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1.  Maternal Periodontitis Treatment and Child Neurodevelopment at 24 to 28 Months of Age 
Pediatrics  2011;127(5):e1212-e1220.
Some maternal infections are associated with impaired infant cognitive and motor performance. Periodontitis results in frequent bacteremia and elevated serum inflammatory mediators.
The purpose of this study was to determine if periodontitis treatment in pregnant women affects infant cognitive, motor, or language development.
Children born to women who had participated in a previous trial were assessed between 24 and 28 months of age by using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (Third Edition) and the Preschool Language Scale (Fourth Edition). Information about the pregnancy, neonatal period, and home environment was obtained through chart abstractions, laboratory test results, and questionnaires. We compared infants born to women treated for periodontitis before 21 weeks' gestation (treatment group) or after delivery (controls). In unadjusted and adjusted analyses, associations between change in maternal periodontal condition during pregnancy and neurodevelopment scores were tested by using Student's t tests and linear regression.
A total of 411 of 791 eligible mother/caregiver-child pairs participated. Thirty-seven participating children (9.0%) were born at <37 weeks' gestation. Infants in the treatment and control groups did not differ significantly for adjusted mean cognitive (90.7 vs 91.4), motor (96.8 vs 97.2), or language (92.2 vs 92.1) scores (all P > .5). Results were similar in adjusted analyses. Children of women who experienced greater improvements in periodontal health had significantly higher motor and cognitive scores (P = .01 and .02, respectively), although the effect was small (∼1-point increase for each SD increase in the periodontal measure).
Nonsurgical periodontitis treatment in pregnant women was not associated with cognitive, motor, or language development in these study children.
PMCID: PMC3081189  PMID: 21482606
child neurodevelopment; periodontitis; pregnancy; treatment
2.  A History of Neonatal Medicine—Past Accomplishments, Lessons Learned, and Future Challenges: Part II—The 1990s, the New Millennium, Future Challenges 
This is the second of two articles reviewing the history of newborn medicine. This article will discuss recent accomplishments in the field of newborn medicine, current health outcome data, and future challenges facing the fields of neonatal and perinatal medicine.
PMCID: PMC3468066  PMID: 23118634
ethics; health disparities; health outcomes; micropremie; neonate; public health
3.  A History of Neonatal Medicine—Past Accomplishments, Lessons Learned, and Future Challenges. Part 1—The First Century 
This is the first of two articles that will review the history of neonatal medicine. This article will describe the beginnings of the modern era of newborn medicine, review pharmacological misadventures, and describe recent advances in the fields of neonatal and perinatal medicine.
PMCID: PMC3468063  PMID: 23118629
incubator; infant mortality rate; neonatal medicine; pharmacological misadventures; surfactant
4.  Developmental Changes in the Responses of Preterm Infants to a Painful Stressor 
Infant behavior & development  2008;31(4):614-623.
The purpose of this investigation was to examine longitudinally gestational age and developmental differences in preterm infants' self-regulatory abilities in response to a painful stressor, as well as associations between behavioral and cardiovascular responses. Participants included 49 healthy premature infants. Behavioral and cardiovascular responses to a heel stick blood draw were compared between infants of 28–31 and 32–34 weeks gestational age at birth. Both gestational age groups displayed behavioral and cardiovascular indications of stress in response to the blood draw. However, both shortly after birth and several weeks later, infants born at younger gestational ages (28–31 weeks) were more physiologically reactive. Evidence that the behavioral stress responses of 28–31 weeks gestational age group preterm infants do not reflect their physiological responses suggests that evaluation of preterm infants’ experiences and risk require assessments of both physiology and behavior. The greater stress vulnerability of the 28–31 relative to the 32–34 week gestation infants and the implications of this for subsequent development are discussed.
PMCID: PMC2668509  PMID: 18778857
Stress; Prematurity; Self-regulation; Physiological reactivity

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