Although there is evidence that client expectations influence client outcomes, a valid and reliable scale for measuring the range of client expectations for both massage therapy and the behaviors of their massage therapists does not exist. Understanding how client expectations influence client outcomes would provide insight into how massage achieves its reported effects.
To develop and validate the Client Expectations of Massage Scale (CEMS), a measure of clients’ clinical, educational, interpersonal, and outcome expectations.
Offices of licensed massage therapists in Iowa.
A practice-based research methodology was used to collect data from two samples of massage therapy clients. For Sample 1, 21 volunteer massage therapists collected data from their clients before the massage. Factor analysis was conducted to test construct validity and coefficient alpha was used to assess reliability. Correlational analyses with the CEMS, previous measures of client expectations, and the Life Orientation Test–Revised were examined to test the convergent and discriminant validity of the CEMS. For Sample 2, 24 massage therapists distributed study materials for clients to complete before and after a massage therapy session. Structural equation modeling was used to assess the construct, discriminant, and predictive validity of the CEMS.
Sample 1 involved 320 and Sample 2 involved 321 adult massage clients.
Standard care provided by licensed massage therapists.
Numeric Rating Scale for pain and Positive and Negative Affect Schedule–Revised (including the Serenity subscale).
The CEMS demonstrated good construct, convergent, discriminant and predictive validity, and adequate reliability. Client expectations were generally positive toward massage and their massage therapists. Positive outcome expectations had a positive effect on clients’ changes in pain and serenity. High interpersonal expectations had a negative effect on clients’ changes in serenity.
Client expectations contribute to the nonspecific effects of massage therapy.
massage therapy; validity; practice-based research; pain; affect
The D1275N SCN5A mutation has been associated with a range of unusual phenotypes including conduction disease and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) as well as atrial and ventricular tachyarrhythmias. However, when D1275N is studied in heterologous expression systems, most studies show near-normal sodium channel function. Thus, the relationship of the variant to the clinical phenotypes remains uncertain.
Methods and results
We identified D1275N in a patient with atrial flutter, atrial standstill, conduction disease, and sinus node dysfunction. There was no major difference in biophysical properties between wild-type and D1275N channels expressed in CHO or tsA201 cells in the absence or presence of β1 subunits. To determine D1275N function in vivo, the Scn5a locus was modified to knock out the mouse gene, and the full-length wild-type (H) or D1275N (DN) human SCN5A cDNAs were then inserted at the modified locus using recombinase mediated cassette exchange. Mice carrying the DN allele displayed slow conduction, heart block, atrial fibrillation, ventricular tachycardia, and a DCM phenotype, with no significant fibrosis or myocyte disarray on histological examination. The DN allele conferred gene-dose dependent increases in SCN5A mRNA abundance, but reduced sodium channel protein abundance and peak sodium current amplitudes (H/H, −41.0±2.9 pA/pF at −30mV; DN/H, 19.2±3.1 pA/pF, P<0.001 versus H/H; DN/DN, −9.3±1.1 pA/pF, P<0.001 versus H/H).
Although D1275N produces near normal currents in multiple heterologous expression experiments, our data establish this variant as a pathological mutation that generates conduction slowing, arrhythmias, and a DCM phenotype by reducing cardiac sodium current.
genetics; ion channels; cardiomyopathy; electrophysiology
Although we and others have demonstrated that neural stem cells (NSCs) may impact such neurogenetic conditions as lysosomal storage diseases when transplanted at birth, it has remained unclear whether such interventions can impact well-established mid-stage disease, a situation often encountered clinically. Here we report that when NSCs were injected intracranially into the brain of adult symptomatic Sandhoff (Hexb−/−) mice, cells migrated far from the injection site and integrated into the host cytoarchitecture, restoring β-hexosaminidase enzyme activity and promoting neuropathologic and behavioral improvement. Mouse lifespan increased, neurological function improved, and disease progression was slowed. These clinical benefits correlated with neuropathological correction at the cellular and molecular levels, reflecting the multiple potential beneficial actions of stem cells, including enzyme cross-correction, cell replacement, tropic support, and direct anti-inflammatory action. Pathotropism, i.e., migration and homing of NSCs to pathological sites, could be imaged in real time by magnetic resonance imaging. Differentially expressed chemokines might play a role in directing the migration of transplanted stem cells to sites of pathology. Because many of the beneficial actions of NSCs observed in newborn brains were recapitulated in adult brains to the benefit of Sandhoff recipients, NSC-based interventions may also be useful in symptomatic subjects with established disease, even in symptomatic patients.
