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author:("lost, A.")
1.  Irisin, a Link among Fatty Liver Disease, Physical Inactivity and Insulin Resistance 
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in industrialized countries. The increasing prevalence of NAFLD mirrors the outbreak of obesity in western countries, highlighting the connection between these two conditions. Nevertheless, there is currently no specific pharmacotherapy for its treatment. Accepted management begins with weight loss and exercise. Moreover, exercise can provide metabolic benefits independently of weight loss. It is known how long-term aerobic training produces improvements in hepatic triglycerides, visceral adipose tissue and free fatty acids, even if there is no weight reduction. A recent study from Boström et al. unravels a potential molecular mechanism that may explain how exercise, independently of weight loss, can potentially improve metabolic parameters through a new messenger system (irisin) linking muscle and fat tissue. Irisin has been proposed to act as a hormone on subcutaneous white fat cells increasing energy expenditure by means of a program of brown-fat-like development. Moreover, it was also shown that irisin plasma concentration was higher in people who exercise, suggesting a molecular mechanism by which exercise may improve metabolism. The present systematic review is based on the possibility that irisin might represent a hypothetical connection between NAFLD pathogenesis and disease progression.
PMCID: PMC4284758  PMID: 25514415
non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; insulin resistance; aerobic exercise; irisin; brown-fat-like development; muscle; FNDC5 (fibronectin type III domain-containing 5 transmembrane receptor); PPARγ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ); PGC-1α (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α)
2.  Epidemiology of intrafamilial inflammatory bowel disease throughout Europe 
Annals of Gastroenterology  2012;25(3):188-192.
The incidence and prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have distinctly changed over the past decades throughout Europe. From former North-South and West-East risk gradients, nowadays, classic high-risk areas for IBD in North and West present more stable incidences whereas in formerly low-risk zones the incidence is rising. These changes cannot be explained by genetic modifications in IBD patients’ background, which draws attention to the possible existence of potent environmental factors triggering this epidemiologic shift. Important lessons can be drawn from different European population-based studies assessing the influence of environmental factors in familial IBD that may impact on the outcome of the disease and the management of the patients and their relatives.
PMCID: PMC3959374  PMID: 24713855
inflammatory bowel disease; epidemiology; familial aggregation; environmental factors
3.  Perioperative and short-term advantages of mini-open approach for lumbar spinal fusion 
European Spine Journal  2009;18(8):1194-1201.
It has been widely reported a vascular and neurologic damage of the lumbar muscles produced in the classic posterior approach for lumbar spinal fusions. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate a better clinical and functional outcome in the postoperative and short term in patients undergoing minimal invasive surgery (“mini-open”) for this lumbar spinal arthrodesis. We designed a prospective study with a 30 individuals cohort randomized in two groups, depending on the approach performed to get a instrumented lumbar circumferential arthrodesis: “classic posterior” (CL group) or “mini-open” approach (MO group). Several clinical and functional parameters were assessed, including blood loss, postoperative pain, analgesic requirements and daily life activities during hospital stay and at the 3-month follow-up. Patients of the “mini-open approach” group had a significant lower blood loss and hospital stay during admission. They also had significant lower analgesic requirements and faster recovery of daily life activities (specially moderate efforts) when compared to the patients of the “classic posterior approach” group. No significant differences were found between two groups in surgery timing, X-rays exposure or sciatic postoperative pain. This study, inline with previous investigations, reinforces the concept of minimizing the muscular lumbar damage with a mini-open approach for a faster and better recovery of patients’ disability in the short term. Further investigations are necessary to confirm these findings in the long term, and to verify the achievement of a stable lumbar spinal fusion.
PMCID: PMC2899516  PMID: 19399538
Mini-invasive; Surgery; Lumbar fusion; Discopathy; Arthrodesis
4.  Horner’s syndrome associated with parotid duct obstruction in a sheep 
The Canadian Veterinary Journal  2006;47(12):1208-1209.
A 9-year old, Rasa Aragonesa ewe was presented with a left-sided, facial, soft fluctuant swelling. The postmortem examination showed grass awns filling the entire length of the parotid gland duct. The presence of parotid duct obstruction with Horner’s syndrome, previously unreported in sheep, is discussed.
PMCID: PMC1636606  PMID: 17217091
5.  Polioencephalomalacia in adult sheep grazing pastures with prostrate pigweed 
Polioencephalomalacia was diagnosed in 2 animals from different farms. In apparently healthy animals from same farms, fecal thiaminase and a significant reduction in erythrocyte transketolase activity was observed. The presence of thiaminase in Amaranthus blitoides could have contributed to the development of polioencephalomalacia in sheep grazing on natural pastures.
