Only two genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been conducted to date to identify potential markers for total mortality after diagnosis of breast cancer. Here we report the identification of two SNPs associated with total mortality from a two-stage GWAS conducted among 6,110 Shanghai-resident Chinese women with TNM stage I-IV breast cancer. The discovery stage included 1,950 patients and evaluated 613,031 common SNPs. The top 49 associations were evaluated in an independent replication stage of 4,160 Shanghai breast cancer patients. A consistent and highly significant association with total mortality was documented for SNPs rs3784099 and rs9934948. SNP rs3784099, located in the RAD51L1 gene, was associated with total morality in both the discovery stage (P=1.44×10−8) and replication stage (P=0.06; P-combined=1.17×10−7). Adjusted hazard ratios (HR) for total mortality were 1.41 (95%CI=1.18–1.68) for the AG genotype and 2.64 (95%CI=1.74–4.03) for the AA genotype, when compared with the GG genotype. The variant C allele of rs9934948, located on chromosome 16, was associated with a similarly elevated risk of total mortality (P-combined: 5.75×10−6). We also observed this association among 1,145 breast cancer patients of European-ancestry from the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS; P=0.006); the association was highly significant in a combined analysis of NHS and Chinese data (P=1.39×10−7). Similar associations were observed for these two SNPs with breast cancer-specific mortality. This study provides strong evidence suggesting that the RAD51L1 gene and a chromosome 16 locus influence breast cancer prognosis.
breast cancer; survival; genome-wide association study; Asian population; RAD51L1 gene
The risk factors for No. 12p and No. 12b lymph node (LN) metastases in advanced gastric cancer (GC) remain controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the risk factors for No. 12p and No. 12b LN metastases in advanced GC.
From January 1999 to December 2005, a retrospective analysis of 163 patients with advanced GC who underwent D2 lymphadenectomy in addition to No. 12p and No. 12b LN dissections was conducted. Potential clinicopathological factors that could influence No. 12p and No. 12b LN metastases were statistically analyzed.
There were 15 cases (9.2%) with No. 12p LN metastases and 5 cases (3.1%) with synchronous No. 12b LN metastases. A logistic regression analysis revealed that the Borrmann type (III/IV versus I/II, P = 0.029), localization (lesser/circular versus greater, P = 0.025), and depth of invasion (pT4 versus pT2/pT3, P = 0.009) were associated with 11.1-, 3.8-, and 5.6-fold increases, respectively, for risk of No. 12p and No. 12b LN metastases. A logistic regression analysis also showed that No. 5 (P = 0.006) and No. 12a (P = 0.004) LN metastases were associated with 6.9- and 11.3-fold increases, respectively, for risk of No. 12p and No. 12b LN metastases. In addition, significant differences in 5-year survival of patients with and without No. 12p and No. 12b LN metastases were observed (13.3% versus 35.1%, P = 0.022).
We conclude that Borrmann type, localization, and depth of invasion are significant variables for identifying patients with No. 12p and No. 12b LN metastases. Individuals with No. 5 or No. 12a LN metastases should be on high alert for the possibility of additional metastases to the No. 12p and No. 12b LNs.
Gastrectomy; gastric cancer; lymphadenectomy; metastasis; risk factor
We conducted a three-stage genetic study to identify susceptibility loci for type 2 diabetes (T2D) in East Asian populations. The first stage meta-analysis of eight T2D genome-wide association studies (6,952 cases and 11,865 controls) was followed by a second stage in silico replication analysis (5,843 cases and 4,574 controls) and a stage 3 de novo replication analysis (12,284 cases and 13,172 controls). The combined analysis identified eight new T2D loci reaching genome-wide significance, which were mapped in or near GLIS3, PEPD, FITM2-R3HDML-HNF4A, KCNK16, MAEA, GCC1-PAX4, PSMD6 and ZFAND3. GLIS3, involved in pancreatic beta cell development and insulin gene expression1,2, is known for its association with fasting glucose levels3,4. The evidence of T2D association for PEPD5 and HNF4A6,7 has been detected in previous studies. KCNK16 may regulate glucose-dependent insulin secretion in the pancreas. These findings derived from East Asians provide new perspectives on the etiology of T2D.
Capsaicin, a pungent phytochemical in a variety of red peppers of the genus Capsicum, has shown an anti-proliferative effect on various human cancer cell lines. In contrast, capsaicin has also been considered to promote the growth of cancer cells. Thus, the effects of capsaicin on various cell types need to be explored. The anti-proliferative effects of capsaicin on human KB cancer cells are still unknown. Therefore, we examined the viability, cell cycle progression, and factors associated with apoptosis in KB cells treated with capsaicin.