neural stem cell therapy; lysosomal storage disorders; Sandhoff disease; neurodegenerative disease; metabolic cross-correction
Although multiple lines of evidence suggest variable expression of the cardiac sodium channel gene SCN5A plays a role in susceptibility to arrhythmia, little is known about its transcriptional regulation.
We used in silico and in vitro experiments to identify possible non-coding sequences important for transcriptional regulation of SCN5A. The results were extended to mice in which a putative regulatory region was deleted.
Methods and Results
We identified 92 non-coding regions highly conserved (>70%) between human and mouse SCN5A orthologs. Three conserved non-coding sequences (CNS) showed significant (>5-fold) activity in luciferase assays. Further in vitro studies indicated one, CNS28 in intron 1, as potential regulatory region. Using Recombinase-Mediated Cassette Exchange (RMCE), we generated mice in which a 435 bp region encompassing CNS28 was removed. Animals homozygous for the deletion showed significant increases in SCN5A transcripts, NaV1.5 protein abundance, and sodium current measured in isolated ventricular myocytes. ECGs revealed a significantly shorter QRS (10.7±0.2ms in controls vs. 9.7±0.2ms in knockouts) indicating more rapid ventricular conduction. In vitro analysis of CNS28 identified a short 3′ segment within this region required for regulatory activity and including an E-box motif. Deletion of this segment reduced reporter activity to 3.6±0.3% of baseline in CHO cells and 16±3% in myocytes (both P<0.05), and mutation of individual sites in the E-box restored activity to 62±4% and 57±2% of baseline in CHO cells and myocytes, respectively (both P<0.05).
These findings establish that regulation of cardiac sodium channel expression modulates channel function in vivo, and identify a non-coding region underlying this regulation.
Gene Expression Regulation; Sodium Channels; Mice; Transgenic
The need for both valid and reliable measurement is crucial for the assessment of sun behavior. We used test-retest reliability of a self-administered survey to examine the reliability of reporting on behavior relevant to artificial ultraviolet tanning, sunburns and sun sensitivity among sorority and fraternity-affiliated university students. Subjects were members of sororities and fraternities who participated in an initial survey and skin examination. Students were prompted by specific recall queries. The students completed a second survey 2-4 weeks later. High reliability on test-retest for questions evaluating the number of artificial UV tanning sessions and the number of sunburns during specific time periods was found. Moderate reliability for measures reporting the use of self-tanning creams, can be largely explained by only one third of the students reporting they had ever used self-tanning creams. Overall this study suggests that members of sororities and fraternities report lifetime artificial ultraviolet tanning consistently when required to recall time period specific exposures prior to estimating their lifetime exposure.
reproducibility of results; skin neoplasms; ultraviolet rays
To examine the importance of tanning among students in relation to attitudes and knowledge regarding skin cancer prevention.
A cross-sectional survey.
College students at a major Midwestern university
Students were recruited to complete a self-administered questionnaire that included information on sun-sensitivity, knowledge and tanning attitudes and behaviors. Survey sampling statistical techniques that account for clustering among the 163 students recruited were used.
We found a high level of skin cancer prevention knowledge; however knowledge was not related to a reduction in the importance of tanning. In many cases, higher levels of knowledge corresponded to a greater emphasis on the importance of tanning. Sunscreen use was low among this population. Those who placed an importance on tanning more often checked that they believed that “sunless tanning creams are safer than the sun”.
