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1.  Rapid Human Immunodeficiency Virus Test Quality Assurance Practices and Outcomes among Testing Sites Affiliated with 17 Public Health Departments ▿  
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2009;47(10):3333-3335.
Rapid human immunodeficiency virus testing is often conducted in nonclinical settings by staff with limited training, so quality assurance (QA) monitoring is critical to ensure accuracy of test results. Rapid tests (n = 86,749) were generally conducted according to manufacturers' instructions, but ongoing testing competency assessments and on-site QA monitoring were not uniformly conducted.
PMCID: PMC2756945  PMID: 19692557
2.  HIV Prevention Services Received at Health Care and HIV Test Providers by Young Men who Have Sex with Men: An Examination of Racial Disparities 
We investigated whether there were racial/ethnic differences among young men who have sex with men (MSM) in their use of, perceived importance of, receipt of, and satisfaction with HIV prevention services received at health care providers (HCP) and HIV test providers (HTP) that explain racial disparities in HIV prevalence. Young men, aged 23 to 29 years, were interviewed and tested for HIV at randomly sampled MSM-identified venues in six U.S. cities from 1998 through 2000. Analyses were restricted to five U.S. cities that enrolled 50 or more black or Hispanic MSM. Among the 2,424 MSM enrolled, 1,522 (63%) reported using a HCP, and 1,268 (52%) reported having had an HIV test in the year prior to our interview. No racial/ethnic differences were found in using a HCP or testing for HIV. Compared with white MSM, black and Hispanic MSM were more likely to believe that HIV prevention services are important [respectively, AOR, 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.0, 1.97 to 4.51 and AOR, 95% CI: 2.7, 1.89 to 3.79], and were more likely to receive prevention services at their HCP (AOR, 95% CI: 2.5, 1.72 to 3.71 and AOR, 95% CI: 1.7, 1.18 to 2.41) and as likely to receive counseling services at their HTP. Blacks were more likely to be satisfied with the prevention services received at their HCP (AOR, 95% CI: 1.7, 1.14 to 2.65). Compared to white MSM, black and Hispanic MSM had equal or greater use of, perceived importance of, receipt of, and satisfaction with HIV prevention services. Differential experience with HIV prevention services does not explain the higher HIV prevalence among black and Hispanic MSM.
PMCID: PMC2527440  PMID: 18622708
HIV prevention services; Racial/ethnic disparities; Young MSM
3.  Surveillance of HIV Risk and Prevention Behaviors of Men Who Have Sex with Men—A National Application of Venue-Based, Time-Space Sampling 
Public Health Reports  2007;122(Suppl 1):39-47.
In collaboration with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, participating state and local health departments, universities, and community-based organizations applied venue-based, time-space sampling methods for the first wave of National HIV Behavioral Surveillance of men who have sex with men (NHBS-MSM). Conducted in 17 metropolitan areas in the United States and Puerto Rico from November 2003 through April 2005, NHBS-MSM methods included: (1) formative research to learn the venues, times, and methods to recruit MSM; (2) monthly sampling frames of eligible venues and day-time periods that met attendance, logistical, and safety criteria; and (3) recruitment of participants in accordance with randomly generated venue calendars. Participants were interviewed on HIV risk and prevention behaviors, referred to care when needed, and compensated for their time. By identifying the prevalence and trends of HIV risk and prevention behaviors, NHBS-MSM data may be used at local, state, and federal levels to help obtain, direct, and evaluate HIV prevention resources for MSM.
PMCID: PMC1804106  PMID: 17354526
4.  Repeat Confirmatory Testing for Persons with Discordant Whole Blood and Oral Fluid Rapid HIV Test Results: Findings from Post Marketing Surveillance 
PLoS ONE  2008;3(2):e1524.
Reactive oral fluid and whole blood rapid HIV tests must be followed with a confirmatory test (Western blot (WB), immunofluorescent assay (IFA) or approved nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT)). When the confirmatory result is negative or indeterminate (i.e. discordant with rapid result), repeat confirmatory testing should be conducted using a follow-up specimen. Previous reports have not described whether repeat testing adequately resolves the HIV-infection status of persons with discordant results.
