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1.  SIRT2 is involved in the modulation of depressive behaviors 
Scientific Reports  2015;5:8415.
Exposure to chronic stress produces negative effects on mood and hippocampus-dependent memory formation. SIRT2 alteration has been reported in mood disorders; however, the role of SIRT2 in depression remains unclear. Therefore, we aimed to determine whether SIRT2 can restore stress-induced suppression of neurogenesis in a rat chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) model of depression. Sucrose preference test, home-cage locomotion, forced swim test, and elevated plus maze were used to determine the role of SIRT2 in CUS model. To further determine the hippocampal neurogenesis contributes to the role of SIRT in mediating the antidepressant-like behavior, rats were exposed to X-irradiation to disrupt the process of hippocampal neurogenesis. CUS decreased expression of the SIRT2 protein in the hippocampus. Treatment with the antidepressant fluoxetine reversed the CUS-induced SIRT2 change. Furthermore, inhibiting SIRT2 by tenovin-D3 resulted in depression-like behaviors and impaired hippocampal neurogenesis in rats. Conversely, overexpression of SIRT2 by the intra-hippocampal infusion of recombinant adenovirus vector expressing mouse SIRT2 reversed the CUS-induced depressive-like behaviors, and promoted neurogenesis. Disrupting neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus by X-irradiation abolished the antidepressant-like effect of Ad-SIRT2-GFP. These findings indicate that hippocampal SIRT2 is involved in the modulation of depressant-like behaviors, possibly by regulating neurogenesis.
doi:10.1038/srep08415
PMCID: PMC4325337  PMID: 25672834
2.  Electroacupuncture activates enteric glial cells and protects the gut barrier in hemorrhaged rats 
AIM: To investigate whether electroacupuncture ST36 activates enteric glial cells, and alleviates gut inflammation and barrier dysfunction following hemorrhagic shock.
METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to approximately 45% total blood loss and randomly divided into seven groups: (1) sham: cannulation, but no hemorrhage; (2) subjected to hemorrhagic shock (HS); (3) electroacupuncture (EA) ST36 after hemorrhage; (4) vagotomy (VGX)/EA: VGX before hemorrhage, then EA ST36; (5) VGX: VGX before hemorrhage; (6) α-bungarotoxin (BGT)/EA: intraperitoneal injection of α-BGT before hemorrhage, then EA ST36; and (7) α-BGT group: α-BGT injection before hemorrhage. Morphological changes in enteric glial cells (EGCs) were observed by immunofluorescence, and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP; a protein marker of enteric glial activation) was evaluated using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. Intestinal cytokine levels, gut permeability to 4-kDa fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran, and the expression and distribution of tight junction protein zona occludens (ZO)-1 were also determined.
RESULTS: EGCs were distorted following hemorrhage and showed morphological abnormalities. EA ST36 attenuated the morphological changes in EGCs at 6 h, as compared with the VGX, α-BGT and HS groups. EA ST36 increased GFAP expression to a greater degree than in the other groups. EA ST36 decreased intestinal permeability to FITC-dextran (760.5 ± 96.43 ng/mL vs 2466.7 ± 131.60 ng/mL, P < 0.05) and preserved ZO-1 protein expression and localization at 6 h after hemorrhage compared with the HS group. However, abdominal VGX and α-BGT treatment weakened or eliminated the effects of EA ST36. EA ST36 reduced tumor necrosis factor-α levels in intestinal homogenates after blood loss, while vagotomy or intraperitoneal injection of α-BGT before EA ST36 abolished its anti-inflammatory effects.