This population’s belief that they look healthier and feel better with a tan strongly influences the desire to tan. Therefore, future cancer information campaigns or other prevention efforts should directly address the desire to tan by encouraging the use of sunless tanning products as an alternative method of tanning.
Knowledge; Attitudes; Cancer Prevention; Tanning; Ultraviolet Rays
Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) impact millions of individuals and there remain few effective treatment strategies. Despite evidence that neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) have a role in AUDs, it has not been established which subtypes of the nAChR are involved. Recent human genetic association studies have implicated the gene cluster CHRNA3–CHRNA5–CHRNB4 encoding the α3, α5, and β4 subunits of the nAChR in susceptibility to develop nicotine and alcohol dependence; however, their role in ethanol-mediated behaviors is unknown due to the lack of suitable and selective research tools. To determine the role of the α3, and β4 subunits of the nAChR in ethanol self-administration, we developed and characterized high-affinity partial agonists at α3β4 nAChRs, CP-601932, and PF-4575180. Both CP-601932 and PF-4575180 selectively decrease ethanol but not sucrose consumption and operant self-administration following long-term exposure. We show that the functional potencies of CP-601932 and PF-4575180 at α3β4 nAChRs correlate with their unbound rat brain concentrations, suggesting that the effects on ethanol self-administration are mediated via interaction with α3β4 nAChRs. Also varenicline, an approved smoking cessation aid previously shown to decrease ethanol consumption and seeking in rats and mice, reduces ethanol intake at unbound brain concentrations that allow functional interactions with α3β4 nAChRs. Furthermore, the selective α4β2* nAChR antagonist, DHβE, did not reduce ethanol intake. Together, these data provide further support for the human genetic association studies, implicating CHRNA3 and CHRNB4 genes in ethanol-mediated behaviors. CP-601932 has been shown to be safe in humans and may represent a potential novel treatment for AUDs.
α3β4* nicotinic acetylcholine receptor; ethanol; drug abuse; addiction; rat; alcohol & alcoholism; animal models; drug discovery/development; neuropharmacology; alpha3beta4* nicotinic acetylcholine receptor; ethanol; drug abuse; addiction; rat
Flying birds often form flocks, with social1, navigational2 and anti-predator3 implications. Further, flying in a flock can result in aerodynamic benefits, thus reducing power requirements4, as demonstrated by a reduction in heart rate and wingbeat frequency in pelicans flying in a V-formation5. But how general is an aerodynamic power reduction due to group-flight? V-formation flocks are limited to moderately steady flight in relatively large birds, and may represent a special case. What are the aerodynamic consequences of flying in the more usual ‘cluster’ 6,7 flock? Here, we use data from innovative back-mounted GPS and 6 degree of freedom inertial sensors to show that pigeons 1) maintain powered, banked turns like aircraft, imposing dorsal accelerations of up to 2g, effectively doubling body weight and quadrupling induced power requirements; 2) increase flap frequency with increases in all conventional aerodynamic power requirements; and 3) increase flap frequency when flying near, particularly behind, other birds. Therefore, unlike V-formation pelicans, pigeons do not gain an aerodynamic advantage from flying in a flock; indeed, the increased flap frequency – whether due to direct aerodynamic interactions or requirements for increased stability or control – suggests a considerable energetic cost to flight in a tight cluster flock.
Heparan sulfate can bind several adhesion molecules involved in lymphocyte trafficking. However, the in vivo function of endothelial heparan sulfate in lymphocyte homing and stimulation of the immune response has not been elucidated. Here, we generated mutant mice deficient in the enzyme Ext1, which is required for heparan sulfate synthesis, in a Tek-dependent and inducible manner. Chemokine presentation was diminished in the mutant mice, causing the lack of appropriate integrin-mediated adhesion, and resulted in a marked decrease in lymphocyte sticking to high endothelial venules and in recruitment of resident dendritic cells through lymphatic vessels to the lymph nodes. As a consequence, mutant mice displayed a severe impairment in lymphocyte homing and a compromised contact hypersensitivity response. By contrast, lymphocyte rolling was increased due to loss of electrostatic repulsion by heparan sulfate. These results demonstrate critical roles of endothelial heparan sulfate in immune surveillance and immune response generation.
Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) impact millions of individuals and there remain few effective treatment strategies. Despite evidence that neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) play a role in AUDs, it has not been established which subtypes of the nAChR are involved. Recent human genetic association studies have implicated the gene cluster CHRNA3-CHRNA5-CHRNB4 encoding the α3, α5 and β4 subunits of the nAChR in susceptibility to develop nicotine and alcohol dependence; however, their role in ethanol-mediated behaviors is unknown due to the lack of suitable and selective research tools. To determine the role of the α3, and β4 subunits of the nAChR in ethanol self-administration, we developed and characterized high affinity partial agonists at α3β4 nAChRs, CP-601932 and PF-4575180. Both CP-601932 and PF-4575180 selectively decrease ethanol but not sucrose consumption and operant self-administration following long-term exposure. We show that the functional potencies of CP-601932 and PF-4575180 at α3β4 nAChRs correlate with their unbound rat brain concentrations suggesting that the effects on ethanol self-administration are mediated via interaction with α3β4 nAChRs. Also varenicline, an approved smoking cessation aid previously shown to decrease ethanol consumption and seeking in rats and mice, reduces ethanol intake at unbound brain concentrations that allow functional interactions with α3β4 nAChRs. Furthermore, the selective α4β2* nAChR antagonist, DHβE, did not reduce ethanol intake. Together, these data provide further support for the human genetic association studies implicating CHRNA3 and CHRNB4 genes in ethanol-mediated behaviors. CP-601932 has been shown to be safe in humans and may represent a potential novel treatment for AUDs.
α3β4* nicotinic acetylcholine receptor; ethanol; drug abuse; addiction; rat
Social support has been identified as an important factor in facilitating recovery from injury. However, no previous authors have prospectively assessed the change in social support patterns before and after injury.
To examine the preinjury and postinjury social support patterns among male and female collegiate athletes.
Prospective observational study.
A Big Ten Conference university.
Patients or Other Participants:
A total of 256 National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I male and female collegiate athletes aged 18 or older from 13 sports teams.
Main Outcome Measure(s):
Injury incidence was identified using the Sports Injury Monitoring System. Social support was measured using the 6-item Social Support Questionnaire. Data on preinjury and postinjury social support patterns were compared.
Male athletes reported more sources of social support than female athletes, whereas female athletes had greater satisfaction with the support they received. Athletes' social support patterns changed after they became injured. Injured athletes reported relying more on coaches (P = .003), athletic trainers (P < .0001), and physicians (P = .003) for social support after they became injured. Athletes also reported greater postinjury satisfaction with social support received from friends (P = .019), coaches (P = .001), athletic trainers (P < .0001), and physicians (P = .003).
Our findings identify an urgent need to better define the psychosocial needs of injured athletes and also strongly suggest that athletic trainers have a critical role in meeting these needs.
psychology; athletic trainers
This article traces the development of a research project with a Native American community. Four principles were used to guide the development of the “Community Partnership to Affect Cherokee Adolescent Substance Abuse” project using a community-based participatory research approach. The principles suggest that establishing trust is key when developing and conducting research with a Native American community.
Very little is known about variation in prescription drug use and spending. We examine variation in outpatient prescription use and spending for diabetes and hyperlipidemia in the Veterans Affairs (VA) system and its association with quality measures for these conditions.
Study Design and Methods
We compared outpatient prescription use, spending and quality of care across 135 VA Medical Centers (VAMCs) in 2008, including 2.3 million patients dispensed lipid-lowering medications and 981,031 dispensed diabetes medications. We calculated VAMC-level cost/patient for these medications, proportion of patients on brand-name drugs, and Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set (HEDIS) scores for hyperlipidemia (LDL<100mg/dl) and diabetes (HgA1c>9 or not measured) at each facility.