The cell proliferation/viability and cytotoxicity of KB cells exposed to capsaicin were determined by a sulforhodamine B colorimetric assay and trypan blue exclusion. Apoptosis was detected by Hoechst staining and confirmed by western blot analysis of poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage. Cell cycle distribution and changes of the mitochondrial membrane potential were analyzed by flow cytometry. Furthermore, the expression of caspase 3, 8 and 9 was evaluated by immunoblotting.
We found that treatment of KB cells with capsaicin significantly reduced cell proliferation/viability and induced cell death in a dose-dependent manner compared with that in the untreated control. Cell cycle analysis indicated that exposure of KB cells to capsaicin resulted in cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase. Capsaicin-induced growth inhibition of KB cells appeared to be associated with induction of apoptosis. Moreover, capsaicin induced disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential as well as activation of caspase 9, 3 and poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase in KB cells.
Our data demonstrate that capsaicin modulates cell cycle progression and induces apoptosis in human KB cancer cells through mitochondrial membrane permeabilization and caspase activation. These observations suggest an anti-cancer activity of capsaicin.
Capsaicin; KB cells; Cell cycle; Apoptosis; Mitochondria
We compared exemplar strains from two hypervirulent clonal complexes, strain NMB-CDC from ST-8/11 cc and strain MC58 from ST-32/269 cc, in host cell attachment and invasion. Strain NMB-CDC attached to and invaded host cells at a significantly greater frequency than strain MC58. Type IV pili retained the primary role for initial attachment to host cells for both isolates regardless of pilin class and glycosylation pattern. In strain MC58, the serogroup B capsule was the major inhibitory determinant affecting both bacterial attachment to and invasion of host cells. Removal of terminal sialylation of lipooligosaccharide (LOS) in the presence of capsule did not influence rates of attachment or invasion for strain MC58. However, removal of either serogroup B capsule or LOS sialylation in strain NMB-CDC increased bacterial attachment to host cells to the same extent. Although the level of inhibition of attachment by capsule was different between these strains, the regulation of the capsule synthesis locus by the two-component response regulator MisR, and the level of surface capsule determined by flow cytometry were not significantly different. However, the diplococci of strain NMB-CDC were shown to have a 1.89-fold greater surface area than strain MC58 by flow cytometry. It was proposed that the increase in surface area without changing the amount of anchored glycolipid capsule in the outer membrane would result in a sparser capsule and increase surface hydrophobicity. Strain NMB-CDC was shown to be more hydrophobic than strain MC58 using hydrophobicity interaction chromatography and microbial adhesion-to-solvents assays. In conclusion, improved levels of adherence of strain NMB-CDC to cell lines was associated with increased bacterial cell surface and surface hydrophobicity. This study shows that there is diversity in bacterial cell surface area and surface hydrophobicity within N. meningitidis which influence steps in meningococcal pathogenesis.
There are urgent needs for rapid and accurate drug susceptibility testing of M. tuberculosis. GenoType MTBDRsl is a new molecular kit designed for rapid identification of the resistance to the second-line antituberculosis drugs with a single strip. In recent years, it has been evaluated in many settings, but with varied results. The aim of this meta-analysis was to synthesize the latest data on the diagnostic accuracy of GenoType MTBDRsl in detecting drug resistance to fluoroquinolones, amikacin, capreomycin, kanamycin and ethambutol, in comparison with the phenotypic drug susceptibility test.
This systematic review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guideline. The search terms of “MTBDRsl” and “tuberculosis” were used on PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science. QUADAS-2 was used to assess the quality of included studies. Data were analyzed by Meta-Disc 1.4. We calculated the sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (PLR), negative likelihood ratio (NLR), diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) for each study. From these calculations, forest plots and summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curves were produced.
Patient selection bias as well as flow and timing bias were observed in most studies. The summarized sensitivity (95% CI) was 0.874(0.845–0.899), 0.826(0.777–0.869), 0.820(0.772–0.862), 0.444(0.396–0.492), and 0.679(0.652–0.706) for fluoroquinolones, amikacin, capreomycin, kanamycin, and ethambutol, respectively. The specificity (95% CI) was 0.971(0.961–0.980), 0.995(0.987–0.998), 0.973(0.963–0.981), 0.993(0.985–0.997), and 0.799(0.773–0.823), respectively. The AUC (standard error) were 0.9754(0.0203), 0.9300(0.0598), 0.9885(0.0038), 0.9689(0.0359), and 0.6846(0.0550), respectively.
