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Infection and Immunity (1)
Elvin, K. (1)
Ferrante, A (1)
Lidman, C. (1)
Ljungstrom, I (1)
Ljungstrom, I. (1)
Lundgren, B. (1)
Lundgren, J. D. (1)
Morgan, D M (1)
Rothman, L. P. (1)
Rzepczyk, C M (1)
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Transmission of Pneumocystis carinii from patients to hospital staff
Rothman, L. P.
Lundgren, J. D.
BACKGROUND: An extrahuman reservoir of human pathogenic Pneumocystis carinii remains unknown. Host to host transmission has been described in animal studies and in cluster cases among immunodeficient patients. P carinii DNA has recently been detected in air filters from inpatient and outpatient rooms in departments of infectious diseases managing patients with P carinii pneumonia (PCP), suggesting the airborne route of transmission. Exposure of staff to P carinii may occur in hospital departments treating patients with PCP. METHODS: Exposure to P carinii was detected by serological responses to human P carinii by ELISA, Western blotting, and indirect immunofluorescence in 64 hospital staff with and 79 staff without exposure to patients with PCP from Denmark and Sweden. DNA amplification of oropharyngeal washings was performed on 20 Danish staff with and 20 staff without exposure to patients with PCP. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the frequency or level of antibodies to P carinii between staff exposed and those unexposed to patients with PCP. None of the hospital staff had detectable P carinii DNA in oropharyngeal washings. CONCLUSIONS: There is no difference in antibodies and no detectable P carinii DNA in oropharyngeal washings, which suggests that immunocompetent staff treating patients with PCP are not a potentially infectious source of P carinii for immunocompromised patients.
Differences in sensitivity of Schistosoma mansoni schistosomula, Dirofilaria immitis microfilariae, and Nematospiroides dubius third-stage larvae to damage by the polyamine oxidase-polyamine system.
Rzepczyk, C M
Morgan, D M
Infection and Immunity
The effect of the polyamine oxidase (PAO)-polyamine system on some helminths was examined in vitro. Both Schistosoma mansoni schistosomula and Dirofilaria immitis microfilariae were highly sensitive to this system, the latter more so than the former. In contrast, exsheathed third-stage larvae of Nematospiroides dubius were resistant to the effects of the PAO-polyamine system. After incubation of microfilariae with either spermine or spermidine in the presence of serum containing PAO (bovine serum or human retroplacental serum) or partially purified PAO, damage of worms occurred, compatible with our criteria for worm death. Similar results were obtained with schistosomula by using spermine. The damage seemed to be mediated by PAO products other than hydrogen peroxide because catalase did not protect either parasite. Our data demonstrate that helminths may be damaged by products of the PAO-polyamine system.
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