The median cost/patient for lipid-lowering agents in 2008 was $49.60 and varied from $39.68 in the least expensive quartile of VAMCs to $69.57 in the most expensive (p<0.001). For diabetes agents, median cost/patient was $158.34 and varied from $123.34 in the least expensive quartile to $198.31 in the most expensive (p<0.001). The proportion of patients dispensed brand name oral drugs in these classes in VAMCs in the most expensive quartile was twice that in the lowest quartile (p<0.001). There was no correlation between VAMC-level prescription spending and performance on HEDIS measures for lipid-lowering drugs (r=.12 and r=.07) or diabetes agents (r=-.10).
Despite a closely managed formulary, significant variation in prescription spending and use of brand name drugs exists in the VA. Although we could not explicitly risk adjust, there appears to be no association between spending on medications and quality of care.
Notch receptor signaling is required for T cell development, but its role in NK cell development is poorly understood. We compared the ability of the five mammalian Notch ligands (Jagged1, Jagged2, Delta1, Delta3, or Delta4) to induce NK cell development from human hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs). CD34+ HPCs were cultured with OP9 stromal cell lines transduced with one of the Notch ligands or with OP9 stromal cells alone, in the presence of IL-7, Flt3L, and IL-15. Differentiation and expansion of CD56+CD3− cells was greatly accelerated in the presence of Jagged2, Delta-1, or Delta-4, versus culture in the absence of ligand or in the presence of Jagged1 or Delta3. At four weeks, cultures containing Jagged2, Delta1, or Delta4 contained 80–90% NK cells, with the remaining cells being CD33+ myeloid cells. Notch-induced NK (N-NK) cells resembled CD56bright NK cells in that they were CD16-, CD94−, CD117+, and KIR-. They also expressed NKp30, NKp44, NKp46, 2B4, and DNAM-1, with partial expression of NKG2D. The N-NK cells displayed cytotoxic activity against the K562 and RPMI-8226 cell lines, at levels similar to activated peripheral blood NK cells, although killing of Daudi cells was not present. N-NK cells were also capable of IFN-γ secretion. Thus, Notch ligands have differential ability to induce and expand immature but functional NK cells from CD34+ HPCs. The use of Notch ligands to generate functional NK cells in vitro may be significant for cellular therapy purposes.
This study examined the relationship between Cherokee self-reliance and related values expressed through word-use in stories of stress written by Cherokee adolescents. The overall aim of this pilot study was to test the feasibility of using cultural appropriate measurements for a larger intervention study of substance abuse prevention in Cherokee adolescents. A sample of 50 Cherokee adolescent senior high school students completed the Cherokee Self-Reliance Questionnaire and wrote their story of stress. The Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) program, a word-based computerized text analysis software, was used to report the percentage of words used in the selected word categories in relation to all the words used by a participant. Word-use from the stories of stress were found to correlate with Cherokee self-reliance.
Cherokee Self-Reliance; Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count; Culture; Stress
Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) receptors are calcium-release channels found in the endoplasmic/sarcoplasmic reticulum (ER/SR) membrane of diverse cell types. InsP3 receptors release Ca2+ from ER/SR lumenal stores in response to InsP3 generated from various stimuli. The complex spatial and temporal patterns of InsP3 receptor-mediated Ca2+ release regulate many cellular processes, ranging from gene transcription to memory. Ankyrins are adaptor proteins implicated in the targeting of ion channels and transporters to specialized membrane domains. Multiple independent studies have documented in vitro and in vivo interactions between ankyrin polypeptides and the InsP3 receptor. Moreover, loss of ankyrin-B leads to loss of InsP3 receptor membrane expression and stability in cardiomyocytes. Despite extensive biochemical and functional data, the validity of in vivo ankyrin-InsP3 receptor interactions remains controversial. This controversy is based on inconsistencies between a previously identified ankyrin-binding region on the InsP3 receptor and InsP3 receptor topology data that demonstrate the inaccessibility of this lumenal binding site on the InsP3 receptor to cytosolic ankyrin polypeptides. Here we use two methods to revisit the requirements on InsP3 receptor for ankyrin binding. We demonstrate that ankyrin-B interacts with the cytoplasmic N-terminal domain of InsP3 receptor. In summary, our findings demonstrate that the ankyrin-binding site is located on the cytoplasmic face of the InsP3 receptor, thus validating the feasibility of in vivo ankyrin-InsP3 receptor interactions.
