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author:("lorente, Luis")
1.  Peripheral regulatory cells immunophenotyping in Primary Sjögren's Syndrome: a cross-sectional study 
Introduction
IL-10--producing B cells, Foxp3-expressing T cells (Tregs) and the IDO-expressing dendritic cells (pDC) are able to modulate inflammatory processes, to induce immunological tolerance and, in turn, to inhibit the pathogenesis of autoimmune disease.
The aim of the study was to characterize and to enumerate peripheral IL-10--producing B cells, Tregs and pDCregs in primary Sjögren's Syndrome (pSS) patients in regard of their clinical and serologic activity.
Methods
Fifty pSS patients and 25 healthy individuals were included in the study. CD19+--expressing peripheral B lymphocytes were purified by positive selection. CD19+/CD24hi/CD38hi/IL-10--producing B cells, CD4+/CD25hi/Foxp3+ and CD8+/CD28-/Foxp3+ Tregs, as well as CCR6+/CD123+/IDO+ DCs, were quantitated by flow cytometry.
Results
Immature/transitional circulating IgA+ IL-10--producing B cells had higher levels in pSS patients versus control group, whereas CD19+/CD38hi/IgG+/IL-10+ cells had lower percentage versus control. Indeed CD19+/CD24hi/CD38hi/CD5+/IL-10+, CD19+/CD24hi/CD38hi/CD10+/IL-10+, CD19+/CD24hi/CD38hi/CD20+/IL-10+, CD19+/CD24hi/CD38hi/CD27-/IL-10+, and CD19+/CD24hi/CD38hi/CXCR7+/IL-10+ cells had higher frequency in clinical inactive pSS patients when compared with control group. Remarkably, only percentages of CD19+/CD24hi/CD38hi/CD10+/IL-10+ and CD19+/CD24hi/CD38hi/CD27-/IL-10+ subsets were increased in pSS serologic inactive versus control group (P < 0.05). The percentage of IDO-expressing pDC cells was higher in pSS patients regardless of their clinical or serologic activity. There were no statistically significant differences in the percentage of CD4+/CD25hi/Foxp3+ Tregs between patient groups versus controls. Nonetheless, a decrease in the frequency of CD8+/CD28-/Foxp3+ Tregs was found in inactive pSS patients versus controls (P < 0.05).
Conclusions
The findings of this exploratory study show that clinical inactive pSS patients have an increased frequency of IL-10--producing B cells and IDO-expressing pDC cells.
doi:10.1186/ar4245
PMCID: PMC4060461  PMID: 23800367
2.  Expression of CXCL12 receptors in B cells from Mexican Mestizos patients with systemic lupus erythematosus 
Background
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by B-cell hyper-reactivity and the production of pathogenic anti-nuclear-directed auto-antibodies (Abs). B-cell ontogeny is partly dependent on the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis for which the contribution to SLE pathogenesis remains unclear. CXCR7, the novel receptor for CXCL12, is differentially expressed among memory B-cell subsets. However, its biological role in SLE remains to be explored.
Methods
Relative CXCR4 and CXCR7 expression levels were compared by quantitative PCR in leukocytes from blood samples of 41 Mexican Mestizos patients with SLE and 45 ethnicity-matched healthy subjects. Intracellular and membrane expression of both receptors was analyzed by flow cytometry in naive and Ab-secreting B cells. B-cell responsiveness to CXCL12 was investigated using Transwell-based chemotaxis assays. Data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test for comparisons of values amongst healthy controls and patients with inactive or active SLE, and non-parametrically using the Mann–Whitney U-test for multiple comparisons and unpaired samples. Correlations were determined by Spearman’s ranking.
Result
SLE leukocytes displayed reduced levels of CXCR4 and CXCR7 transcripts. In SLE patients, a significant defect in CXCR4 expression was detected at the surface of naive and Ab-secreting B cells, associated with an abnormal intracellular localization of the receptor. CXCR7 predominantly localized in cytosolic compartments of B cells from healthy and SLE individuals. Disease activity did not impact on these expression patterns. Altered receptor compartmentalization correlated with an impaired CXCL12-promoted migration of SLE B cells.
Conclusions
Our data highlight a down-regulation of CXCL12 receptors on circulating B cells from SLE patients that likely influences their migratory behavior and distribution.
doi:10.1186/1479-5876-10-251
PMCID: PMC3571925  PMID: 23244336
Autoimmunity; Systemic Lupus Erythematosus; B cells; Chemokines; CXCR4; CXCR7; Migration
3.  Peripheral Regulatory Cells Immunophenotyping in Kidney Transplant Recipients with Different Clinical Profiles: A Cross-Sectional Study 
Journal of Transplantation  2012;2012:256960.