CONCLUSION: EA ST36 attenuates hemorrhage-induced intestinal inflammatory insult, and protects the intestinal barrier integrity, partly via activation of EGCs.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v21.i5.1468
PMCID: PMC4316089  PMID: 25663766
Hemorrhagic shock; Electroacupuncture; ST36; Cytokines; Intestinal barrier; Enteric glial cells
3.  Animal Study on Primary Dysmenorrhoea Treatment at Different Administration Times 
The new methods of different administration times for the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea are more widely used clinically; however, no obvious mechanism has been reported. Therefore, an animal model which is closer to clinical evaluation is indispensable. A novel animal experiment with different administration times, based on the mice oestrous cycle, for primary dysmenorrhoea treatment was explored in this study. Mice were randomly divided into two parts (one-cycle and three-cycle part) and each part includes five groups (12 mice per group), namely, Jingqian Zhitong Fang (JQF) 6-day group, JQF last 3-day group, Yuanhu Zhitong tablet group, model control group, and normal control group. According to the one-way ANOVAs, results (writhing reaction, and PGF2α, PGE2, NO, and calcium ions analysis by ELISA) of the JQF cycle group were in accordance with those of JQF last 3-day group. Similarly, results of three-cycle continuous administration were consistent with those of one-cycle treatment. In conclusion, the consistency of the experimental results illustrated that the novel animal model based on mice oestrous cycle with different administration times is more reasonable and feasible and can be used to explore in-depth mechanism of drugs for the treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea in future.
doi:10.1155/2015/367379
PMCID: PMC4332465
4.  Meta-analyses on prevalence of selected Parkinson’s nonmotor symptoms before and after diagnosis 
Background
Nonmotor symptoms are common among patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and some may precede disease diagnosis.
Methods
We conducted a meta-analysis on the prevalence of selected nonmotor symptoms before and after PD diagnosis, using random-effect models. We searched PubMed (1965 through October/November 2012) for the following symptoms: hyposmia, constipation, rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, excessive daytime sleepiness, depression, and anxiety. Eligible studies were publications in English with original data on one or more of these symptoms.
Results
The search generated 2,373 non-duplicated publications and 332 met the inclusion criteria, mostly (n = 320) on symptoms after PD diagnosis. For all symptoms, the prevalence was substantially higher in PD cases than in controls, each affecting over a third of the patients. Hyposmia was the most prevalent (75.5% in cases vs. 19.1% in controls), followed by constipation (50% vs. 17.7%), anxiety (39.9% vs. 19.1%), rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (37.0% vs. 7.0%), depression (36.6% vs. 14.9%), and excessive daytime sleepiness (33.9% vs. 10.5%). We observed substantial heterogeneities across studies and meta-regression analyses suggested that several factors might have contributed to this. However, the prevalence estimates were fairly robust in several sensitivity analyses. Only 20 studies had data on any symptoms prior to PD diagnosis, but still the analyses revealed higher prevalence in future PD cases than in controls.
Conclusion
These symptoms are common among PD patients both before and after diagnosis. Further studies are needed to understand the natural history of nonmotor symptoms in PD and their etiological and clinical implications.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/2047-9158-4-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/2047-9158-4-1
PMCID: PMC4322463  PMID: 25671103
Parkinson’s disease; Nonmotor symptoms; Meta-analysis; Prevalence; Natural history
5.  B7-H1–expressing antigen-presenting cells mediate polarization of protumorigenic Th22 subsets 
The Journal of Clinical Investigation  2014;124(10):4657-4667.
Classical IL-22–producing T helper cells (Th22 cells) mediate inflammatory responses independently of IFN-γ and IL-17; however, nonclassical Th22 cells have been recently identified and coexpress IFN-γ and/or IL-17 along with IL-22. Little is known about how classical and nonclassical Th22 subsets in human diseases are regulated. Here, we used samples of human blood, normal and peritumoral liver, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) to delineate the phenotype, distribution, generation, and functional relevance of various Th22 subsets. Three nonclassical Th22 subsets constituted the majority of all Th22 cells in human liver and HCC tissues, although the classical Th22 subset was predominant in blood. Monocytes activated by TLR2 and TLR4 agonists served as the antigen-presenting cells (APCs) that most efficiently triggered the expansion of nonclassical Th22 subsets from memory T cells and classical Th22 subsets from naive T cells. Moreover, B7-H1–expressing monocytes skewed Th22 polarization away from IFN-γ and toward IL-17 through interaction with programmed death 1 (PD-1), an effect that can create favorable conditions for in vivo aggressive cancer growth and angiogenesis. Our results provide insight into the selective modulation of Th22 subsets and suggest that strategies to influence functional activities of inflammatory cells may benefit anticancer therapy.