Trafficking; ankyrin; calcium; cytoskeleton; transport; InsP3 receptor
Leukocyte trafficking involves specific recognition between P-selectin and L-selectin and PSGL-1 containing core 2-based O-glycans expressing sialyl Lewis x (SLex) antigen. However, the structural identity of the glycan component(s) displayed by murine neutrophil PSGL-1 that contributes to its P-selectin counter-receptor activity has been uncertain, since these cells express little if any SLex antigen, and because there have been no direct studies to examine murine PSGL-1 glycosylation. To address this uncertainty, we studied PSGL-1 glycosylation in the murine cell line WEHI-3 using metabolic-radiolabeling with 3H-monosaccharide precursors to detect low-abundance O-glycan structures. We report that PSGL-1 from WEHI-3 cells expresses a di-sialylated core 2 O-glycan containing the SLex antigen. This fucosylated O-glycan is scarce on PSGL-1 and essentially undetectable in total leukocyte glycoproteins from WEHI-3 cells. These results demonstrate that WEHI-3 cells selectively fucosylate PSGL-1 to generate functionally important core 2-based O-glycans containing the SLex antigen.
Lewis x; murine; O-glycan; P-selectin; PSGL-1
The mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of epilepsy, a chronic neurological disorder that affects approximately 1 percent of the world population, are not well understood1–3. Using a mouse model of epilepsy, we show that seizures induce elevated expression of vascular cell adhesion molecules and enhanced leukocyte rolling and arrest in brain vessels mediated by the leukocyte mucin P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) and leukocyte integrins α4β1 and αLβ2. Inhibition of leukocyte-vascular interactions either with blocking antibodies, or in mice genetically deficient in functional PSGL-1, dramatically reduced seizures. Treatment with blocking antibodies following acute seizures prevented the development of epilepsy. Neutrophil depletion also inhibited acute seizure induction and chronic spontaneous recurrent seizures. Blood-brain barrier (BBB) leakage, which is known to enhance neuronal excitability, was induced by acute seizure activity but was prevented by blockade of leukocyte-vascular adhesion, suggesting a pathogenetic link between leukocyte-vascular interactions, BBB damage and seizure generation. Consistent with potential leukocyte involvement in the human, leukocytes were more abundant in brains of epileptics than of controls. Our results suggest leukocyte-endothelial interaction as a potential target for the prevention and treatment of epilepsy.
Calcium/calmodulin (Ca2+/CaM)-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) couples increases in cellular Ca2+ to fundamental responses in excitable cells. CaMKII was identified over twenty years ago by activation dependence on Ca2+/CaM, but recent evidence shows CaMKII activity is also enhanced by pro-oxidant conditions. Here we show that oxidation of paired regulatory domain methionine residues sustains CaMKII activity in the absence of Ca2+/CaM. CaMKII is activated by angiotensin II (AngII) induced oxidation, leading to apoptosis in cardiomyocytes, both in vitro and in vivo. CaMKII oxidation is reversed by methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MsrA), and MsrA−/− mice show exaggerated CaMKII oxidation and myocardial apoptosis, impaired cardiac function, and increased mortality after myocardial infarction. Our data demonstrate a novel, dynamic mechanism for CaMKII activation by oxidation and highlight the critical importance of oxidation-dependent CaMKII activation to AngII and ischemic myocardial apoptosis.
