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Journal of biomechanics (1)
Maiti, Spandan (2)
Banerjee, Ipsita (1)
D'Amore, Antonio (1)
Gleason, Thomas G. (1)
Pal, Siladitya (1)
Parashurama, Natesh (1)
Pasta, Salvatore (1)
Tsamis, Alkiviadis (1)
Vorp, David A. (1)
Yarmush, Martin (1)
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A mechanistic model on the role of “radially-running” collagen fibers on dissection properties of human ascending thoracic aorta
Gleason, Thomas G.
Vorp, David A.
Journal of biomechanics
Aortic dissection (AoD) is a common condition that often leads to life-threatening cardiovaular emergency. From a biomechanics viewpoint, AoD involves failure of load-bearing microstructural components of the aortic wall, mainly elastin and collagen fibers. Delamination strength of the aortic wall depends on the load-bearing capacity and local micro-architecture of these fibers, which may vary with age, disease and aortic location. Therefore, quantifying the role of fiber micro-architecture on the delamination strength of the aortic wall may lead to improved understanding of AoD. We present an experimentally-driven modeling paradigm towards this goal. Specifically, we utilize collagen fiber microarchitecture, obtained in a parallel study from multi-photon microopy, in a predictive mechanistic framework to characterize the delamination strength. We then validate our model against peel test experiments on human aortic strips and utilize the model to predict the delamination strength of separate aortic strips and compare with experimental findings. We observe that the number density and failure energy of the radially-running collagen fibers control the peel strength. Furthermore, our model suggests that the lower delamination strength previously found for the circumferential direction in human aorta is related to a lower number density of radially-running collagen fibers in that direction. Our model sets the stage for an expanded future study that could predict AoD propagation in patient-specific aortic geometries and better understand factors that may influence propensity for occurrence.
Peel force; Aorta; Dissection; Collagen fibers; Fiber bridge failure model
An integer programming formulation to identify the sparse network architecture governing differentiation of embryonic stem cells
Motivation: Primary purpose of modeling gene regulatory networks for developmental process is to reveal pathways governing the cellular differentiation to specific phenotypes. Knowledge of differentiation network will enable generation of desired cell fates by careful alteration of the governing network by adequate manipulation of cellular environment.
Results: We have developed a novel integer programming-based approach to reconstruct the underlying regulatory architecture of differentiating embryonic stem cells from discrete temporal gene expression data. The network reconstruction problem is formulated using inherent features of biological networks: (i) that of cascade architecture which enables treatment of the entire complex network as a set of interconnected modules and (ii) that of sparsity of interconnection between the transcription factors. The developed framework is applied to the system of embryonic stem cells differentiating towards pancreatic lineage. Experimentally determined expression profile dynamics of relevant transcription factors serve as the input to the network identification algorithm. The developed formulation accurately captures many of the known regulatory modes involved in pancreatic differentiation. The predictive capacity of the model is tested by simulating an in silico potential pathway of subsequent differentiation. The predicted pathway is experimentally verified by concurrent differentiation experiments. Experimental results agree well with model predictions, thereby illustrating the predictive accuracy of the proposed algorithm.
Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
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