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1.  Efficacy and safety of gemcitabine-based chemotherapies in biliary tract cancer: A meta-analysis 
World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG  2014;20(47):18001-18012.
AIM: To investigate the efficacy and safety of gemcitabine (Gem)-based combination chemotherapies for the treatment of advanced biliary tract cancer.
METHODS: Clinical trials were identified by searching scientific literature databases (PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library) for studies published between 1975 and 2013. Two reviewers independently evaluated the relevant studies and manually searched references from these reports to locate additional eligible studies. The disease response and control rates, progression-free and overall survivals, and the grade 3-4 toxicities were evaluated by a meta-analysis. Odds-ratios (ORs) of the disease response and control rates and grade 3-4 toxicities, and the mean difference (MD) of both progression-free and overall survivals were calculated and used for statistical analysis.
RESULTS: Seven randomized trials with a total of 858 patients were selected and included in the final analysis. The studies were divided into subgroups based on the chemotherapy regimens, including Gem-based and non-Gem-based chemotherapies. The overall analyses revealed that the patients treated with Gem-based combination chemotherapy had significantly higher disease response rates [OR = 1.69, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.17-2.43; P = 0.01], a longer progression-free survival (MD = 1.95, 95%CI: 0.90-3.00; P = 0.00) and a longer overall survival (MD = 1.85, 95%CI: 0.26-3.44; P = 0.02). A higher incidence of grade 3-4 hematological toxicities, including leukopenia (OR = 2.98, 95%CI: 1.44-6.20; P = 0.00), anemia (OR = 2.96, 95%CI: 1.79-4.92; P = 0.00) and neutropenia (OR = 2.80, 95%CI: 1.39-5.64; P = 0.00) was found in the Gem-based combination chemotherapy group compared with the Gem monotherapy and non-Gem-based chemotherapy groups.
CONCLUSION: Gem-based combination chemotherapy is a potential first-line treatment for advanced biliary tract cancer as a result of improved survival, though with additional toxicity.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v20.i47.18001
PMCID: PMC4273152  PMID: 25548500
Biliary tract cancer; Combination chemotherapy; Gemcitabine; Meta-analysis; Randomized trial
2.  TET3 mediates the activation of human hepatic stellate cells via modulating the expression of long non-coding RNA HIF1A-AS1 
Activated Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) play a critical role in liver fibrosis and a lot of efforts have been made to dissect the underlying mechanism involved in activation of HSCs. However, the underlying mechanism remains douteux up to now. In the present study, we found that TET3, one member of ten-eleven translocation (TET) protein family, reduced significantly in HSCs LX-2 activated by TGF-β1. To study the function of TET3 in activation of HSCs, knockdown was performed by RNA interference. Results showed that cell proliferation rise significantly and cell apoptosis reduce obviously after knockdown of TET3. Meanwhile, IHC showed that the expression of α-SMA rise significantly compared to control. These results indicated that TET3 is closely associated with the activation of HSCs. Further studies found that long non-coding RNA HIF1A-AS1 was reduced significantly in LX-2 cell after treatment with siRNA for TET3. The result hinted that TET3 activate HSCs through modulating the expression of HIF1A-AS1. To confirm this hypothesis, RNA interference was performed to silence the HIF1A-AS1. Results showed that HIF1A-AS1 silencing lead to enhancing in cell proliferation and declining apoptosis. Taken together, TET3 can mediate the activation of HSCs via modulating the expression of the long non-coding RNA HIF1A-AS1.
PMCID: PMC4270585  PMID: 25550811
Liver fibrosis; HSCs; TET3; long non-coding RNA; HIF1A-AS1
3.  Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 with upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage and perforation: A case report and review 
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is a rare hereditary syndrome known to predispose subjects to endocrine neoplasms in a variety of tissues such as the parathyroid glands, pituitary gland, pancreas and gastrointestinal tract. We herein report a patient with a past history of pituitary adenoma, presenting with symptoms of chronic diarrhea for nearly one year and a sudden upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage as well as perforation without signs. Nodules in the duodenum and in the uncinate process and tail of pancreas and enlargement of the parathyroid glands were detected on preoperative imaging. Gastroscopy revealed significant ulceration and esophageal reflux diseases. The patient underwent subtotal parathyroidectomy and autotransplantation, pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy and pancreatic tail resection and recovered well. The results observed in our patient suggest that perforation and bleeding of intestine might be symptoms of Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome in patients with MEN1.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v19.i8.1322
PMCID: PMC3587492  PMID: 23482249
Pituitary adenoma; Hyperparathyroidism; Gastrinoma; Gastrointestinal hemorrhage; Perforation
4.  18α-Glycyrrhetinic Acid Down-Regulates Expression of Type I and III Collagen via TGF-Β1/Smad Signaling Pathway in Human and Rat Hepatic Stellate Cells 
Objective: To investigate the effects of 18α-glycyrrhetinic acid (18α-GA) on the expression of type I and III collagen in human and rat hepatic stellate cells (HSC) and to explore the role of TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathway involved.