Regulatory Foxp3-expressing T cells (Tregs), IL-10-producing B cells (Bregs), and IDO-expressing dendritic cells (DCregs) downregulate inflammatory processes and induces peripheral tolerance. These subpopulations also might participate in maintaining allograft immunological quiescence in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) with an excellent long-term graft function under immunosuppression (ELTGF). The aim of the study was to characterize and to enumerate peripheral Tregs, Bregs, and DCregs in KTR with an ELTGF for more than 5 years after transplant. Fourteen KTR with an ELTGF, 9 KTR with chronic graft dysfunction (CGD), and 12 healthy donors (HDs) were included in the study. CD19+-expressing peripheral B lymphocytes were purified by positive selection. IL-10-producing B cells, CD4+/CD25hi, and CD8+/CD28− Tregs, as well as CCR6+/CD123+/IDO+ DCs, were quantitated by flow cytometry. IL-10-producing Bregs (immature/transitional, but not CD19+/CD38hi/CD24hi/CD27+B10 cells), CCR6+/CD123+/IDO+ DCs, and Tregs from ELTGF patients had similar or higher percentages versus HD (P < 0.05). By contrast, number of Tregs, DCregs, and Bregs except for CD27+B10 cells from CGD patients had lower levels versus HD and ELTGF patients (P < 0.05). The findings of this exploratory study might suggest that in ELTGF patients, peripheral tolerance mechanisms could be directly involved in the maintenance of a quiescent immunologic state and graft function stability.
doi:10.1155/2012/256960
PMCID: PMC3507138  PMID: 23213488
4.  Constitutive Phosphorylation of Interferon Receptor A-Associated Signaling Proteins in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(7):e41414.
Background
Overexpression of type I interferon (IFN-I)-induced genes is a common feature of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and its experimental models, but the participation of endogenous overproduction of IFN-I on it is not clear. To explore the possibility that abnormally increased IFN-I receptor (IFNAR) signaling could participate in IFN-I-induced gene overexpression of SLE, we examined the phosphorylation status of the IFNAR-associated signaling partners Jak1 and STAT2, and its relation with expression of its physiologic inhibitor SOCS1 and with plasma levels of IFNα and IFN-like activity.
Methodology/Principal Findings
Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from SLE patients with or without disease activity and healthy controls cultured in the presence or in the absence of IFNβ were examined by immunoprecipitation and/or western blotting for expression of the two IFNAR chains, Jak1, Tyk2, and STAT2 and their phosphorylated forms. In SLE but not in healthy control PBMC, Jak1 and STAT2 were constitutively phosphorylated, even in the absence of disease activity (basal pJak1: controls vs. active SLE p<0.0001 and controls vs. inactive SLE p = 0.0006; basal pSTAT2: controls vs. active and inactive SLE p<0.0001). Although SOCS1 protein was slightly but significantly decreased in SLE in the absence or in the presence of IFNβ (p = 0.0096 to p<0.0001), in SOCS1 mRNA levels were markedly decreased (p = 0.036 to p<0.0001). IFNβ induced higher levels of the IFN-I-dependent MxA protein mRNA in SLE than in healthy controls, whereas the opposite was observed for SOCS1. Although there was no relation to increased serum IFNα, active SLE plasma could induce expression of IFN-dependent genes by normal PBMC.
Conclusions/Significance
These findings suggest that in some SLE patients IFN-I dependent gene expression could be the result of a low IFNAR signaling threshold.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0041414
PMCID: PMC3408474  PMID: 22859983
5.  Clinical and Immunopathologic Profile of Mexican Patients with IgG4 Autoimmune Pancreatitis 
ISRN Rheumatology  2012;2012:164914.