Genotype MTBDRsl showed good accuracy for detecting drug resistance to fluoroquinolones, amikacin and capreomycin, but it may not be an appropriate choice for kanamycin and ethambutol. The lack of data did not allow for proper evaluation of the test on clinical specimens. Further systematic assessment of diagnostic performance should be carried out on direct clinical samples.
The contribution of glycemic variability to macrovascular complications remains unclear. We therefore investigated the association between glycemic variability and cervical and/or intracranial atherosclerosis in Chinese type 2 diabetic patients.
We conducted a cross-sectional study in 216 type 2 diabetic patients with a hemoglobin A1c of 8.3 ± 1.7% and a median diabetes duration of 9.0 years. The standard deviation of blood glucose values (SDBG) and the mean amplitude of glycemic excursion (MAGE) were calculated from continuous glucose monitoring system data for assessing glycemic variability while 24h mean blood glucose (MBG) was calculated for measuring overall blood glucose level. Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) was used to detect cervical and/or intracranial plaque, and ultrasonography was used to quantify carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) as an index of subclinical atherosclerosis.
One hundred and fifty-three patients (70.8%) presented with cervical and/or intracranial lesions on MRA among 216 patients in the study. Elder age, increased systolic blood pressure, increased MBG and elevated low density lipoprotein cholesterol were independent contributors to plaque formation. In patients without stenosis (n = 63), SDBG (r = 0.412, P = 0.001) and MAGE (r = 0.365, P = 0.005) were both correlated with carotid IMT and these relationships remained significant in multiple linear regression analysis (multiple R2 = 0.314 for the model including SDBG and multiple R2 = 0.268 for the model including MAGE). However, SDBG and MAGE were not significantly different among patients with different stenosis degrees.
Glycemic variability is associated with subclinical atherosclerosis in Chinese type 2 diabetic patients.
Glycemic variability; Type 2 diabetes; Atherosclerosis; Intima-media thickness; Magnetic resonance angiography.
Generic job-exposure matrices (JEMs) are often used in population-based epidemiologic studies to assess occupational risk factors when only the job and industry information of each subject is available. JEM ratings are often based on professional judgment, are usually ordinal or semi-quantitative, and often do not account for changes in exposure over time. We present an empirical Bayesian framework that combines ordinal subjective JEM ratings with benzene measurements. Our aim was to better discriminate between job, industry, and time differences in exposure levels compared to using a JEM alone.
We combined 63 221 short-term area air measurements of benzene exposure (1954–2000) collected during routine health and safety inspections in Shanghai, China, with independently developed JEM intensity ratings for each job and industry using a mixed-effects model. The fixed-effects terms included the JEM intensity ratings for job and industry (both ordinal, 0–3) and a time trend that we incorporated as a b-spline. The random-effects terms included job (n = 33) and industry nested within job (n = 399). We predicted the benzene concentration in two ways: (i) a calibrated JEM estimate was calculated using the fixed-effects model parameters for calendar year and JEM intensity ratings; (ii) a job-/industry-specific estimate was calculated using the fixed-effects model parameters and the best linear unbiased predictors from the random effects for job and industry using an empirical Bayes estimation procedure. Finally, we applied the predicted benzene exposures to a prospective population-based cohort of women in Shanghai, China (n = 74 942).
Exposure levels were 13 times higher in 1965 than in 2000 and declined at a rate that varied from 4 to 15% per year from 1965 to 1985, followed by a small peak in the mid-1990s. The job-/industry-specific estimates had greater differences between exposure levels than the calibrated JEM estimates (97.5th percentile/2.5th percentile exposure level, BGR95B: 20.4 versus 3.0, respectively). The calibrated JEM and job-/industry-specific estimates were moderately correlated in any given year (Pearson correlation, rp = 0.58). We classified only those jobs and industries with a job or industry JEM exposure probability rating of 3 (>50% of workers exposed) as exposed. As a result, 14.8% of the subjects and 8.7% of the employed person-years in the study population were classified as benzene exposed. The cumulative exposure metrics based on the calibrated JEM and job-/industry-specific estimates were highly correlated (rp = 0.88).
We provide a useful framework for combining quantitative exposure data with expert-based exposure ratings in population-based studies that maximized the information from both sources. Our framework calibrated the ratings to a concentration scale between ratings and across time and provided a mechanism to estimate exposure when a job/industry group reported by a subject was not represented in the exposure database. It also allowed the job/industry groups’ exposure levels to deviate from the pooled average for their respective JEM intensity ratings.
benzene; job-exposure matrix; mixed-effects models; retrospective exposure assessment
To evaluate a biochip system in determining isoniazid and rifampicin resistances of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum samples in a Chinese population.
