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1.  Cancer Control Related to Stimulation of Immunity by Low-Dose Radiation 
Dose-Response  2006;5(1):39-47.
Previous studies showed that low dose radiation (LDR) could stimulate the immune system in both animal and human populations. This paper reviews the present status of relevant research as support to the use of LDR in clinical practice for cancer prevention and treatment. It has been demonstrated that radiation-induced changes in immune activity follows an inverse J-shaped curve, i.e., low dose stimulation and high dose suppression. The stimulation of immunity by LDR concerns most anticancer parameters, including antibody formation, natural killer activity, secretion of interferon and other cytokines as well as other cellular changes. Animal studies have revealed that LDR retards tumor growth, decreases cancer metastasis, and inhibits carcinogenesis induced by high dose radiation. These effects of LDR on cancer control were found to be related to its stimulation on immunity. The experimental data may well explain the efficacy of the clinical trial of LDR in the treatment of cancer.
doi:10.2203/dose-response.06-108.Liu
PMCID: PMC2477702  PMID: 18648611
2.  Radiation-Induced Change in Lymphocyte Proliferation and its Neuroendocrine Regulation: Dose–Response Relationship and Pathophysiological Implications 
Cellular activities are regulated by intracellular signals initiated by stimulation from the external and internal environments. Different signal pathways are involved in the initiation of different cellular functions. In connection with cell proliferation in response to mitogenic stimulation, the dose–effect relationship of the magnitude of 3H-TdR incorporation into lymphocytes after exposure to different concentrations of concanavalin A (Con A) showed an inverted U-shaped curve in the concentration range 2–30 μg/ml. In previous studies it has been observed that the stimulatory effect of Con A (5 μg/ml) on lymphocyte proliferation was potentiated by whole-body irradiation (WBI) with low dose (0.075 Gy) and suppressed by WBI with high dose (2 Gy). When different concentrations of corticosterone, ranging from 10–12 to 10–7 M, were added to the Con A–stimulated lymphocytes, low-concentration stimulation and high-concentration suppression of lymphocyte proliferation were demonstrated. In the presence of 5 ×10 –12 M (subphysiological concentration) of corticosterone the proliferation of thymocytes and splenic T cells in response to Con A was further up-regulated after low-dose radiation. Low-dose radiation (0.075 Gy) caused lowering of serum ACTH and corticosterone concentration as well as down-regulated transcription of the hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin gene. The present paper intends to show that multiple neurohormonal factors, including the pineal gland and neurotransmitters, in addition to the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenocortical axis, are involved in the stimulation of immune responses induced by low-dose ionizing radiation. The complex nature of the interrelationship between the intracellular signaling of lymphocytes and the neuroendocrine regulation after WBI is discussed.
doi:10.1080/15401420490507486
PMCID: PMC2657486  PMID: 19330146
lymphocyte proliferation; nonlinear dose-response curve; signal molecules; neuroendocrine regulation; pineal gland; catecholamines
3.  Epidemiology of gastroenterologic cancer in Henan Province, China 
World Journal of Gastroenterology  2003;9(11):2400-2403.
AIM: To estimate the mortality rates of gastroenterologic cancers for the period between 1974 and 1999, in Henan Province, China and its epidemiologic features.
METHODS: Information on death of patients with cancer was provided by the county-city registries. Population data were provided by the local police bureau. All the deaths of cancer registered were classified according to the three-digit rubric of the ICD-9. Cancer mortality rates reported herein were age-adjusted, using the world population as standard and weighted piecewise linear regression analysis.
RESULTS: Total cancer age-adjusted mortality rates were 195.91 per 100000 for males and 124.36 per 100000 for females between 1996 and 1998. During the period of 1974-1999, a remarkable decrease took place in esophageal carcinoma, stomach cancer remained essentially stable and liver cancer, a moderate increase. Colorectal cancer was slightly increased over the last two decades.
CONCLUSION: The population-based cancer registry can give an accurate picture of cancer in Henan Province, by providing a set of analyses of selected cancer mortality data as a source of reference for researchers in cancer, public health and health care services.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v9.i11.2400
PMCID: PMC4656509  PMID: 14606064
4.  Periplaneta americana extract used in patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome 
BACKGROUND:
Periplaneta americana extract is recognized to have a positive effect on gastrointestinal mucosa. This study aimed to investigate the effects of periplaneta americana extract on immune function, nutrition status and gastrointestinal complications of early enteral nutrition patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS).
METHODS:
Patients with SIRS were randomly divided into two groups: treatment and control groups. All patients in the two groups received conventional therapy including enteral nutrition, but periplaneta americana extract, an additional Chinese medicine, was given to the patients in the treatment group. At the beginning of treatment (0 day) and 1, 3, and 7 days after treatment, the levels of immunoglobulin (IgA), total lymphocyte count (TLC), total protein (TP) and prealbumin (PA) were respectively tested in patients’ venous blood. The incidences of bloating, diarrhea, aspiration pneumonia and high blood sugar at 7 days after treatment were recorded. The mortality of the patients in 28 days was recorded.
RESULTS:
At 3 and 7 days after treatment, the levels of IgA and TLC in the treatment group were higher than those in the control group (P<0.05). At 7 days after treatment, the levels of TP and PA in the treatment group were higher than those in the control group (P<0.05). The incidences of bloating and diarrhea in the treatment group were lower than those in the control group, the differences were significant (P<0.05). The mortality of treatment group was lower than that of the control group (P>0.05).