Myocardial Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) inhibition improves cardiac function following myocardial infarction (MI), but the CaMKII-dependent pathways that participate in myocardial stress responses are incompletely understood. To address this issue, we sought to determine the transcriptional consequences of myocardial CaMKII inhibition after MI. We performed gene expression profiling in mouse hearts with cardiomyocyte-delimited transgenic expression of either a CaMKII inhibitory peptide (AC3-I) or a scrambled control peptide (AC3-C) following MI. Of the 8,600 mRNAs examined, 156 were substantially modulated by MI, and nearly half of these showed markedly altered responses to MI with CaMKII inhibition. CaMKII inhibition substantially reduced the MI-triggered upregulation of a constellation of proinflammatory genes. We studied 1 of these proinflammatory genes, complement factor B (Cfb), in detail, because complement proteins secreted by cells other than cardiomyocytes can induce sarcolemmal injury during MI. CFB protein expression in cardiomyocytes was triggered by CaMKII activation of the NF-κB pathway during both MI and exposure to bacterial endotoxin. CaMKII inhibition suppressed NF-κB activity in vitro and in vivo and reduced Cfb expression and sarcolemmal injury. The Cfb–/– mice were partially protected from the adverse consequences of MI. Our findings demonstrate what we believe is a novel target for CaMKII in myocardial injury and suggest that CaMKII is broadly important for the genetic effects of MI in cardiomyocytes.
To describe the risk of cutaneous melanoma in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS), a cohort of pesticide applicators and their spouses, according to baseline characteristics related to obesity along with sun exposure, and sun sensitivity.
The AHS cohort was enrolled in Iowa and North Carolina during 1993-97 and followed through 2003 for cancer incidence. We identified 315 cases of cutaneous melanoma, which reduced to 168 incident cases among subjects reporting height, weight, sun sensitivity and sun exposure information (on the spouse questionnaire or take home applicator questionnaire; n=44,086). Unconditional multiple logistic regression models were used to obtain adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI).
The results were consistent with prior studies of melanoma that indicate an association with measures of sun sensitivity. The highest category of body surface area (BSA; OR=2.6; 95% CI of 1.5-4.4) and body mass index (BMI; OR=2.5; 95% CI of 1.5-4.3) at age 20 were significantly associated with melanoma. There was some evidence for an association with BSA, but not BMI, at enrollment.
Obesity was associated with an increased risk of melanoma, indicating strategies to control obesity may result in risk reduction for melanoma.
melanoma; sun sensitivity; obesity; farmers; Body Mass Index; Body Surface Area; Lentigo Maligna; Agricultural Health Study
PVs (PV) are small, non-enveloped, double-stranded DNA viruses that have been identified as the primary etiological agent for cervical cancer and their potential for malignant transformation in mucosal tissue has a large impact on public health. The PV family Papillomaviridae is organized into multiple genus based on sequential parsimony, host range, tissue tropism, and histology. We focused this analysis on the late gene products, major (L1) and minor (L2) capsid proteins from the family Papillomaviridae genus Alpha-papillomavirus. Alpha-PVs preferentially infect oral and anogenital mucosa of humans and primates with varied risk of oncogenic transformation. Development of evolutionary associations between PVs will likely provide novel information to assist in clarifying the currently elusive relationship between PV and its microenvironment (i.e., the single infected cell) and macro environment (i.e., the skin tissue). We attempt to identify the regions of the major capsid proteins as well as minor capsid proteins of alpha-papillomavirus that have been evolutionarily conserved, and define regions that are under constant selective pressure with respect to the entire family of viruses.
This analysis shows the loops of L1 are in fact the most variable regions among the alpha-PVs. We also identify regions of L2, involved in interaction with L1, as evolutionarily conserved among the members of alpha- PVs. Finally, a predicted three-dimensional model was generated to further elucidate probable aspects of the L1 and L2 interaction.