We assembled 907 sputum smeared positive specimens of tuberculosis patients in total. Each sample would be separated into two parts for culture and biochip assay simultaneously. And those cultured positive and having full drug resistance results would be used as reference. The McNemar χ2 test was adopted for evaluating the paired 2×2 table.
Compared with drug sensitivity test, the agreement rates of the two methods in detecting rifampicin and isoniazid resistances were 93.37% and 94.49%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of biochip in detecting isoniazid were 74.31% and 96.92%, respectively. Meanwhile, the sensitivity and specificity for rifampicin were 79.76% and 96.53%, respectively. For multi-drug resistance, the sensitivity and specificity were 64.62% and 97.75%, respectively.
The biochip system is a rapid and accurate method for drug resistant tuberculosis diagnosis using sputum samples directly, especially for rifampicin resistance detection.
Atherosclerosis is one of the major complications of type 2 diabetic patients (T2DM), leading to morbidity and mortality. Grape seed procyanidin B2 (GSPB2) has demonstrated protective effect against atherosclerosis, which is believed to be, at least in part, a result of its antioxidative effects. The aim of this study is to identify the target protein of GSPB2 responsible for the protective effect against atherosclerosis in patients with DM.
Methods and Results
GSPB2 (30 mg/kg body weight/day) were administrated to db/db mice for 10 weeks. Proteomics of the aorta extracts by iTRAQ analysis was obtained from db/db mice. The results showed that expression of 557 proteins were either up- or down-regulated in the aorta of diabetic mice. Among those proteins, 139 proteins were normalized by GSPB2 to the levels comparable to those in control mice. Among the proteins regulated by GSPB2, the milk fat globule epidermal growth factor-8 (MFG-E8) was found to be increased in serum level in T2DM patients; the serum level of MFG-E8 was positively correlated with carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (CF-PWV). Inhibition of MFG-E8 by RNA interference significantly suppressed whereas exogenous recombinant MFG-E8 administration exacerbated atherogenesis the db/db mice. To gain more insights into the mechanism of action of MFG-E8, we investigated the effects of MFG-E8 on the signal pathway involving the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). Treatment with recombinant MFG-E8 led to increased whereas inhibition of MFG-E8 to decreased expression of MCP-1 and phosphorylation of ERK1/2.
Our data suggests that MFG-E8 plays an important role in atherogenesis in diabetes through both ERK and MCP-1 signaling pathways. GSPB2, a well-studied antioxidant, significantly inhibited the arterial wall changes favoring atherogenesis in db/db mice by down-regulating MFG-E8 expression in aorta and its serum level. Measuring MFG-E8 serum level could be a useful clinical surrogate prognosticating atherogenesis in DM patients.
The human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represents biologically aggressive and chemo-resistant cancers. Owing to the low affinity with the apoptotic factor Mcl-1, the BH3 mimetic drug ABT-737 failed to exert potent cancer-killing activities in variety of cancer models including HCC. The current study demonstrated that combining ABT-737 and Celastrol synergistically suppressed HCC cell proliferation, and induced apoptosis which was accompanied with the activation of caspase cascade and release of cytochrome c from mitochondria. Further study revealed that the enhanced Noxa caused by Celastrol was the key factor for the synergy, since small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of Noxa expression in HCC cells resulted in decreased apoptosis and attenuated anti-proliferative effects of the combination. In addition, our study unraveled that, upon Celastrol exposure, the activation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, specifically, the eIF2α-ATF4 pathway played indispensable roles in the activation of Noxa, which was validated by the observation that depletion of ATF4 significantly abrogated the Noxa elevation by Celastrol. Our findings highlight a novel signaling pathway through which Celastrol increase Noxa expression, and suggest the potential use of ATF4-mediated regulation of Noxa as a promising strategy to improve the anti-cancer activities of ABT-737.
Although approximately 20 common genetic susceptibility loci have been identified for breast cancer risk through genome-wide association studies (GWASs), genetic risk variants reported to date explain only a small fraction of heritability for this common cancer. We conducted a four-stage GWAS including 17 153 cases and 16 943 controls among East-Asian women to search for new genetic risk factors for breast cancer. After analyzing 684 457 SNPs in 2062 cases and 2066 controls (Stage I), we selected for replication among 5969 Chinese women (4146 cases and 1823 controls) the top 49 SNPs that had neither been reported previously nor were in strong linkage disequilibrium with reported SNPs (Stage II). Three SNPs were further evaluated in up to 13 152 Chinese and Japanese women (6436 cases and 6716 controls) (Stage III). Finally, two SNPs were evaluated in 10 847 Korean women (4509 cases and 6338 controls) (Stage IV). SNP rs10822013 on chromosome 10q21.2, located in the zinc finger protein 365 (ZNF365) gene, showed a consistent association with breast cancer risk in all four stages with a combined per-risk allele odds ratio of 1.10 (95% CI: 1.07–1.14) (P-value for trend = 5.87 × 10−9). In vitro electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated the potential functional significance of rs10822013. Our results strongly implicate rs10822013 at 10q21.2 as a genetic risk variant for breast cancer among East-Asian women.