PMCID: PMC1082858  PMID: 15759830
6.  Hip dysplasia in a 6-year-old Salz ram 
The Canadian Veterinary Journal  2003;44(2):140-142.
A 6-year old Salz ram was presented with a history of poor body condition, progressive gait abnormalities, pelvic limb lameness, and difficulty with copulation. Based on the history, clinical signs, hip palpation, and radiography, a diagnosis of hip dysplasia, previously unreported in sheep, was made.
PMCID: PMC340049  PMID: 12650043
7.  Blood glycated hemoglobin evaluation in sick dogs. 
Blood glycated hemoglobin concentration reflects long-term serum glucose levels in dogs. In this study, the effects of several diseases on blood glycated hemoglobin levels have been evaluated. For this study, blood samples were drawn from 93 unhealthy dogs. The animals were distributed into 10 groups according to pathological process (group 1, digestive problems; group 2, leishmaniasis; group 3, anemia; group 4, dermatological disorders; group 5, urinary problems; group 6, cardiorespiratory problems; group 7, diabetes mellitus; group 8, insulinoma; group 9, general diseases; group 10, control group). Blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin concentrations and hemoglobin and hematocrit values were analyzed in all the animals. In diabetic dogs, a strong increase in blood glycated hemoglobin was observed when compared with the other groups (P < 0.01). In contrast, dogs with insulinoma showed a decrease in blood glycated hemoglobin, though significant differences were not reported in all cases. No change in blood glycated hemoglobin concentrations were reported in dogs affected by other diseases. So, we can suppose that only the chronic alterations in glucose metabolism (chronic hyper- or hypoglycemia) can induce significant changes on the blood glycated hemoglobin concentrations in dogs.
PMCID: PMC1189600  PMID: 10805256
8.  Study of the effect of total serum protein and albumin concentrations on canine fructosamine concentration. 
The relationship among serum fructosamine concentration and total serum protein and albumin concentrations were evaluated in healthy and sick dogs (diabetics and dogs with insulinoma were not included). Fructosamine was determined using a commercial colorimetric nitroblue tetrazolium method applied to the Technicon RA-500 (Bayer). Serum fructosamine concentration was not correlated to total protein in normoproteinemic (r = 0.03) and hyperproteinemic dogs (r = 0.29), but there was a high correlation (r = 0.73) in hypoproteinemic dogs. Similar comparison between serum fructosamine and albumin concentrations showed middle correlation (r = 0.49) in normoalbuminemic dogs and high degree of correlation (r = 0.67) in hypoalbuminemic dogs. These results showed the importance of recognizing serum glucose concentration as well as total serum protein and albumin concentrations in the assay of canine serum fructosamine concentration.
PMCID: PMC1189533  PMID: 10369572
9.  Association of HLA class II genes with susceptibility to Crohn's disease. 
Gut  1996;39(1):69-72.
BACKGROUND: Published studies on the association between HLA class II genes and inflammatory bowel disease are contradictory perhaps because of the limited size and ethnic heterogeneity of the populations studied. AIM: To compare the frequencies of HLA class II genes in a large number of French patients with Crohn's disease and in an ethnically matched control group. METHODS: 344 patients (196 F, 148 M, mean age 23.6 years) with Crohn's disease were molecularly genotyped for the HLA-DQB1 and DRB1 alleles. The results were compared with those for an ethnically matched control population of 488 white adults. RESULTS: There were two significant variations of alleles at the DQB1 locus: an increase in DQB1*0501 allele frequency (chi 2 = 10.6, corrected p value (pc) = 0.01, odds ratio (OR) = 1.61) and a decrease in DQB1*0602/0603 allele frequencies (chi 2 = 8.43, pc = 0.037, OR = 0.66). DRB1 analysis showed associations with three allelic variations: an increase in the frequencies of DRB1*01 (chi 2 = 12.86, pc = 0.003, OR = 1.75) and DRB1*07 alleles (chi 2 = 11.18, pc = 0.008, OR = 1.58) and a very significant decrease in that of the DRB1*03 allele (chi 2 = 19.7, pc = 9.10(-5), OR = 0.46). CONCLUSION: The alleles DRB1*01 and DRB1*07 are associated with susceptibility to Crohn's disease. The strong negative association between the DRB1*03 allele and Crohn's disease suggests that the HLA-DRB1*03 allele mediates 'resistance' to Crohn's disease.
PMCID: PMC1383234  PMID: 8881812

Results 1-9 (9)