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author:("malleolar, J")
3.  Antineutrophil antibodies associated with ulcerative colitis interact with the antigen(s) during the process of apoptosis 
Gut  2000;47(1):74-78.
BACKGROUND—Cell death by apoptosis seems to be an important mechanism for translocation to the cell surface of a variety of intracellular components capable of inducing autoantibody production.
AIMS—To identify the cellular location of antigen (Ag)-antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) in non-apoptotic human neutrophils, and to assess if ANCA associated with ulcerative colitis reacts with neutrophil antigen(s) during neutrophil apoptosis. The cellular distribution of Ag-ANCA in apoptotic neutrophils was also investigated.
METHODS—Sera from 18 ulcerative colitis patients known to be positive for perinuclear IgG-ANCA (titre ⩾1/320), as assessed by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF), were analysed by immunofluorescent confocal laser scanning microscopy. ANCA were identified with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and tetramethylrhodamine isothiocyanate (TRITC) in non-apoptotic and apoptotic neutrophils, respectively. Apoptotic and non-apoptotic DNA was labelled with FITC and propidium iodide, respectively. Cycloheximide was added to polymorphonuclear leucocyte culture to induce apoptosis.
RESULTS—Three patterns of scanning laser immunofluorescence microscopy in non-apoptotic neutrophils were observed with respect to cellular ulcerative colitis associated ANCA distribution: (1) diffuse nuclear localisation (16.7%); (2) nuclear localisation in the nuclear periphery (50%); and (3) mixed nuclear and cytoplasmic localisation (33.4%). In all sera ANCA fluorescence colocalised almost completely with apoptotic DNA, with persistence of a diffuse and intense fluorescence. No significant changes in ANCA titres were found in non-apoptotic neutrophils.
CONCLUSIONS—The antigen(s) of ANCA associated with ulcerative colitis seems to be localised in most cases in the neutrophil nucleus. The almost identical colocalisation of ANCA and apoptotic cleaved DNA suggests that intracellular DNA redistribution during neutrophil apoptosis may play a role in antigen exposure to the immune system and ANCA production in ulcerative colitis.

Keywords: antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody; antigen; ulcerative colitis; apoptosis; humoral immunity; immunofluorescent laser confocal microscopy
PMCID: PMC1727947  PMID: 10861267
4.  Prognostic factors influencing the outcome in pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in patients with AIDS. 
Thorax  1995;50(6):668-671.
BACKGROUND--Studies attempting to identify the prognostic factors that influence the outcome of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) in patients with AIDS using a multivariate analysis are few. In order to identify those prognostic factors amenable to medical intervention, univariate and multivariate analyses were performed on 102 patients with AIDS suffering a first episode of PCP. METHODS--One hundred and two consecutive patients with AIDS (51% drug abusers, 45% homosexuals, and 4% with other HIV risk factors) admitted to our institution between 1986 and 1989 whose respiratory infection was diagnosed by bronchoalveolar lavage were studied prospectively. RESULTS--The overall mortality was 28%, rising to 79% in those patients who required mechanical ventilation. According to univariate analysis the following variables were related to a poor prognosis: age > 35 years; risk factor for HIV infection other than drug abuse; and AIDS diagnosis confirmed before 1988; PaO2 < 8 kPa at admission; severe acute respiratory failure on admission (PaO2/FIO2 < 20 kPa); mechanical ventilation; antibiotic therapy for PCP other than trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole; multiple microbial pulmonary infection; serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) > 22.5 mukat/l on admission; serum albumin level < 30 g/l. Multivariate analysis showed that only mechanical ventilation was independently associated with a poor outcome. CONCLUSIONS--The mortality of AIDS patients presenting with a first episode of PCP before 1990 was high (28%). The main prognostic factor associated with poor outcome was the requirement for mechanical ventilation due to severe acute respiratory failure.
PMCID: PMC1021269  PMID: 7638811
5.  Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies in sera from colectomised ulcerative colitis patients and its relation to the presence of pouchitis. 
Gut  1996;38(6):894-898.
BACKGROUND: Few studies have evaluated the influence of colectomy on antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) positivity in ulcerative colitis (UC). In small series of patients it has been suggested that ANCA positivity in UC might be predictive for development of pouchitis after colectomy. AIMS: To assess the prevalence of ANCA in UC patients treated by colectomy and a Brooke's ileostomy (UC-BI) or ileal pouch anal anastomosis (UC-IPAA), and the relation between the presence of ANCA, the type of surgery, and the presence of pouchitis. SUBJECTS: 63 UC patients treated by colectomy (32 with UC-BI and 31 with UC-IPAA), 54 UC, and 24 controls. METHODS: Samples were obtained at least two years after colectomy. ANCA were detected by indirect immunofluorescent assay. RESULTS: There were no differences between patients with (36.3%) or without pouchitis (35.0%) and between patients with UC (55%), UC-BI (40.6%), and UC-IPAA (35.4%). However, ANCA prevalence significantly decreases in the whole group of operated patients (38.0%) compared with non-operated UC (p = 0.044). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of ANCA in operated patients was significantly lower than in non-operated UC, suggesting that it might be related either to the presence of inflamed or diseased tissue. ANCA persistence is not related to the surgical procedure and it should not be used as a marker for predicting the development of pouchitis.
PMCID: PMC1383198  PMID: 8984029

Results 1-5 (5)