It has been suggested that soy food and its components may relieve menopausal symptoms (MPS) including hot flashes, night sweats, and vaginal dryness in healthy women. However, little is known about the effect of soy food intake on MPS in women with breast cancer. We examined associations of occurrence of MPS with soy food intake in 4,842 Chinese women aged 20–75 years who had non-metastatic breast cancer and had not used hormone replacement therapy. MPS were assessed at 6 and 36 months after cancer diagnosis using a standardized questionnaire, and associations with soy food intake were evaluated in multivariate regression analyses. Daily soy food intake was assessed at 6 months postdiagnosis and over the first 36 months postdiagnosis using a validated food frequency questionnaire. The prevalence of MPS was 56% at 6 months and 63% at 36 months postdiagnosis with the hotflash being the most common MPS (~44–55%). Hot flashes occurred mainly in premenopausal breast cancer patients who were in the highest quartile of isoflavone intake at 6 months post-diagnosis (OR = 1.20, 95% CI: 0.98–1.59) compared with the lowest quartile. This association was stronger at 36 months postdiagnosis (OR = 1.59, 95% CI: 1.02–2.48). We found no significant associations for any MPS, night sweats, or vaginal dryness. Neither tamoxifen use nor BMI modified the association between MPS and isoflavone intake. There was no evidence that soy food consumption reduced MPS among breast cancer patients. High soy intake may increase the prevalence of hotflashes among pre-menopausal patients. Our study suggests that soy acts as an estrogen antagonist in breast cancer patients.
Breast cancer; Menopausal symptoms; Soy isoflavones; Tamoxifen; BMI
Obese and underweight women who develop breast cancer may have poorer survival compared to normal-weight women. However, the optimal weight for best prognosis is still under study. We conducted a prospective investigation of pre-diagnosis body mass index (BMI) and mortality among 14,948 breast cancer patients in the After Breast Cancer Pooling Project. Breast cancer patients diagnosed from 1990-2006 with AJCC Stage I-III breast tumors were drawn from four prospective cohorts. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) representing the associations of BMI categories (World Health Organization international classifications) with recurrence and mortality were estimated using delayed entry Cox proportional hazards models. Obese (30-<35 kg/m2), severely obese (35-<40 kg/m2), and morbidly obese (≥40 kg/m2) were examined. After a mean follow-up of 7.8 years, 2,140 deaths and 2,065 recurrences were documented. Both underweight (HR=1.59; 95% CI: 1.18, 2.13) and morbidly obese women (HR=1.81; 95% CI: 1.42, 2.32) had the greatest risk of overall mortality compared to normal-weight (18.5-24.9 kg/m2) women. Severe obesity (HR=1.09; 95% CI: 0.88, 1.36) and obesity (HR=1.11; 95% CI: 0.97, 1.27) were related to small, non-significant increased risks. Overweight (25.0-29.9 kg/m2) was not associated with any excess risk compared to normal weight. Similar associations were found for breast cancer death and non-breast cancer death but not recurrence. Women who were underweight and morbidly obese before breast cancer diagnosis were at the greatest risk of all-cause mortality. Morbidly obese women were also at increased risk of death from breast cancer. These results suggest that degree of obesity confers differential risk on survival.
body mass index; weight; obesity; breast cancer; survival; prognosis; mortality
Aberrant DNA methylation of CpG islands is a common epigenetic alteration found in cancers. DNA methylation is typically mediated by DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs). Only two studies have evaluated DNMT-3B and/or DNMT-1 gene polymorphisms in relation to breast cancer risk, and results have been inconsistent. We comprehensively evaluated genetic variations in the DNMT-1 and DNMT-3B genes with breast cancer risk among the participants of the Shanghai Breast Cancer Study (SBCS), a large-scale, two-stage, case-control study. Of the 25 SNPs in the DNMT-1 and DNMT-3B genes analyzed, only one (rs8101866) reached a normal significance level (p=0.042). This association, however, was no longer statistically significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons. Our data suggest that there is no apparent association of common DNMT-1 and DNMT-3B polymorphisms with the risk of breast cancer among Chinese women.
breast cancer; SNPs; DNMT-1; DNMT-3B; risk
Although the outbreak of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in Guangdong has been documented for more than a decade, the molecular characteristics of such a regional HIV-1 epidemic remained unknown.
