystectomy – A Quality-of-Life Based Comparison 
INTRODUCTION
Radical cystectomy remains the gold standard in treatment of muscle invasive bladder cancer. Evolution of pathological guidelines has empowered centres to offer orthotopic substitution (OBS) to patients undergoing radical cystectomy. We compared health-related quality of life (HRQoL) between patients who underwent OBS or ileal conduit urinary diversion (ICD) following radical cystectomy.
PATIENTS AND METHODS
A total of 57 patients who underwent cystectomy were assessed pre-operatively using Karnofsky performance scale (KPS). Of these, 52 patients (28 OBS and 24 ICD) who responded to a postal questionnaire consisting of SF-36 and a functional index questionnaire were included.
RESULTS
Median age of patients was 70 years. Pre-operative KPS scores were similar. All eight HRQoL scales were favourable in both groups. OBS patients had significantly better physical functioning. In the cohort, 42% of men with OBS and 25% of diversions could maintain an erection to varying degrees. Of the OBS patients, 85% were continent with two patients reporting reduced QoL with pad usage. Of ICD patients, 63% felt less complete and 42% were embarrassed due to the stoma, with 58% apprehensive of stomal leakage. Of OBS patients, 96% had significant relationships and a more active life-style.
CONCLUSIONS
In a similar age-group population, there was no significant difference in most QoL indices but body image issues persist in ICD patients. OBS patients had significantly better physical function, continuing to have a more active life-style. They attained urethral voiding with good continence. A detailed discussion of long-term functional outcome would engender a realistic expectation allowing better adaptation.
doi:10.1308/003588409X432293
PMCID: PMC2966160  PMID: 19558757
Radical cystectomy; Orthotopic neobladder; Ileal conduit diversion; Quality of life
3.  Cost benefits of intraoperative cell salvage in radical cystectomy 
Objective:
We have looked into the clinical and financial benefits of using intra-operative cell salvage (ICS) as a method to reduce the amount of autologous blood transfusion (ABT) requirement for our radical cystectomy (RC) patients.
Materials and Methods:
Fifteen consecutive patients undergoing radical cystectomy received cell salvaged blood (ICS), while 15 did not (NCS). The cost of using the cell saver, number of homologous transfusions, survival, and recurrences were recorded and compared using paired t-test and chi-square test between the two groups. A Dideco Electa® (Sorin Group, Electa, Italy) cell saver machine was used for all the patients in the ICS group and leukocyte filters were used on the salvaged blood before the autologous transfusion.
Results:
The mean age was 63 years (53–72 years), 66 years (46–79 years) in ICS and NCS groups, respectively (P = 0.368). All 15 (100%) patients in the NCS group required an allogenic transfusion compared to 9/15 (60%) in the ICS group (P = 0.08). There was a significant reduction in the mean volume of allogenic blood transfused with the use of cell saver. Median follow-up was 23 and 21 months in the ICS and NCS group with 10 and 4 patients alive at last follow-up, respectively. There was a saving of 355 pounds per patient in the ICS group compared to the NCS group.
Conclusion:
Our initial study shows that cell savage is feasible and safe in patients undergoing radical cystectomy. It does not adversely affect the medium term outcome of patients undergoing RC and is also cost effective.
doi:10.4103/0970-1591.65386
PMCID: PMC2938542  PMID: 20877596
Blood transfusion; intraoperative cell salvage; radical cystectomy
4.  Medical management of overactive bladder 
Overactive bladder (OAB), as defined by the International Continence Society, is characterized by a symptom complex including urinary urgency with or without urge incontinence, usually associated with frequency and nocturia. OAB syndrome has an incidence reported from six European countries ranging between 12-17%, while in the United States; a study conducted by the National Overactive Bladder Evaluation program found the incidence at 17%. In Asia, the prevalence of OAB is reported at 53.1%. In about 75%, OAB symptoms are due to idiopathic detrusor activity; neurological disease, bladder outflow obstruction (BOO) intrinsic bladder pathology and other chronic pelvic floor disorders are implicated in the others. OAB can be diagnosed easily and managed effectively with both non-pharmacological and pharmacological therapies. The first-line treatments are lifestyle interventions, bladder training, pelvic floor muscle exercises and anticholinergic drugs. Antimuscarinics are the drug class of choice for OAB symptoms; with proven efficacy, and adverse event profiles that differ somewhat.
doi:10.4103/0970-1591.65403
PMCID: PMC2938554  PMID: 20877608
Antimuscarinics; bladder training; overactive bladder
5.  Implications of computer tomography measurement in the management of renal tumours 
BMC Urology  2008;8:13.
Background
To compare radiographic measurement and pathological measurement of renal tumours to see if there was a significant difference between the two as this may have implications in the management.
