Trauma induces local and subsequent systemic inflammatory reactions, and when the cytokine production is deregulated, a systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a potentially lethal outcome can occur. The understanding of the physiological mechanism of the cytokine network would be useful to better comprehend pathological conditions.
We analysed a panel of 30 cytokines in the serum of 20 patients operated with total hip replacement. Cytokine release was assessed postoperatively up to 6 days by a multiplex antibody bead kit and compared to pre-operative values.
Surgery induced significant increments in serum levels of IL-2R at 6 days after surgery, in levels of IL-6 at 6 hours after surgery and at 1 day after surgery, in levels of IL-8 at 6 hours after surgery, in levels of IL-16 at 6 hours and at 1 day after surgery. Significant decreases in serum levels of IL-1Rα were found at the end of surgery, in levels of IL-12 at the end of surgery and at 6 hours after, and in levels of Eotaxin during all phases of the postoperative course.
The major findings were significant increases in systemic levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-8, IL-16, while IL-12 was significantly decreased. Otherwise there were modest changes in the systemic cytokine kinetics and no significant expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines.