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1.  Axial Black Blood Turbo Spin Echo Imaging of the Right Ventricle 
Black blood turbo spin echo (TSE) imaging of the right ventricle (RV) free wall is highly sensitive to cardiac motion, frequently resulting in non-diagnostic images. Temporal and spatial parameters of a black blood TSE pulse sequence were evaluated for visualization of the RV free wall. 74 patient studies were retrospectively evaluated for the effects of acquisition timing on image quality. Axial black blood TSE images were acquired on 10 healthy volunteers to assess the role of spatial misregistration on right ventricle visualization; increasing the double inversion recovery (DIR) slice thickness beyond 300% had no effect on image quality (p=0.2). 35 patient studies were prospectively evaluated with inversion times (TIs) corresponding to the mid-diastolic rest period and end-systole based on visual analysis of a four chamber cine. When TIs were chosen to be within the patients’ RV rest period, mean image quality score was significantly improved (2.3 vs. 1.86, p<0.001) and the number of clinically diagnostic images increased from 32% to 46%. Black blood TSE imaging of the RV free wall is highly sensitive to cardiac motion. Image quality can be improved by choosing TIs concordant with the rest period of the patient’s RV that may occur at mid-diastole or end-systole.
doi:10.1002/mrm.21864
PMCID: PMC4301616  PMID: 19165884
cardiac MRI; black blood; turbo spin echo; right ventricle
2.  Morphological and Functional Measurements of the Heart Obtained by Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Brazilians 
Background
Still today, measurements used as a reference in the cardiac magnetic resonance imaging have been obtained mainly from studies carried out in North-American and European populations.
Objective
To obtain measurements of the diastolic diameter, systolic diameter, end diastolic volume, end systolic volume, ejection fraction, and myocardial mass of the left and right ventricles in Brazilians.
Methods
54 men and 53 women, with mean age of 43.4 ± 13.1 years, asymptomatic, with no cardiomyopathies, have been subjected to the cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, using a balanced steady state free precession technique.
Results
The averages and the standard deviations of the parameters for the left ventricle have been: diastolic diameter =4.8 ± 0.5 cm; systolic diameter = 3.0 ± 0.6 cm; end diastolic volume = 128.4 ± 29.6 mL; end systolic volume = 45.2 ± 16.6 mL; ejection fraction = 65.5 ± 6.3%; mass = 95.2 ± 30.8 g. For the right ventricle, they have been: diastolic diameter = 3.9 ± 1.3 cm; systolic diameter = 2.5 ± 0.5 cm; end diastolic volume = 126.5 ± 30.7 mL; end systolic volume = 53.6 ± 18.4 mL; ejection fraction = 58.3 ± 8.0%, and mass = 26.1 ± 6.1 g. The masses and the volumes were significantly greater in the men, except for the end systolic volume of the left ventricle. The ejection fraction of the right ventricle has been significantly greater in the women. There has been a significant and inverted correlation of the systolic volume of the right volume with the progression of the age.
Conclusion
This study has described, for the first time, cardiac measurements obtained through the cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in Brazilians, asymptomatic, with no cardiomyopathies, showing differences in accordance with gender and age.
doi:10.5935/abc.20130113
PMCID: PMC3998183  PMID: 23752338
Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods; Reference Values; Ventricular Function / physiopathology; Heart Ventricles / anatomy & physiology; Genetics, Population
3.  Coronary Vessel Wall Evaluation by Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis: Determinants of Image Quality 
Objective
Coronary artery wall magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been developed to assess coronary lumen diameter and wall thickness. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physiological parameters that affect the measures of coronary wall thickness using black-blood MRI pulse sequences.
Methods
Eighty-seven participants (38 men and 49 women) of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis were enrolled in the coronary artery wall MRI study. Cine 4-chamber imaging was used to determine the coronary artery rest period. Free-breathing whole-heart magnetic resonance angiography with motion adaptor navigator was performed to localize the coronary arteries in 64 participants. Cross-sectional free-breathing black-blood images were acquired using electrocardiogram-gated, turbo spin echo sequence. Imaging parameters were as follows: repetition time = 2 R-R intervals, time to echo = 33 milliseconds, echo train length = 13, bandwidth = 305 Hz/pixel, matrix = 416 × 416, field of view = 420 × 420 mm, and slice thickness = 4 to 5 mm.
Results
Imaging was completed in 215 (92%) of 234 coronary segments; 9 participants had incomplete scans. Mean age was 62.6 ± 8.4 years (range, 45–81 years). Mean body mass index was 29.2 ± 5.9 kg/m2. A higher proportion of images with quality of “good” was seen in the right coronary artery (40.5%) compared to the left main and left anterior descending coronary arteries (31.9% and 26.4%, respectively). There was a very good agreement between observers in the image quality scores (κ = 0.79, P < 0.001). Lower heart rate, male sex, and longer coronary rest period were associated with higher image quality score (P < 0.05). Signal-to-noise ratio was higher in participants with Agatston calcium score of more than 10 in the right coronary and left main arteries (48.5 vs 69.7, P = 0.001; and 53.4 vs 61.6, P = 0.032, respectively).