Voltage-gated Nav channels are required for normal electrical activity in neurons, skeletal muscle, and cardiomyocytes. In the heart, Nav1.5 is the predominant Nav channel, and Nav1.5-dependent activity regulates rapid upstroke of the cardiac action potential. Nav1.5 activity requires precise localization at specialized cardiomyocyte membrane domains. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying Nav channel trafficking in the heart are unknown. In this paper, we demonstrate that ankyrin-G is required for Nav1.5 targeting in the heart. Cardiomyocytes with reduced ankyrin-G display reduced Nav1.5 expression, abnormal Nav1.5 membrane targeting, and reduced Na+ channel current density. We define the structural requirements on ankyrin-G for Nav1.5 interactions and demonstrate that loss of Nav1.5 targeting is caused by the loss of direct Nav1.5–ankyrin-G interaction. These data are the first report of a cellular pathway required for Nav channel trafficking in the heart and suggest that ankyrin-G is critical for cardiac depolarization and Nav channel organization in multiple excitable tissues.
Recent data have indicated that an important instructive class of signals regulating the immune response is Notch ligand–mediated activation. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, we observed that only Delta-like 4 (dll4) was up-regulated on bone marrow–derived dendritic cells after respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection, and that it was dependent on MyD88-mediated pathways. Using a polyclonal antibody specific for dll4, the development of RSV-induced disease was examined. Animals treated with anti-dll4 had substantially increased airway hyperresponsiveness compared with control antibody-treated animals. When the lymphocytic lung infiltrate was examined, a significant increase in total CD4+ T cells and activated (perforin+) CD8+ T cells was observed. Isolated lung CD4+ T cells demonstrated significant increases in Th2-type cytokines and a decrease in interferon γ, demonstrating an association with increased disease pathogenesis. Parellel in vitro studies examining the integrated role of dll4 with interleukin-12 demonstrated that, together, both of these instructive signals direct the immune response toward a more competent, less pathogenic antiviral response. These data demonstrate that dll4-mediated Notch activation is one regulator of antiviral immunity.
Human Papillomaviruses (HPV) are double-stranded DNA viruses, considered to be the primary etiological agents in cervical intraepithelial neoplasias and cancers. Approximately 15–20 of the 40 mucosal HPVs confer a high-risk of progression of lesions to invasive cancer. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of sexually transmitted HPVs in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) positive and negative patients in Zambia, Africa. The rate of high-risk HPV genotypes worldwide varies within each country. Thus, we sought to investigate the rates of HPV infection in sub-Saharan Africa and the potential role of HIV in affecting the HPV genotype distribution.
This retrospective cross-sectional study reports findings on the association and effects of HIV on HPV infections in an existing cohort of patients at University Teaching Hospital (UTH) Lusaka, Zambia. The objective of this study was to assess HPV prevalence, genotype distribution and to identify co-factors that influence HPV infection. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with two standard consensus primer sets (CpI/II and GP5+/6+) was used to test for the presence of HPV DNA. Primers specific for β-actin were used to monitor DNA quality. Vaginal lavage samples, collected between 1998-1999 from a total of 70 women, were part of a larger cohort that was also analyzed for HIV and human herpesvirus infection. Seventy of the samples yielded usable DNA. HIV status was determined by two rapid assays, Capillus and Determine. The incidence of HIV and HPV infections and HPV genotype distributions were calculated and statistical significance was determined by Chi-Squared test.
We determined that most common HPV genotypes detected among these Zambian patients were types 16 and 18 (21.6% each), which is approximately three-fold greater than the rates for HPV16, and ten-fold greater than the rates for HPV18 in the United States. The worldwide prevalence of HPV16 is approximately 14% and HPV18 is 5%. The overall ratio of high-risk (HR) to low-risk (LR) HPVs in the patient cohort was 69% and 31% respectively; essentially identical to that for the HR and LR distributions worldwide. However, we discovered that HIV positive patients were two-times as likely to have an HR HPV as HIV negative individuals, while the distribution of LR HPVs was unaffected by HIV status. Interestingly, we observed a nine-fold increase in HPV18 infection frequency in HIV positive versus HIV negative individuals.
The rate of oncogenic HPVs (type 16 and 18) in Zambia was much higher than in the U.S., potentially providing an explanation for the high-rates of cervical cancer in Zambia. Surprisingly, we discovered a strong association between positive HIV status and the prevalence of HR HPVs, and specifically HPV18.