Methods
We retrospectively analyzed CT measurements of 106 consecutive patients who underwent either radical or nephron sparing surgery in our institution and compared this to the actual measurement of the surgical specimen. The largest axial measurement was compared as this is the primary consideration before offering either treatment modality.
Results
The mean age of the patients was 64 years (range 31–92). There were 76 males and 30 females. The median tumour size was 70 mm (range 16–175) on CT and 65 mm (range 15–90) on pathological measurement. 25 patients had a CT size ≤ 40 mm. CT tended to overestimate the size of tumours in 41 patients, underestimate in 45 and agree with surgical size in 20 patients. Statistically there was no significant difference between the two measurements (p = 0.7, Wilcoxon sign ranked test). When subdivided into tumours less than 40 mm (p = 0.7) and more than 40 mm (p = 0.09) again there was no statistically significant difference between the two measurements. However in 5(5%) patients who were not offered nephron sparing surgery based on CT findings (size > 40 mm) the pathological size was ≤ 40 mm (p = < 0.001, Fishers Exact test). Pathologically the tumours were classified as renal cell carcinoma (n = 98), angiomyolipoma (3), and oncocytoma (5).
Conclusion
CT measurement of renal tumour size correlates well with the actual size of the tumour. However CT does tend to overestimate the size in a small number of patients which may have a bearing on the modality of treatment offered.
doi:10.1186/1471-2490-8-13
PMCID: PMC2588443  PMID: 18980699
6.  Symplastic scrotal leiomyoma: a case report 
Introduction
Scrotal leiomyomas are rare tumours which are essentially benign. Recurrence and malignant transformation to leiomyosarcoma have been reported. However, a specific subgroup with increased bizarre nuclei showing increased mitosis raises the need for a closer follow-up. We report on such a case.
Case presentation
We report the case of a 65-year-old man who underwent a scrotal lump excision. Histology showed a well defined leiomyoma. The presence of nuclear pleomorphism and mitoses, just falling short of the criteria for malignancy, made prediction of biological behaviour difficult. The patient remains well on 4-year follow-up.
Conclusion
Histological evidence of increased mitosis raises the need for sustained follow-up in view of the malignant potential from the extent of mitosis. Immunohistochemistry helps in identifying those patients warranting close follow-up.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-2-295
PMCID: PMC2542396  PMID: 18782437
7.  Primitive neuroectodermal tumour of the kidney with vena caval and atrial tumour thrombus: a case report 
Introduction
Renal primitive neuroectodermal tumour is an extremely rare malignancy.
Case presentation
A 21-year-old woman presented with microscopic haematuria, a palpable right loin mass, dyspnoea, dizziness and fatigue. Initial ultrasound scan of the kidneys revealed an 11 cm right renal mass with venous extension into the inferior vena cava. Computed tomography of the thorax and abdomen revealed an extension of the large renal mass into the right renal vein, inferior vena cava and up to the right atrium. A small paracaval lymph node was noted and three small metastatic nodules were identified within the lung parenchyma. The patient underwent a radical nephrectomy and inferior vena caval tumour (level IV) thrombectomy with cardiopulmonary bypass and deep hypothermic circulatory arrest. Immunohistochemical staining of the specimen showed a highly specific cluster of differentiation (CD) 99, thus confirming the diagnosis of a primitive neuroectodermal tumour.
Conclusion
It is important that a renal primitive neuroectodermal tumour be considered, particularly in young patients with a renal mass and extensive thrombus.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-2-265
PMCID: PMC2527024  PMID: 18694498
8.  Inflammatory pseudotumor of the Kidney 
Background
Inflammatory pseudotumor of the kidney or inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is composed of spindle cells admixed with variable amount of proliferating myofibroblasts, fibroblasts, extracellular collagen, lymphocytes and plasma cells. This mainly affects the urinary bladder or prostate. Renal involvement is rare.
Case presentation
A 56 year-old man was diagnosed with asymptomatic left sided hydronephrosis while being investigated for rheumatoid arthritis. CT scan imaging showed ill defined fascial plains around the kidney and thickening around the renal hilum suggestive of localized inflammatory change. Worsening intermittent left loin pain with increasing hydronephrosis, significant cortical thinning and marked deterioration of renal function necessitated nephrectomy. Macroscopy showed a hydronephrotic fibrotic kidney with microscopy and immunohistochemistry consistent with a histological diagnosis of IMT.
Conclusion
We report a case of an inflammatory pseudotumor of the kidney. It is unique in that the patient presented with painless hydronephrosis followed two years later with progressive deterioration in renal function and worsening loin pain.
doi:10.1186/1477-7819-5-106
PMCID: PMC2034571  PMID: 17892577

Results 1-8 (8)