By sequencing of HIV-1 pol/env genes and phylogenetic analysis, we performed a molecular epidemiologic study in a representative subset (n = 200) of the 508 HIV-1-seropositive individuals followed up at the center for HIV/AIDS care and treatment of Guangzhou Hospital of Infectious Diseases. Of 157 samples (54.1% heterosexual acquired adults, 20.4% needle-sharing drug users, 5.7% receivers of blood transfusion, 1.3% men who have sex with men, and 18.5% remained unknown) with successful sequencing for both pol and env genes, 105 (66.9%) HIV-1 subtype CRF01_AE and 24 (15.3%) CRF07_BC, 9 (5.7%) B’, 5 (3.2%) CRF08_BC, 5 (3.2%) B, 1 (0.6%) C, 3 (1.9%) CRF02_AG, and 5 (3.2%) inter-region recombinants were identified within pol/env sequences. Thirteen (8.3%) samples (3 naïves, 6 and 5 received with antiretroviral treatment [ART] 1–21 weeks and ≥24 weeks respectively) showed mutations conferring resistance to nucleoside/nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors or protease inhibitors. Among 63 ART-naïve patients, 3 (4.8%) showed single or multiple drug resistant mutations. Phylogenetic analysis showed 8 small clusters (2–3 sequences/cluster) with only 17 (10.8%) sequences involved.
This study confirms that sexual transmission with dominant CRF01_AE strain is a major risk for current HIV-1 outbreak in the Guangdong’s general population. The transmission with drug-resistant variants is starting to emerge in this region.
αB-crystallin (α-BC), the fifth member of mammalian small heat shock protein family (HspB5), is known to be expressed in many tissues and has a distinctive interaction with cytoskeleton components. In this study, we investigated that α-BC and microtubule-associated protein-2 (MAP-2), a neuron-specific cytoskeleton protein, were coexpressed in neurons of Gerbil cortex, while in subcortex Gerbil brains, we found that several MAP-2-negative glia cells also express α-BC. When subjected to 10-minute bilateral carotid artery occlusion (BCAO), an increment was observed in α-BC-positive cells after 6-hour reperfusion and peaked at around 7 days after. In the same circumstances, the number and the staining concentration of MAP-2 positive neurons significantly decreased immediately after 6-hour reperfusion, followed by a slow recovery, which is consistent with the increase of α-BC. Our results suggested that α-BC plays an important role in brain ischemia, providing the early protection of neurons by giving intracellular supports through the maintenance of cytoskeleton and extracellular supports through the protection of glia cells.
Objectives and design
We identified a novel TRIM59 gene, as an early signal transducer in two (SV40Tag and Ras) oncogene pathways in murine prostate cancer (CaP) models. We explore its clinical applications as a multitumour marker detecting early tumorigenesis by immunohistochemistry (IHC).
Setting and participants
88 CaP patients were from a tissue microarray (TMA) of radical prostatectomy specimen, 42 patients from a 35 multiple tumour TMA, 75 patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and 92 patients from eight different tumour groups (breast, lung, parotid, gastrointestinal, female genital tract, bladder, kidney and prostate cancer).
TRIM59 upregulation specifically in tumour area was determined by IHC in 291 cases of 37 tumour types. To demonstrate that TRIM59 upregulation is ‘tumour-specific’, we characterised a significant correlation of TRIM59 IHC signals with tumorigenesis and progression, while in control and normal area, TRIM59 IHC signal was all negative or significantly low. TRIM59 protein upregulation in prostate and kidney cancers was detectable in both intensity and extent in early tumorigenesis of prostate intraepithelial neoplasia (p<0.05) and grade 1 of RCC (p<0.05), and stopped until high grades cancer. The results of the correlation in these two large cohorts of tumour types confirmed and repeated murine CaP model studies. Enhanced TRIM59 expression was identified in most of the 37 different tumours, while the highest intensities were in lung, breast, liver, skin, tongue and mouth (squamous cell cancer) and endometrial cancers. Multiple tumour upregulation was further confirmed by comparing relative scores of TRIM59 IHC signals in eight tumours with a larger patient population; and by a mouse whole-mount embryo (14.5 days post conception) test on the origin of TRIM59 upregulation in epithelial cells.
TRIM59 may be used a novel multiple tumour marker for immunohistochemical detecting early tumorigenesis and could direct a novel strategy for molecular-targeted diagnosis and therapy of cancer.
Imaging of apoptosis can allow noninvasive assessment of disease states and response to therapeutic intervention for a variety of diseases. The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a multimodal nanoplatform for the detection of apoptosis.
