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author:("moyens, Marc")
1.  Key Role of Effector Memory CD4+ T Lymphocytes in a Short-Incubation Heparin-Binding Hemagglutinin Gamma Interferon Release Assay for the Detection of Latent Tuberculosis 
The treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in target populations is one of the current WHO strategies for preventing active tuberculosis (TB) infection and reducing the Mycobacterium tuberculosis reservoir. Therefore, powerful LTBI screening tools are indispensable. A gamma interferon release assay (IGRA) in response to the stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells by the latency antigen native heparin-binding hemagglutinin (nHBHA-IGRA) has proven its potential for this purpose. We have evaluated its possible optimization through a reduction of incubation time from 96 to 24 h, while compensating for this by adding interleukin 7 (IL-7) to the medium. We have also investigated the phenotypes of the gamma interferon (IFN-γ)-producing cells after both short and long incubation times. One hundred thirty-one nonimmunocompromised patients were recruited from 3 Brussels-based university hospitals. They were divided into 1 of 4 subgroups according to their M. tuberculosis infection status (LTBI, TB infection, undetermined M. tuberculosis infection status, and noninfected controls). The novel 24-h nHBHA-IGRA was performed for all subjects, and a simultaneous 96-h classical HBHA-IGRA was performed for 79 individuals. The results showed a good correlation between the two tests, and the novel 24-h nHBHA-IGRA maintained the principal advantages of the classical test, namely, a high specificity for LTBI diagnosis, an absence of interference of Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccination during infancy, and a relative discrimination between LTBI and TB infection. Whereas the commercialized IGRAs show a greater sensitivity for recent than for remote M. tuberculosis infections, the 24-h nHBHA-IGRA appears to have comparable diagnostic powers for recent and remote LTBI. The IFN-γ detected by the 24-h nHBHA-IGRA was mainly secreted by effector memory CD4+ T lymphocytes, a finding suggestive of continuous HBHA presentation during latency.
doi:10.1128/CVI.00651-13
PMCID: PMC3957667  PMID: 24391135
2.  Peroxisome Proliferator–activated Receptors α and γ Down-regulate Allergic Inflammation and Eosinophil Activation 
Allergic asthma is characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness, eosinophilia, and mucus accumulation and is associated with increased IgE concentrations. We demonstrate here that peroxisome proliferator–activated receptors (PPARs), PPAR-α and PPAR-γ, which have been shown recently to be involved in the regulation of various cell types within the immune system, decrease antigen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness, lung inflammation, eosinophilia, cytokine production, and GATA-3 expression as well as serum levels of antigen-specific IgE in a murine model of human asthma. In addition, we demonstrate that PPAR-α and -γ are expressed in eosinophils and their activation inhibits in vitro chemotaxis and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. Thus, PPAR-α and -γ (co)agonists might be of therapeutic interest for the regulation of allergic or inflammatory reactions by targeting both regulatory and effector cells involved in the immune response.
doi:10.1084/jem.20021384
PMCID: PMC2194090  PMID: 12900517
nuclear receptors; asthma; eosinophils; IgE; ADCC

Results 1-2 (2)