Autoimmune pancreatitis is part of the spectrum of IgG4-associated diseases. Its diagnostic criteria and histological subtypes have been formally proposed recently and although based on current data it has been suggested that there are differences in clinical presentation among populations, more research is needed to properly establish if this heterogeneity exists. In this paper, we describe 15 cases of autoimmune pancreatitis diagnosed at a Mexican centre of reference, all of them associated to the lymphoplasmocytic sclerosing pancreatitis variant. The mean age at the onset of symptoms was 47.5 ± 14.4 years, and 53% of patients were male. The main manifestations were weight loss (87%), obstructive jaundice (53%), and acute (27%) and chronic (27%) pancreatitis. Only 20% of patients had high IgG4 serum levels at the time of diagnosis. All patients receiving prednisone responded favourably, both in their pancreatic and extrapancreatic manifestations. Clinical manifestations of Mexican patients showed certain differences with respect to those usually reported.
doi:10.5402/2012/164914
PMCID: PMC3361187  PMID: 22666608
6.  Immunological aspects in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) development 
Annals of Hematology  2012;91(7):981-996.
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is unique among B cell malignancies in that the malignant clones can be featured either somatically mutated or unmutated IGVH genes. CLL cells that express unmutated immunoglobulin variable domains likely underwent final development prior to their entry into the germinal center, whereas those that express mutated variable domains likely transited through the germinal center and then underwent final development. Regardless, the cellular origin of CLL remains unknown. The aim of this review is to summarize immunological aspects involved in this process and to provide insights about the complex biology and pathogenesis of this disease. We propose a mechanistic hypothesis to explain the origin of B-CLL clones into our current picture of normal B cell development. In particular, we suggest that unmutated CLL arises from normal B cells with self-reactivity for apoptotic bodies that have undergone receptor editing, CD5 expression, and anergic processes in the bone marrow. Similarly, mutated CLL would arise from cells that, while acquiring self-reactivity for autoantigens—including apoptotic bodies—in germinal centers, are also still subject to tolerization mechanisms, including receptor editing and anergy. We believe that CLL is a proliferation of B lymphocytes selected during clonal expansion through multiple encounters with (auto)antigens, despite the fact that they differ in their state of activation and maturation. Autoantigens and microbial pathogens activate BCR signaling and promote tolerogenic mechanisms such as receptor editing/revision, anergy, CD5+ expression, and somatic hypermutation in CLL B cells. The result of these tolerogenic mechanisms is the survival of CLL B cell clones with similar surface markers and homogeneous gene expression signatures. We suggest that both immunophenotypic surface markers and homogenous gene expression might represent the evidence of several attempts to re-educate self-reactive B cells.
doi:10.1007/s00277-012-1460-z
PMCID: PMC3368117  PMID: 22526361
Self-reactive B cells; Receptor editing; Anergy; Clonal deletion; Receptor revision; CD5+ expression; Memory B cell checkpoints
7.  Polymerized-Type I Collagen Downregulates Inflammation and Improves Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Symptomatic Knee Osteoarthritis Following Arthroscopic Lavage: A Randomized, Double-Blind, and Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial 
The Scientific World Journal  2012;2012:342854.
Objectives. Polymerized-type I collagen (polymerized collagen) is a downmodulator of inflammation and cartilage regenerator biodrug. Aim. To evaluate the effect of intraarticular injections of polymerized collagen after arthroscopic lavage on inflammation and clinical improvement in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods. Patients (n = 19) were treated with 6 intraarticular injections of 2 mL of polymerized collagen (n = 10) or 2 mL of placebo (n = 9) during 3 months. Followup was 3 months. The primary endpoints included Lequesne index, pain on a visual analogue scale (VAS), WOMAC, analgesic usage, the number of Tregs and proinflammatory/anti-inflammatory cytokine-expressing peripheral cells. Secondary outcomes were Likert score and drug evaluation. Clinical and immunological improvement was determined if the decrease in pain exceeds 20 mm on a VAS, 20% of clinical outcomes, and inflammatory parameters from baseline. Urinary levels of C-terminal crosslinking telopeptide of collagen type II (CTXII) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were determined. Results. Polymerized collagen was safe and well tolerated. Patients had a statistically significant improvement (P < 0.05) from baseline versus polymerized collagen and versus placebo at 6 months on Lequesne index, VAS, ESR, Tregs IL-1β, and IL-10 peripheral-expressing cells. Urinary levels of CTXII were decreased 44% in polymerized collagen versus placebo. No differences were found on incidence of adverse events between groups. Conclusion. Polymerized collagen is safe and effective on downregulation of inflammation in patients with knee OA.