To modulate the pharmacokinetics of annexin A5, a 36-kDa protein that binds specifically with phosphatidylserine, annexin A5 was conjugated to polyethylene glycol-coated, core-crosslinked polymeric micelles (CCPM) dually labeled with near-infrared fluorescence fluorophores and a radioisotope (indium 111). To evaluate the specificity of the binding of annexin A5-CCPM to apoptotic cells, both fluorescence microscopy and cell binding studies were performed in vitro. Pharmacokinetics, biodistribution, dual nuclear and optical imaging, and immunohistochemical studies were carried out in 2 xenografted tumor models to evaluate the potential applications of annexin A5-CCPM.
In cell-based studies, annexin A5-CCPM exhibited strongly specific binding to apoptotic tumor cells. This binding could be efficiently blocked by annexin A5. In mice, annexin A5-CCPM displayed a mean elimination half-life of 12.5 h. The mean initial concentration in blood was predicted to be 22.4% of the injected dose/mL, and annexin A5-CCPM was mainly distributed in the central blood compartment. In mice bearing EL4 lymphoma treated with cyclophosphamide and etoposide and in mice bearing MDA-MB-468 breast tumors treated with poly(L-glutamic acid)-paclitaxel and cetuximab (IMC-C225) anti-EGFR antibody, the tumor apoptosis was clearly visualized by both single photon emission computed tomography and fluorescence molecular tomography. In contrast, there was little accumulation of this nanoradiotracer in the tumors of untreated mice. The biodistribution data were consistent with the imaging data, with tumor-to-muscle and tumor-to-blood ratios of 38.8 and 4.1, respectively, in treated mice, and 14.8 and 2.2, respectively, in untreated mice bearing EL4 lymphoma. Moreover, further studies demonstrated that the conventional Tc-99m-labeled HYNIC-annexin A5 and the plain CCPM control exhibited significantly lower uptake in the tumors of the treated mice than annexin A5-CCPM. Immunohistochemistry staining study showed that radioactivity count correlated with fluorescence signal from the nanoparticles, and both signals co-localized with the region of tumor apoptosis.
Annexin A5-CCPM allowed visualization of tumor apoptosis by both nuclear and optical techniques. The complementary information acquired with multiple imaging techniques should be advantageous in assessing and validating early response to therapy.
Apoptosis; Annexin A5; Polymeric Micelles; Nuclear Imaging; Fluorescence Optical Imaging
Advancements in nanotechnology have made it possible to create multifunctional nanostructures that can be used simultaneously to image and treat cancers. For example, hollow gold nanospheres (HAuNS) have been shown to generate intense photoacoustic signals and induce efficient photothermal ablation (PTA) therapy. In this study, we used photoacoustic tomography (PAT), a hybrid imaging modality, to assess the intravenous delivery of HAuNS targeted to integrins that are overexpressed in both glioma and angiogenic blood vessels in a mouse model of glioma. Mice were then treated with near-infrared laser, which elevated tumor temperature by 20.7 °C. We found that PTA treatment significantly prolonged the survival of tumor-bearing mice. Taken together, these results demonstrate the feasibility of using a single nanostructure for image-guided local tumor PTA therapy using photoacoustic molecular imaging.
Previous studies evaluating the association of vitamin D related genetic variants with breast cancer risk have produced inconsistent results.
We evaluated the association between breast cancer risk and of 559 SNPs in 12 vitamin D-related genes, including 6 genes associated with circulating 25(OH)D level identified by recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) using directly observed and imputed GWAS genotyping data from 2,919 breast cancer cases and 2,323 controls recruited in the Shanghai Breast Cancer Study (SBCS).
Of the studied SNPs, only rs12570116 in ACADSB, rs10902845 in C10orf88, rs4760658 in VDR, and rs6091822, rs8124792 and rs6097809 in CYP24A1 had a nominal association with breast cancer risk (P value <0.05 for all). None of these association persisted after adjustment for multiple comparisons. The most extensively studied SNPs including rs10735810, also known as rs2228570 (Fok1, VDR), rs1544410 (Bsm1, VDR), and rs2296241 (CYP24A1) were not associated with breast cancer risk. GWAS-identified genetic variants that were associated with 25(OH)D were also not related to breast cancer risk.
Our data suggest that genetic polymorphisms in vitamin D-related genes do not play a major role in breast cancer risk in Chinese women.