doi:10.1172/JCI74381
PMCID: PMC4191045  PMID: 25244097
6.  Marine Compound Xyloketal B Reduces Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Brain Injury 
Marine Drugs  2014;13(1):29-47.
Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy causes neurodegeneration and brain injury, leading to sensorimotor dysfunction. Xyloketal B is a novel marine compound isolated from a mangrove fungus Xylaria species (no. 2508) with unique antioxidant effects. In this study, we investigated the effects and mechanism of xyloketal B on oxygen-glucose deprivation-induced neuronal cell death in mouse primary cortical culture and on hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in neonatal mice in vivo. We found that xyloketal B reduced anoxia-induced neuronal cell death in vitro, as well as infarct volume in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury model in vivo. Furthermore, xyloketal B improved functional behavioral recovery of the animals following hypoxic-ischemic insult. In addition, xyloketal B significantly decreased calcium entry, reduced the number of TUNEL-positive cells, reduced the levels of cleaved caspase-3 and Bax proteins, and increased the level of Bcl-2 protein after the hypoxic-ischemic injury. Our findings indicate that xyloketal B is effective in models of hypoxia-ischemia and thus has potential as a treatment for hypoxic-ischemic brain injury.
doi:10.3390/md13010029
PMCID: PMC4306923  PMID: 25546517
hypoxic-ischemic injury; infarct volume; neuroprotection; oxygen glucose deprivation; primary neuronal cell culture; neonatal stroke; behavioral tests; marine drug
7.  Crystal structure of N′-(2,6-di­methyl­phen­yl)benzene­carboximidamide tetra­hydro­furan monosolvate 
The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C15H16N2·C4H8O, contains two amidine mol­ecules (A and B) with slightly different conformations and two tetra­hydro­furan (THF) solvent mol­ecules. In the amidine mol­ecules, the di­methyl­phenyl ring and the NH2 group lie to the same side of the N=C bond and the dihedral angles between the aromatic rings are 54.25 (7) (mol­ecule A) and 58.88 (6) ° (mol­ecule B). In the crystal, N—H⋯N hydrogen bonds link the amidine mol­ecules into [100] C(4) chains of alternating A and B mol­ecules. Both amidine mol­ecules form an N—H⋯O hydrogen bond to an adjacent THF solvent mol­ecule.
doi:10.1107/S2056989014026255
PMCID: PMC4331870
crystal structure; benzene­carboximidamide; tetra­hydro­furan solvate; hydrogen bonding
8.  Interocular Shift of Visual Attention Enhances Stereopsis and Visual Acuities of Anisometropic Amblyopes beyond the Critical Period of Visual Development: A Novel Approach 
Journal of Ophthalmology  2014;2014:615213.
Aims. Increasing evidence shows that imbalanced suppressive drive prior to binocular combination may be the key factor in amblyopia. We described a novel binocular approach, interocular shift of visual attention (ISVA), for treatment of amblyopia in adult patients. Methods. Visual stimuli were presented anaglyphically on a computer screen. A square target resembling Landolt C had 2 openings, one in red and one in cyan color. Through blue-red goggles, each eye could only see one of the two openings. The patient was required to report the location of the opening presented to the amblyopic eye. It started at an opening size of 800 sec of arc, went up and down in 160 sec of arc step, and stopped when reaching the 5th reversals. Ten patients with anisometropic amblyopia older than age 14 (average age: 26.7) were recruited and received ISVA treatment for 6 weeks, with 2 training sessions per day. Results. Both Titmus stereopsis (z = −2.809, P = 0.005) and Random-dot stereopsis (z = −2.317, P = 0.018) were significantly improved. Average improvement in best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 0.74 line (t = 5.842, P < 0.001). Conclusions. The ISVA treatment may be effective in treating amblyopia and restoring stereoscopic function.