doi:10.1100/2012/342854
PMCID: PMC3322395  PMID: 22545014
8.  Polymerized-Type I Collagen Induces Upregulation of Foxp3-Expressing CD4 Regulatory T Cells and Downregulation of IL-17-Producing CD4+ T Cells (Th17) Cells in Collagen-Induced Arthritis 
Previous studies showed that polymerized-type I collagen (polymerized collagen) exhibits potent immunoregulatory properties. This work evaluated the effect of intramuscular administration of polymerized collagen in early and established collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in mice and analyzed changes in Th subsets following therapy. Incidence of CIA was of 100% in mice challenged with type II collagen. Clinimorphometric analysis showed a downregulation of inflammation after administration of all treatments (P < 0.05). Histological analysis showed that the CIA-mice group had extensive bone erosion, pannus and severe focal inflammatory infiltrates. In contrast, there was a remarkable reduction in the severity of arthritis in mice under polymerized collagen, methotrexate or methotrexate/polymerized collagen treatment. Polymerized Collagen but not methotrexate induced tissue joint regeneration. Polymerized Collagen and methotrexate/polymerized collagen but not methotrexate alone induces downregulation of CD4+/IL17A+ T cells and upregulation of Tregs and CD4+/IFN-γ+ T cells. Thus, Polymerized Collagen could be an effective therapeutic agent in early and established rheumatoid arthritis by exerting downregulation of autoimmune inflammation.
doi:10.1155/2012/618608
PMCID: PMC3199066  PMID: 22028728
9.  Serum and Cerebrospinal Fluid Autoantibodies in Patients with Neuropsychiatric Lupus Erythematosus. Implications for Diagnosis and Pathogenesis 
PLoS ONE  2008;3(10):e3347.
Background
Despite the uncertainty in the diagnosis of neuropsychiatric involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), attempts have been made to record the association of certain antibodies in serum with neuropsychiatric (NP) manifestations. We aimed to assess the behaviour and the association of serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) autoantibodies with NP manifestations in SLE patients (NPSLE).
Methodology/Principal Findings
Forty-seven SLE patients, hospitalized because of NP manifestations were included. They were evaluated at hospitalization and six months later, and serum and CSF samples were obtained at each evaluation. As controls, serum samples were taken from 49 non-NPSLE patients at hospitalization and six months later; serum and CSF samples were also obtained from 6 SLE patients with septic meningitis, 16 surgical SLE patients and 25 patients without autoimmune diseases. Antinuclear, anti-dsDNA, anti-ribosomal P, Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate receptor (NMDAR), anti-cardiolipin, and anti-β2 glycoprotein-I antibodies were measured. In serum, anti-ribosomal P, anti-NMDAR, and other antibodies did not differentiate among SLE groups, and the levels of all antibodies were similar among the SLE groups. Six-months later, this scenario remained unchanged and the decrease in the levels of some autoantibodies reflected a decline in disease activity, rather than a change in NPSLE. In CSF, only the presence and the levels of anti-NMDAR antibodies showed a characteristic distribution in central NPSLE and septic meningitis patients. Six months later the prevalence of most antibodies in CSF did not change, however the levels of anti-dsDNA, anti-ribosomal P, and anti-NMDAR decreased.
Conclusion
In NPSLE, autoantibodies in serum do not reflect their behaviour in CSF. All autoantibodies were elevated in septic meningitis reflecting the global penetration of serum antibodies into the CSF in this condition. Anti-NMDAR antibodies in CSF identified patients with central NPSLE; their continued presence in CSF 6 months after neurologic symptoms raise questions regarding the conditions under which they are pathogenic.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0003347
PMCID: PMC2556096  PMID: 18836530
10.  Human leukocyte antigen class I, class II, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha polymorphisms in a healthy elder Mexican Mestizo population 
Background
There is strong evidence that an individual's genetic background is an important predisposing factor to longevity. In the present study we analysed the frequency of HLA class I, class II, as well as the TNF-α -308 polymorphism that may be related to an increased life span in Mexican Mestizo healthy elders.
Results
HLA typing was performed by polymerase chain reaction sequence specific oligonucleotide (PCR SSO) reverse dot blot. The TNF-α -308 polymorphism was assessed by PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism. A significant increased frequency of HLA-DRB1*11 was found in elderly women whereas this allele was not present in elderly males. The TNF2 allele was also increased in the elder group when compared to young controls. The frequencies of the remaining alleles tested were not statistically different among groups.
Conclusion
These data suggest an ethnicity independent tendency of HLA-DRB1*11 in elder females to increase life span and a possible role of the TNF2 allele with the successful remodelling of senescent immune system.
doi:10.1186/1742-4933-2-13
PMCID: PMC1291388  PMID: 16269080

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