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1.  Men who have sex with men in India: A diverse population in need of medical attention 
A significant proportion of men engage in sexual relationships with other men which has direct health implications, but the unique health care needs of these patients are often ignored or overlooked. Moreover, due to a fear of stigmatization by the medical community, one of the more significant health risks for men who have sex with men (MSM) may be that they avoid routine or appropriate health care. Physicians and other providers can help overcome this barrier and improve the health care of MSM by keeping a non-judgmental attitude toward these patients, differentiating sexual behaviour from sexual identity, communicating with gender neutral terms, and maintaining awareness of how their own attitudes affect clinical judgment. The purpose of this article is to help contextualize health issues affecting MSM and provide a framework for physicians and other providers to deliver optimum and appropriate health care for men who have sex with men in India.
PMCID: PMC3516023  PMID: 23168696
HIV-1; MSM; primary care; sex behaviour; sexually transmitted infections
2.  Addressing Intimate Partner Violence in Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Patients 
The medical community’s efforts to address intimate partner violence (IPV) have often neglected members of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) population. Heterosexual women are primarily targeted for IPV screening and intervention despite the similar prevalence of IPV in LGBT individuals and its detrimental health effects. Here, we highlight the burden of IPV in LGBT relationships, discuss how LGBT and heterosexual IPV differ, and outline steps clinicians can take to address IPV in their LGBT patients.
doi:10.1007/s11606-011-1697-6
PMCID: PMC3138983  PMID: 21448753
LGBT; gay; lesbian; intimate partner violence; domestic violence
3.  Bisexuality, Sexual Risk Taking, and HIV Prevalence Among Men Who Have Sex With Men Accessing Voluntary Counseling and Testing Services in Mumbai, India 
Objectives
To describe sociodemographics, sexual risk behavior, and estimate HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevalence among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Mumbai, India.
Methods
Eight hundred thirty-one MSM attending voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) services at the Humsafar Trust, answered a behavioral questionnaire and consented for Venereal Disease Research Laboratory and HIV testing from January 2003 through December 2004. Multivariate logistic regression was performed for sociodemographics, sexual risk behavior, and STIs with HIV result as an outcome.
Results
HIV prevalence among MSM was 12.5%. MSM who were illiterate [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.28; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08 to 4.84], married (AOR 2.70; 95% CI: 1,56 to 4.76), preferred male partners (AOR 4.68; 95% CI: 1.90 to 11.51), had partners of both genders (AOR 2.73; 95% CI: 1.03 to 7.23), presented with an STI (AOR 3.31; 95% CI: 1.96 to 5.61); or presented with a reactive venereal disease research laboratory test (AOR 4.92; 95% CI: 2.55 to 9.53) at their VCT visit were more likely to be HIV infected.
Conclusions
MSM accessing VCT services in Mumbai have a high risk of STI and HIV acquisition. Culturally appropriate interventions that focus on sexual risk behavior and promote condom use among MSM, particularly the bridge population of bisexual men, are needed to slow the urban Indian AIDS epidemic.
doi:10.1097/QAI.0b013e3181c354d8
PMCID: PMC2844633  PMID: 19934765
bisexual; homosexual; India; men who have sex with men; Mumbai; voluntary counseling and testing
4.  HIV Risk Assessment 
doi:10.1046/j.1525-1497.1997.07152.x
PMCID: PMC1497195  PMID: 9383145

Results 1-4 (4)