doi:10.1155/2014/615213
PMCID: PMC4279785  PMID: 25580280
9.  Gemcitabine sensitivity factors, hENT1 and RRM1 as potential prognostic biomarker for advanced biliary tract cancer 
Background and aims: Biliary tract caner (BTC) is one of rare malignant disease with poor prognosis. Gemcitabine has been widely used as chemotherapeutic agent for advanced BTC treatment. Several molecules involved in gemcitabine metabolism, including human equilibrative nucleoside transporter (hENT1) and ribonucleotide reductase subunit M1 (RRM1), have been investigated as predictive biomarkers of chemotherapy efficacy. The aim of present study is to determine whether hENT1 and RRM1 could be used as the biomarkers to assess the efficacy of chemotherapy and predict survival in patients with advanced BTC. Methods: The analysis was performed on samples from 44 patients with unresectable or recurrent BTC who were treated with gemcitabine as first-line therapy. We determined levels of hENT1 and RRM1 with immunohistochemistry (IHC). Also, its prognostic and predictive role on tumor response and several clinical factors for survival were evaluated with Kaplan-Meier or Cox analysis. Results: The patients who were clinical benefit (partial response [PR] or stable disease [SD]) had high level of hENT1 (P = 0.046) and low level of RRM1 (P = 0.033). Moreover, hENT1 expression was a significant factor for progression free survival (PFS) (P = 0.005) and overall survival (OS) (P = 0.048) in Cox univariate analysis. Also, hENT1 was an independent prognostic factor of OS based on Cox multivariate analysis (P = 0.005). Conclusions: The expression of hENT1 and RRM1 was associated with gemcitabine efficacy. hENT1 was one of reliable predictive marker of survival in patients with advanced BTC patients.
PMCID: PMC4307450  PMID: 25664003
Biliary tract cancer; gemcitabine; human equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1; ribonucleotide reductase subunit M1
10.  Effects of monocyte-endothelium interactions on the expression of type IV collagenases in monocytes 
The adhesion of monocytes to endothelial cells is one of the early stages in the development of atherosclerosis. The expression of type IV collagenases, which include matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9, in monocytes is hypothesized to play an important role in monocyte infiltration and transformation into foam cells. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of monocyte-endothelium interactions on the expression levels of type IV collagenases and their specific inhibitors in monocytes, and to investigate the roles of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β in this process. Monocytes were single-cultured or co-cultured with endothelial cells. The expression of the type IV collagenases, MMP-2 and MMP-9, and their specific inhibitors, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 and TIMP-2, in monocytes was determined by immunohistochemistry followed by image analysis. The expression levels of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were found to be low in the single-culture monocytes, but increased significantly when the monocytes and endothelial cells were co-cultured. However, treatment with monoclonal TNF-α or IL-1β antibodies partially inhibited the upregulated expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in the co-cultured monocytes. Expression of TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 was observed in the single monocyte culture, and a small increase in the expression levels was observed when the monocytes were co-cultured with endothelial cells. Therefore, monocyte-endothlium interactions were shown to increase the expression of type IV collagenases in monocytes, resulting in the loss of balance between MMP-2 and -9 with TIMP-1 and -2. In addition, TNF-α and IL-1β were demonstrated to play important roles in this process.
doi:10.3892/etm.2014.2109
PMCID: PMC4280919  PMID: 25574228
atherosclerosis; collagenase IV; monocyte; endothelium; tumor necrosis factor-α; interleukin-1β
11.  Association of TNF-α with Impaired Migration Capacity of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus 
Journal of Immunology Research  2014;2014:169082.