Post-marketing surveillance was conducted in 368 testing sites affiliated with 14 state and 2 city health departments from August 11, 2004 to June 30, 2005 and one health department through December 31, 2005. For persons with discordant results, data were collected on demographics, risk behaviors, HIV test results and specimen types. Persons with repeat confirmatory results were classified as HIV-infected or uninfected. Regression models were created to assess risk factors for not having repeat testing.
Principal Findings
Of 167,371 rapid tests conducted, 2589 (1.6%) were reactive: of these, 2417 (93%) had positive WB/IFA, 172 (7%) had negative or indeterminate WB/IFA. Of 89/172 (52%) persons with a repeat confirmatory test: 17 (19%) were HIV-infected, including 3 with indeterminate WB and positive NAAT; 72 (81%) were uninfected, including 12 with repeat indeterminate WB. Factors associated with HIV-infection included having an initial indeterminate WB/IFA (vs. negative) (p<0.001) and having an initial oral fluid WB (vs. serum) (p<0.001). Persons who had male-female sex (vs. male-male sex) were at increased risk for not having a repeat test [adjusted OR 2.6, 95% CI (1.3, 4.9)].
Though only half of persons with discordant results had repeat confirmatory testing, of those who did, nearly one in five were HIV-infected. These findings underscore the need for rapid HIV testing programs to increase repeat confirmatory testing for persons with discordant results. Because of the lower sensitivity of oral fluid WBs, confirmatory testing following a reactive rapid test should be conducted using serum or plasma, when possible.
PMCID: PMC2212717  PMID: 18253478
5.  Investigation of False Positive Results with an Oral Fluid Rapid HIV-1/2 Antibody Test 
PLoS ONE  2007;2(1):e185.
In March 2004, the OraQuick® rapid HIV antibody test became the first rapid HIV test approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for use on oral fluid specimens. Test results are available in 20 minutes, and the oral fluid test is non-invasive. From August 2004–June 2005, we investigated a sudden increase in false-positive results occurring in a performance study of OraQuick® oral-fluid rapid HIV tests in Minnesota.
Methodology/Principal Findings
In a field investigation, we reviewed performance study data on oral-fluid and whole-blood OraQuick® rapid HIV test device lots and expiration dates and assessed test performance and interpretation with oral-fluid and whole-blood specimens by operators who reported false-positive results. We used multivariate logistic regression to evaluate client demographic and risk characteristics associated with false-positive results. Next, we conducted an incidence study of false-positive OraQuick rapid HIV tests in nine US cities and tested both oral-fluid and finger-stick whole-blood specimens from clients; reactive tests were confirmed with Western blot. Sixteen (4.1%) false-positive oral-fluid results occurred in the performance study from April 15, 2004 through August 31, 2004 with unexpired devices from six test lots among 388 HIV-uninfected clients (specificity, 95.9%; 95% CI: 93.4–97.6). Three test operators who had reported false-positive results performed and interpreted the test according to package-insert instructions. In multivariate analysis, only older age was significantly associated with false-positive results (adjusted odds ratio = 4.5, 95% CI: 1.2–25.7). In the incidence study, all valid oral-fluid and whole-blood results from 2,268 clients were concordant and no false-positive results occurred (100% specificity).
The field investigation did not identify a cause for the increase in false-positive oral-fluid results, and the incidence study detected no false-positive results. The findings suggest this was an isolated cluster; the test's overall performance was as specified by the manufacturer.
PMCID: PMC1779621  PMID: 17268576
6.  Attitudes about combination HIV therapies: The next generation of gay men at risk 
This study examined awareness of and attitudes about highly active antiret-roviral therapies (HAARTs) among adolescent and young men who have sex with men (MSM). As part of the multisite Young Men’s Survey, 813 MSM aged 15–22 years who attended public venues in two cities were questioned about HAART in 1997–1998. Overall, 45.1% had heard of HAART, 61.6% in Seattle, Washington, and 35.0% in New York City. MSM in New York City who were the youngest, men of color, men who were human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody negative, and men who resided in New Jersey were significantly less likely to be aware of HAART. Attitudes about HAART were not associated with sexual risk behaviors. Prevention efforts among young MSM should focus on other determinants of risk, but also include information on the changing nature of HIV therapies.
PMCID: PMC3455978  PMID: 12930887
Gay men; HIV treatment; Sexual behaviors

Results 1-6 (6)