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1.  Why Do Some Primary Care Practices Engage in Practice Improvement Efforts Whereas Others Do Not? 
Health Services Research  2012;48(2 Pt 1):398-416.
To understand what motivates primary care practices to engage in practice improvement, identify external and internal facilitators and barriers, and refine a conceptual framework.
Data Sources
In-depth interviews and structured telephone surveys with clinicians and practice staff (n = 51), observations, and document reviews.
Study Design
Comparative case study of primary care practices (n = 8) to examine aspects of the practice and environment that influence engagement in improvement activities.
Data Collection Methods
Three on-site visits, telephone interviews, and two surveys.
Principal Findings
Pressures from multiple sources create conflicting forces on primary care practices' improvement efforts. Pressures include incentives and requirements, organizational relationships, and access to resources. Culture, leadership priorities, values set by the physician(s), and other factors influence whether primary care practices engage in improvement efforts.
Most primary care practices are caught in a cross fire between two groups of pressures: a set of forces that push practices to remain with the status quo, the “15-minute per patient” approach, and another set of forces that press for major transformations. Our study illuminates the elements involved in the decision to stay with the status quo or to engage in practice improvement efforts needed for transformation.
PMCID: PMC3626340  PMID: 23034072
Primary care; practice transformation; quality improvement; qualitative research
2.  Providers' Perceptions of Spinal Cord Injury Pressure Ulcer Guidelines 
Pressure ulcers are a serious complication for people with spinal cord injury (SCI). The Consortium for Spinal Cord Medicine (CSCM) published clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) that provided guidance for pressure ulcer prevention and treatment after SCI. The aim of this study was to assess providers' perceptions for each of the 32 CPG recommendations regarding their agreement with CPGs, degree of CPG implementation, and CPG implementation barriers and facilitators.
This descriptive mixed-methods study included both qualitative (focus groups) and quantitative (survey) data collection approaches. The sample (n = 60) included 24 physicians and 36 nurses who attended the 2004 annual national conferences of the American Paraplegia Society or American Association of Spinal Cord Injury Nurses. This sample drew from two sources: a purposive sample from a list of preregistered participants and a convenience sample of conference attendee volunteers. We analyzed quantitative data using descriptive statistics and qualitative data using a coding scheme to capture barriers and facilitators.
The focus groups agreed unanimously on the substance of 6 of the 32 recommendations. Nurse and physician focus groups disagreed on the degree of CGP implementation at their sites, with nurses as a group perceiving less progress in implementation of the guideline recommendations. The focus groups identified only one recommendation, complications of surgery, as being fully implemented at their sites. Categories of barriers and facilitators for implementation of CPGs that emerged from the qualitative analysis included (a) characteristics of CPGs: need for research/evidence, (b) characteristics of CPGs: complexity of design and wording, (c) organizational factors, (d) lack of knowledge, and (e) lack of resources.
Although generally SCI physicians and nurses agreed with the CPG recommendations as written, they did not feel these recommendations were fully implemented in their respective clinical settings. The focus groups identified multiple barriers to the implementation of the CPGs and suggested several facilitators/solutions to improve implementation of these guidelines in SCI. Participants identified organizational factors and the lack of knowledge as the most substantial systems/issues that created barriers to CPG implementation.
PMCID: PMC2031945  PMID: 17591223
Decubitus ulcer; Skin ulcer; Pressure ulcer; Practice guidelines; Evidence-based medicine; Prevention; Spinal cord injuries

Results 1-3 (3)