CONCLUSION:
Periplaneta americana extract could reduce gastrointestinal complications and improve immune function and nutritional status in patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome.
doi:10.5847/wjem.j.1920-8642.2016.01.009
PMCID: PMC4786500  PMID: 27006739
Periplaneta americana extract; Systemic inflammatory response syndrome; Gastrointestinal function; immune function; Nutritional status; Enteral nutrition
5.  The association between human papillomavirus 16 and esophageal cancer in Chinese population: a meta-analysis 
BMC Cancer  2015;15:99.
Background
The role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in the development of esophageal cancer remains controversial. Our study aims to test the association between HPV 16 infection and esophageal cancer in China, providing useful information on this unclear association in Chinese population.
Methods
Studies on HPV infection and esophageal cancer were identified. A random-effects model was used to calculate the odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) comparing cases with controls.
Results
A total of 1442 esophageal cancer cases and 1602 controls from 10 included studies were evaluated to estimate the association between HPV 16 infection and esophageal cancer risk. The ORs for each case–control studies ranged from 3.65 (95% CI: 2.17, 6.13) to 15.44 (95% CI: 3.42, 69.70). The pooled estimates for OR was 6.36 (95% CI: 4.46, 9.07). In sensitivity analysis, the estimates for OR ranged from 5.92 (95% CI: 4.08, 8.60) to 6.97 (95% CI: 4.89, 9.93).
Conclusions
This study indicates that HPV-16 infection may be a risk factor for esophageal cancer among Chinese population, supporting an etiological role of HPV16 in this malignancy. Results in this study may have important implications for esophageal cancer prevention and treatment in China.
doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1096-1
PMCID: PMC4352244  PMID: 25777422
Esophageal cancer; Genotype; Human papillomavirus; Meta-analysis; China
6.  Nonlinear Dose-Response Relationship in the Immune System Following Exposure to Ionizing Radiation: Mechanisms and Implications 
The health effects of low-dose radiation (LDR) have been the concern of the academic spheres, regulatory bodies, governments, and the public. Among these effects, the most important is carcinogenesis. In view of the importance of immune surveillance in cancer control, the dose-response relationship of the changes in different cell types of the immune system after whole-body irradiation is analyzed on the basis of systemic data from the author’s laboratory in combination with recent reports in the literature. For T lymphocytes J- or inverted J-shaped curves are usually demonstrated after irradiation, while for macrophages dose-response curves of chiefly stimulation with irregular patterns are often observed. The intercellular reactions between the antigen presenting cell (APC) and T lymphocyte (TLC) in the immunologic synapse via expression of surface molecules and secretion of cytokines by the two cell types after different doses of radiation are illustrated. The different pathways of signal transduction thus facilitated in the T lymphocyte by different doses of radiation are analyzed to explain the mechanism of the phenomenon of low-dose stimulation and high-dose suppression of immunity. Experimental and clinical data are cited to show that LDR retards tumor growth, reduces metastasis, increases the efficacy of conventional radiotherapy and chemotherapy as well as alleviates the suppression of immunity due to tumor burden. The incidence of thymic lymphoma after high-dose radiation is lowered by preexposure to low-dose radiation, and its mechanism is supposed to be related to the stimulation of anticancer immunity induced by low-dose radiation. Recent reports on lowering of standardized cancer mortality rate and all cause death rate of cohorts occupationally exposed to low-dose radiation from the US, UK, and Canada are cited.
PMCID: PMC2651616  PMID: 19330113
dose-response curves; immune surveillance; molecular and cellular mechanisms; cancer risk
7.  Role of CD28/B7 costimulation and IL-12/IL-10 interaction in the radiation-induced immune changes 
BMC Immunology  2001;2:8.
Background
The present paper aims at studying the role of B7/CD28 interaction and related cytokine production in the immunological changes after exposure to different doses of ionizing radiation.
Results
The stimulatory effect of low dose radiation (LDR) on the proliferative response of lymphocytes to Con A was found to require the presence of APCs. The addition of APCs obtained from both low- and high-dose-irradiated mice to splenic lymphocytes separated from low-dose-irradiated mice caused stimulation of lymphocyte proliferation. B7-1/2 expression on APCs was up-regulated after both low and high doses of radiation. There was up-regulation of CD28 expression on splenic and thymic lymphocytes after LDR and its suppression after high dose radiation (HDR), and cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) expression showed changes in the opposite direction. IL-12 secretion by macrophages was stimulated after both low and high doses of radiation, but IL-10 synthesis by splenocytes was suppressed by low dose radiation and up-regulated by high dose radiation.
Conclusion
The status of CD28/CTLA-4 expression on T lymphocytes in the presence of up-regulated B7 expression on APCs determined the outcome of the immune changes in response to radiation, i.e., up-regulation of CD28 after LDR resulted in immunoenhancement, and up-regulation of CTLA-4 associated with down-regulation of CD28 after HDR led to immunosuppression. Both low and high doses of radiation up-regulated B7-1/2 expression on APCs. After LDR, the stimulated proliferative effect of increased IL-12 secretion by APCs, reinforced by the suppressed secretion of IL-10, further strengthened the intracellular signaling induced by B7-CD28 interaction.
doi:10.1186/1471-2172-2-8
PMCID: PMC48143  PMID: 11532194

Results 1-7 (7)