Conclusion
Improved depiction of the coronary artery wall with MRI is related to coronary rest period and atherosclerotic plaque burden as measured by calcium score and inversely related to heart rate. Because longer coronary artery rest periods are associated with improved image quality both for angiography with MRI and coronary artery wall imaging, heart rate–lowering methods in association with these techniques appear to be a logical application.
doi:10.1097/RCT.0b013e3181648606
PMCID: PMC3037090  PMID: 19188777
coronary; magnetic resonance imaging; image quality; MRI; cardiac
4.  Positive remodeling of the coronary arteries detected by MRI in an asymptomatic population: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) 
OBJECTIVES
The purpose of this study was to assess coronary arterial remodeling as a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis using coronary wall MRI in an asymptomatic population-based cohort.
BACKGROUND
In early atherosclerosis, compensatory enlargement of both the outer wall of the vessel as well as the lumen, termed compensatory enlargement or positive remodeling, occurs before luminal narrowing.
METHODS
179 participants in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) were evaluated using black-blood coronary wall MRI. Coronary cross-sectional area (vessel size), lumen area, and mean wall thickness of the proximal coronary arteries were measured.
RESULTS
Men had a greater vessel size, lumen area, and mean wall thickness than women (38.3±11.3 versus 32.6±9.4 mm2, 6.7±3.2 versus 5.3±2.4 mm2, and 2.0±0.3 versus 1.9±0.3 mm, respectively, p<0.05). No significant coronary artery narrowing was present by magnetic resonance angiography. Overall, coronary vessel size increased 25.9 mm2 per millimeter increase in coronary wall thickness, while lumen area increased only slightly at 3.1 mm2 for every millimeter increase in wall thickness (difference in slopes, p<0.0001). Adjusting for age and gender, participants with Agatston score greater than zero were more likely to have wall thickness greater than 2.0 mm (odds ratio 2.0, 95% CI 1.01–3.84).
CONCLUSIONS
Coronary wall MRI detected positive arterial remodeling, in asymptomatic men and women with subclinical atherosclerosis.
doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2008.12.063
PMCID: PMC2793325  PMID: 19406347
subclinical atherosclerosis; magnetic resonance imaging; coronary artery disease; plaque
5.  MRI detects increased coronary wall thickness in asymptomatic individuals: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) 
Purpose
To evaluate the use of coronary wall MRI as a measure of atherosclerotic disease burden in an asymptomatic population free of clinical cardiovascular disease.
Background
Coronary wall magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive method for evaluation of arterial wall remodeling associated with atherosclerosis.
Materials and Methods
Asymptomatic participants of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) study were studied using black blood MRI. MRI assessed coronary wall thickness was compared to computed tomography calcium score, carotid intimal-medial thickness and risk factors for coronary artery disease.
Results
Eighty eight arterial segments were evaluated in 38 MESA participants (mean age, 61.3 ± 8.7 years). The maximum coronary wall thickness was greater for participants with 2 or more cardiovascular risk factors than for those with 1 or no risk factors (2.59 ± 0.33 mm versus 2.36 ± 0.30 mm, respectively, p=0.05.) For participants with zero calcium score, the mean and maximum coronary wall thickness for subjects with 2 or more risk factors for coronary artery disease were greater than the wall thickness for subjects with 1 or no risk factors (mean thickness: 1.95 ± 0.17 mm versus 1.7 ± 0.19 mm; maximum thickness: 2.67 ± 0.24 mm versus 2.32 ± 0.27 mm, respectively, p <0.05). Subjects with increased carotid intimal-medial thickness also had increased coronary artery wall thickness (p< 0.05).
Conclusions
Coronary artery wall MRI detects increased coronary wall thickness in asymptomatic individuals with subclinical markers of atherosclerotic disease and in individuals with zero calcium score.
doi:10.1002/jmri.21511
PMCID: PMC2577717  PMID: 18837001
coronary artery disease; atherosclerosis; MRI; plaque
6.  Cardiac Cine MRI: Quantification of the Relationship Between Fast Gradient Echo and Steady-State Free Precession for Determination of Myocardial Mass and Volumes 
Purpose
To determine the correlation function between the steady-state free precession (SSFP) and fast gradient echo (FGRE) cine MRI pulse sequences for measuring the myocardial mass and volumes.
Materials and Methods
Cardiac cine MRI examinations were acquired in 50 individuals (female: 35, male: 15, mean age 64.1 ± 9.1 years, range 48–83) using SSFP and FGRE cardiac pulse sequences.
Results
The mean (standard deviation [SD]) left ventricular end diastolic volume measured by SSFP was significantly larger (4.5%) than by FGRE (p < 0.001); this was also the case for end systolic volume (15.0%, p < 0.001). The relationship between SSFP and FGRE measures were linear and highly correlated (p < 0.001) for both left ventricular end diastolic and end systolic volumes (r2 = 0.90 vs. 0.91, respectively). We determined linear regression models to estimate the SSFP values based on the FGRE measures. Slope (intercept) for ejection fraction, stroke volume, and cardiac output were 0.99 (−2.79), 0.77 (17.5), and 0.76 (1.29), respectively.
Conclusion
Linear relationships exist for key LV function parameters when comparing SSFP and FGRE cine MRI. These results indicate that existing databases and normal values for FGRE LV function may be converted to corresponding LV function values for SSFP MRI.
doi:10.1002/jmri.21405
PMCID: PMC2671062  PMID: 18581356
magnetic resonance imaging; normal cardiac function; steady state free precession; fast gradient echo

Results 1-6 (6)