Although our study confirms previously documented breast cancer risk-factor associations, our null results suggest that common genetic variants in vitamin D genes and loci associated with control of vitamin D levels are not risk factors for breast cancer in Chinese women. Our data contributes to filling the gap in this field of research.
breast cancer; risk; polymorphisms; vitamin D pathway genes; 25(OH)D; GWAS
Image-guided thermal ablation of tumors is becoming a more widely accepted minimally invasive alternative to surgery for patients who are not good surgical candidates, such as patients with advanced head and neck cancer. In this study, multifunctional superparamagnetic iron oxide coated with gold nanoshell (SPIO@Au NS) that have both optical and magnetic properties was conjugated with the targeting agent, C225 monoclonal antibody, against epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). C225-SPIO@Au NS have an average a diameter of 82±4.4 nm, contain 142±15 antibodies per nanoshell, have an absorption peak in the near infrared (~800 nm), and have transverse relaxivity (r2) of 193 and 353 mM−1s−1 versus Feridex of 171 and 300 mM−1s−1, using 1.5T and 7T MR scanners, respectively. Specific targeting of the synthesized C225-SPIO@Au NS was tested in vitro using A431 cells and oral cancer cells, FaDu, OSC-19, and HN5, all of which overexpress EGFR. Selective binding was achieved using C225-SPIO@Au NS but not with the non-targeting PEG-SPIO@Au NS and blocking group (excess of C225 + C225-SPIO@Au NS). In vivo biodistribution on mice bearing A431 tumors also showed selective targeting of C225-SPIO@Au NS compared with the non-targeting and blocking groups. The selective photothermal ablation of the nanoshells shows that without laser treatment there were no cell death and among the groups that were treated with laser at a power of 36 W/cm2 for 3 minutes, only the cells treated with C225-SPIO@Au NS had cell killing (p < 0.001). In summary, successful synthesis and characterization of targeted C225-SPIO@Au NS demonstrating both superparamagnetic and optical properties has been achieved. We have shown both in vitro and in vivo that these nanoshells are MR-active and can be selectively heated up for simultaneous imaging and photothermal ablation therapy.
Theranostics; Gold nanoshells; Magnetic resonance imaging; Laser ablation; Ultrasmall paramagnetic iron oxide (SPIO)
Treatments for tobacco dependence exist but are underutilized, particularly among low-income and minority smokers. Patient navigation has been shown to help patients overcome barriers to quality care. In preparation for testing the feasibility of integrating tobacco cessation patient navigation into primary care, this paper describes the development and qualitative evaluation of a new curriculum for training patient navigators to address cessation treatment barriers faced by low-income, minority smokers who are advised to quit by their physicians. Thematic text analysis of transcripts obtained from focus groups with experienced patient navigators (n = 19) was conducted. Participants endorsed patient navigation as a relevant strategy for addressing tobacco cessation treatment barriers and made several recommendations regarding the knowledge, core competencies, and skills needed to conduct tobacco cessation patient navigation. This curriculum could be used by existing patient navigation training centers or made available as a self-guided continuing education program for experienced navigators who wish to expand their navigation interventions to include a tobacco cessation focus.
Smoking; Tobacco cessation; Patient navigation; Tobacco dependence; Disparities
Etiologic differences between subtypes of breast cancer defined by estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status are not well understood. The authors evaluated associations of hormone-related factors with breast cancer subtypes in a population-based case-control study involving 1,409 ER-positive (ER+)/PR-positive (PR+) cases, 712 ER-negative (ER−)/PR-negative (PR−) cases, 301 ER+/PR− cases, 254 ER−/PR+ cases, and 3,474 controls aged 20–70 years in Shanghai, China (phase I, 1996–1998; phase II, 2002–2005). Polytomous logistic regression and Wald tests for heterogeneity across subtypes were conducted. Breast cancer risks associated with age at menarche, age at menopause, breastfeeding, age at first livebirth, waist-to-hip ratio, and oral contraceptive use did not differ by hormone receptor status. Among postmenopausal women, higher parity (≥2 children vs. 1) was associated with reduced risk (odds ratio (OR) = 0.69, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.52, 0.91) and higher body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)2) with increased risk (highest quartile: OR = 2.40, 95% CI: 1.65, 3.47) of the ER+/PR+ subtype but was unrelated to the ER−/PR− subtype (for parity, Pheterogeneity = 0.02; for BMI, Pheterogeneity < 0.01). Hormone replacement therapy (OR = 2.25, 95% CI: 1.40, 3.62) and alcohol consumption (OR = 1.59, 95% CI: 1.01, 2.51) appeared to be preferentially associated with the ER+/PR− subtype. These findings indicate that BMI, parity, hormone replacement therapy, and alcohol consumption may play different roles in subtypes of breast cancer. More research is needed to better understand the etiology of 2 relatively rare subtypes, ER+/PR− tumors and ER−/PR+ tumors.
breast neoplasms; China; hormones; receptors, estrogen; receptors, progesterone; risk factors; women