Methods: Following 18α-GA treatment, the cell viability and cell growth were detected to determine the optimal concentration of 18α-GA. The expressions of TGF-β1/Smad signaling-related genes including type I and III collagen in human and rat HSCs before and after 18α-GA treatment were measured by real time PCR. The expression of related proteins was verified by western blot assay. The phosphorylation level of Smad2 and Smad3 was detected by immunocytochemistry. The DNA binding activities of SP-1, AP-1 and NF-κB were measured by both EMSA and ArrayStar transcription factor activity assay.
Results: 18α-GA could decrease the mRNA and protein expression of Smad3, type I and III collagen, increase the Smad7 expression in human and rat HSCs (P<0.05), and reduce phosphorylation level of Smad3 at 24 h and 48 h after treatment. The DNA binding activities of transcription factors were suppressed by 18α-GA in human and rat HSCs at 24 h, and the activities reduced in a time dependent manner with the lowest activities at 48 h, especially for SP-1.
Conclusion: 18α-GA could inhibit the mRNA and protein expression of type I and III collagen in human and rat HSCs, which may be attributed to down-regulation of Smad3, up-regulation of Smad7, and inhibition of DNA binding activities of SP-1, AP-1 and NF-κB.
doi:10.7150/ijms.4395
PMCID: PMC3399217  PMID: 22811611
18α-glycyrrhetinic acid; hepatic stellate cell; TGF-β1/Smad; transcription factor
5.  18α-Glycyrrhizin induces apoptosis and suppresses activation of rat hepatic stellate cells 
Summary
Background
To investigate the potential mechanisms underlying the protective effects of 18α Glycyrrhizin (GL) on rat hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and hepatocytes in vivo and in vitro.
Material/Methods
Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: normal control group, liver fibrosis group, high-dose 18α GL group (25 mg/kg/d), intermediate-dose 18α GL group (12.5 mg/kg/d) and low-dose 18α GL group (6.25 mg/kg/d). The rat liver fibrosis model was induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). The expressions of α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA) and NF-κB were determined by real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry.
Results
18αGL dose-dependently inhibited the CCl4-induced liver fibrosis. There were significant differences in the mRNA and protein expressions of αSMA between the fibrosis group and 18α-GL treatment groups, suggesting that 18α GL can suppress the proliferation and activation of HSCs. Few HSCs were apoptotic in the portal area and fibrous septum in the liver fibrosis group. However, the double-color staining of a-SMA and TUNEL showed that 18α-GL treatment groups increased HSC apoptosis. NF-κB was mainly found in the nucleus in the fibrosis group, while cytoplasmic expression of NF-κB was noted in the 18αGL groups. In the in vitro experiments, 18α GL promoted the proliferation of hepatocytes, but inhibited that of HSCs. HSCs were arrested in the G2/M phase following 18α GL treatment and were largely apoptotic.
Conclusions
18α-GL can suppress the activation of HSCs and induce the apoptosis of HSCs by blocking the translocation of NF-κB into the nucleus, which plays an important role in the protective effect of 18α-GL on liver fibrosis.
doi:10.12659/MSM.882196
PMCID: PMC3560665  PMID: 22207106
18α-glycyrrhizin; hepatocyte; hepatic stellate cell; proliferation; apoptosis
6.  Does Helicobacter pylori infection play a role in iron deficiency anemia? A meta-analysis 
AIM: To perform a meta-analysis of observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the association between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA).
METHODS: A defined search strategy was used to search Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Library, Clinical Trials, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Premedline and Healthstar. Odds ratio (OR) was used to evaluate observational epidemiology studies, and weighted mean difference (WMD) was used to demonstrate the difference between control and intervention groups.
RESULTS: Fifteen observational studies and 5 RCTs were identified and used for calculation. The pooled OR for observational studies was 2.22 (95% CI: 1.52-3.24, P < 0.0001). The WMD for hemoglobin (HB) was 4.06 g/L (95% CI: -2.57-10.69, P = 0.01), and the WMD for serum ferritin (SF) was 9.47 μg/L (95% CI: -0.50-19.43, P < 0.0001). Results were heterogeneous for all comparisons.
CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis on observational studies suggests an association between H. pylori and IDA. In RCTs, eradication of H. pylori can improve HB and SF levels but not significantly.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v16.i7.886
PMCID: PMC2825337  PMID: 20143469
Helicobacter pylori; Iron-deficiency anemia; Meta-analysis; Hemoglobins; Odds ratio
7.  Predictors of hepatic steatosis in HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B patients and their diagnostic values in hepatic fibrosis 
Objective: To investigate predictors of hepatic steatosis in HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients and their diagnostic values in hepatic inflammation and fibrosis. Methods: A total of 106 HBeAg-negative CHB patients with clinically and pathologically proven steatosis and 98 patients without steatosis were recruited into this study. The levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting insulin (FINS), triglyceride (TG), cholesterol (CHOL), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), albumin (Alb), globulin (Glb), HBV DNA, body mass index (BMI), homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and pathological changes of the liver in inflammation, fibrosis and fatty deposition were examined in all patients. Results: The levels of BMI, HOMA-IR, FBG, insulin, TG, and CHOL were significantly higher in patients with steatosis than those without steatosis (all P<0.05). But ALT, AST and HBV DNA levels were significantly lower in patients with steatosis (all P<0.05). Logistic regression analysis showed that only FINS was a significant predictor for hepatic steatosis (P<0.05); FINS and Glb were significant predictors for hepatic inflammation (all P<0.05); BMI and TC were significant predictors for hepatic fibrosis (all P<0.05). Conclusions: Hepatic steatosis, a common disease in HBeAg-negative CHB patients, was positively associated with BMI, FBG, FINS, TG, TC, GGT, ALP and HOMA-IR. In these patients, the prevalence of hepatic inflammation and fibrosis was also increased.
PMCID: PMC2920573  PMID: 20714438
HBeAg negative; chronic hepatitis B; nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; liver biopsy
8.  Prevalence of fatty liver disease and its risk factors in the population of South China 
AIM: To investigate the population-based prevalence of fatty liver disease (FLD) and its risk factors in Guangdong Province, China.
METHODS: A cross-sectional survey with multiple-stage stratified cluster and random sampling of inhabitants over 7-year-old was performed in 6 urban and rural areas of Guangdong Province, China. Questionnaires, designed by co-working of epidemiologists and hepatologists, included demographic characteristics, current medication use, medical history and health-relevant behaviors, i.e., alcohol consumption, smoking habits, dietary habits and physical activities. Anthropometric measurements, biochemical tests and abdominal ultrasonography were carried out.
RESULTS: Among the 3543 subjects, 609 (17.2%) were diagnosed having FLD (18.0% males, 16.7% females, P > 0.05). Among them, the prevalence of confirmed alcoholic liver disease (ALD), suspected ALD and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) were 0.4%, 1.8%, and 15.0%, respectively. The prevalence rate (23.0%) was significantly higher in urban areas than (12.9%) in rural areas. After adjustment for age, gender and residency, the standardized prevalence of FLD in adults was 14.5%. Among them, confirmed ALD, suspected ALD and NAFLD were 0.5%, 2.3%, and 11.7%, respectively, in adults and 1.3% (all NAFLD) in children at the age of 7-18 years. The overall prevalence of FLD increased with age in both genders to the peak of 27.4% in the group of subjects at the age of 60-70 years. The prevalence rate was significantly higher in men than in women under the age of 50 years (22.4% vs 7.1%, P < 0.001). However, the opposite phenomenon was found over the age of 50 years (20.6% vs 27.6%, P < 0.05). Multivariate and logistic regression analysis indicated that male gender, urban residency, low education, high blood pressure, body mass index, waist circumference, waist to hip ratio, serum triglyceride and glucose levels were the risk factors for FLD.
CONCLUSION: FLD, especially NAFLD, is prevalent in South China. There are many risk factors for FLD.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v13.i47.6419
PMCID: PMC4205463  PMID: 18081233
Fatty liver disease; Prevalence; Epidemiology; Risk factors
9.  Correlation between ultrasonographic and pathologic diagnosis of liver fibrosis due to chronic virus hepatitis 
AIM: To evaluate the validity of ultrasonographic and pathologic diagnosis of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic viral hepatitis.
METHODS: The liver fibrosis status in 324 patients was evaluated by both needle biopsy and ultrasonography. Liver fibrosis was divided into S0 -S4 stages. S4 stage was designated as definite cirrhosis. The ultrasonographic examination included qualitative variables, description of liver surface and parenchyma, and quantitative parameters, such as diameter of vessels, blood flow velocity and spleen size.
RESULTS: Ultrasonographic qualitative description of liver surface and parenchyma was related with the severity of fibrosis. Among the quantitative ultrasonographic parameters, cut-off value of spleen length (12.1 cm) had a sensitivity of 0.600 and a specificity of 0.753 for diagnosis of liver cirrhosis. The diameters of spleen (8 mm) and portal vein (12 mm) had a diagnostic sensitivity of 0.600 and 0.767, and a diagnostic specificity of 0.781 and 0.446, respectively. The diagnostic accuracy for liver cirrhosis was moderately satisfactory, and the negative predictive values of these parameters reached near 0.95.
CONCLUSION: Ultrasonography can predict the degree of liver fibrosis or cirrhosis. A single ultrasonographic parameter is limited in sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of early cirrhosis. The presence or absence of liver cirrhosis in patients with chronic virus hepatitis can be detected using 2 or 3 quantitative and qualitative parameters, especially the length of spleen, the diameter of spleen vein and echo pattern of liver surface.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v12.i8.1292
PMCID: PMC4124446  PMID: 16534888
Chronic viral hepatitis; Liver biopsy; Ultrasonography
10.  Anti-inflammatory mechanism of oxymatrine in dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis of rats 
AIM: To investigate the anti-inflammatory mechanism of oxymatrine in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis of rats.
METHODS: Acute colitis was induced by giving 2% DSS orally in drinking water for 8 d. Twenty-six male rats were randomized into oxymatrine-treated group (group A, 10 rats), DSS control (group B, 10 rats) and normal control (group C, 6 rats). The rats in group A were injected muscularly with oxymatrine at the dosage of 63 mg/(kg穌) from d 1 to 11 and drank 2% DSS solution from d 4 to 11. The rats in group B were treated with 0.9% saline in an equal volume as group A and drank 2% DSS solution from d 4 to 11. The rats in group C were treated with 0.9% saline as group B from d 1 to 11 and drank water normally. Diarrhea and bloody stool as well as colonic histology were observed. The levels of serum tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were determined by ELISA, and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activity and the expression of inter-cellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in colonic mucosa were detected by immunohistochemistry method.
RESULTS: Compared with DSS control group, the inflammatory symptoms and histological damages of colonic mucosa in oxymatrine-treated group were significantly improved, the serum levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and the expression of NF-κB, ICAM-1 in colonic mucosa were significantly reduced.
CONCLUSION: The fact that oxymatrine can reduce the serum levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and the expression of NF-κB and ICAM-1 in colonic mucosa in DSS-induced colitis of rats indicates that oxymatrine may ameliorate the colonic inflammation and thus alleviate diarrhea and bloody stool.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v11.i31.4912
PMCID: PMC4398749  PMID: 16097071
Oxymatrine; Colitis; Colonic mucosa
11.  Serum dihydroxyacetone kinase peptide m/z 520.3 as predictor of disease severity in patients with compensated chronic hepatitis B 
Background & aim
Due to known limitations of liver biopsy, reliable non-invasive serum biomarkers for chronic liver diseases are needed. We performed serum peptidomics for such investigation in compensated chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients.
Methods
Liquid chromatography combined with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used to identify differentially expressed peptides in sera from 40 CHB patients (20 with S0G0-S1G1 and 20 with S3G3-S4G4). Ion pair quantification from differentially expressed peptides in a validation set of sera from 86 CHB patients was done with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM).
Results
21 differentially represented peptide peaks were found through LC-MS/MS. Ion pairs generated from eleven of these peptides (m/z < 800) were quantified by MRM. Summed peak area ratios of 6 ion pairs from peptide m/z 520.3 (176.1, 353.7, 459.8, 503.3, 351.3, 593.1), which was identified as dihydroxyacetone kinase (DAK) fragment, decreased from mild to advanced stages of fibrosis or inflammation. Area Under Receiver Operating Characteristic Curves (AUROCs) of five ion models discriminating fibrosis degrees were 0.871 ~ 0.915 (S2-4 versus S0-1) and 0.804 ~ 0.924 (S3-4 versus S0-2). AUROCs discriminating inflammation grades were 0.840 ~ 0.902 (G2-4 versus G0-1) and 0.787 ~ 0.888 (G3-4 versus G0-2). The diagnostic power of these models provides improved sensitivity and specificity for predicting disease progression as compared to aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index (APRI), FIB-4, Forn’s index and serum DAK protein.
Conclusions
The peptide fragment (m/z 520.3) of DAK is a promising biomarker to guide timing of antiviral treatment and to avoid liver biopsy in compensated CHB patients.
doi:10.1186/1479-5876-11-234
PMCID: PMC3851457  PMID: 24289155
Peptidome; Dihydroxyacetone kinase; Chronic hepatitis B; Multiple reaction monitoring; Liquid chromatography combined with tandem mass spectrometry

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