Previous studies indicated that bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) exhibited impaired capacities of proliferation, differentiation, and immune modulation. Considering that migration capacity is important for the exertion of BMSCs functions, the defects in migration might contribute to BMSCs dysfunction in SLE patients. In this study, we showed that the migration capacity of SLE BMSCs was remarkably impaired in comparison with those of healthy controls. Increased tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) in SLE serum significantly inhibited the migration capacity and in vivo homing capacity of SLE BMSCs via a specific TNF receptor I (TNFRI) manner, in which decreased HGF mRNA production caused by the activation of I kappa B kinase beta (IKK-β) pathway is partially involved. To our knowledge, this is the first report to discuss the possible mechanisms for impaired migration of BMSCs in SLE patients. Our results suggest that inhibition of TNF-α pathway might be helpful for accelerating BMSCs migration to the inflammatory microenvironment in SLE patients, thereby having a potential role in SLE treatment.
doi:10.1155/2014/169082
PMCID: PMC4265382
12.  Study on the Traffic Air Pollution inside and outside a Road Tunnel in Shanghai, China 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(11):e112195.
To investigate the vehicle induced air pollution situations both inside and outside the tunnel, the field measurement of the pollutants concentrations and its diurnal variations was performed inside and outside the Xiangyin tunnel in Shanghai from 13:00 on April 24th to 13:00 on April 25th, 2013. The highest hourly average concentrations of pollutants were quantified that CO, NO, NO2 and NOX inside the tunnel were 13.223 mg/m3, 1.829 mg/m3, 0.291 mg/m3 and 3.029 mg/m3, respectively, while the lowest ones were 3.086 mg/m3, 0.344 mg/m3, 0.080 mg/m3 and 0.619 mg/m3. Moreover, the concentrations of pollutants were higher during the daytime, and lower at night, which is relevant to the traffic conditions inside the tunnel. Pollutants concentrations inside the tunnel were much higher than those outside the tunnel. Then in a case of slow wind, the effect of wind is much smaller than the impact of pollution sources. Additionally, the PM2.5 concentrations climbed to the peak sharply (468.45 µg/m3) during the morning rush hours. The concentrations of organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) in PM2.5 inside the tunnel were 37.09–99.06 µg/m3 and 22.69–137.99 µg/m3, respectively. Besides, the OC/EC ratio ranged from 0.72 to 2.19 with an average value of 1.34. Compared with the results of other tunnel experiments in Guangzhou and Shenzhen, China, it could be inferred that the proportion of HDVs through the Xiangyin tunnel is relatively lower.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0112195
PMCID: PMC4227705  PMID: 25386920
13.  SECTM1 Produced by Tumor Cells Attracts Human Monocytes Via CD7-mediated Activation of the PI3K Pathway 
Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) play essential roles in tumor progression and metastasis. Tumor cells recruit myeloid progenitors and monocytes to the tumor site, where they differentiate into TAMs; however, this process is not well studied in humans. Here we show that human CD7, a T cell and NK cell receptor, is highly expressed by monocytes and macrophages. Expression of CD7 decreases in M-CSF differentiated macrophages and in Melanoma-conditioned Medium Induced Macrophages (MCMI/Mϕ) in comparison to monocytes. A ligand for CD7, SECTM1 (Secreted and transmembrane protein 1), is highly expressed in many tumors, including melanoma cells. We show that SECTM1 binds to CD7 and significantly increases monocyte migration by activation of the PI3K pathway. In human melanoma tissues, tumor-infiltrating macrophages expressing CD7 are present. These melanomas, with CD7-positive inflammatory cell infiltrations, frequently highly express SECTM1, including an N-terminal, soluble form, which can be detected in the sera of metastatic melanoma patients but not in normal sera. Taken together, our data demonstrate that CD7 is present on monocytes and tumor macrophages, and that its ligand, SECTM1, is frequently expressed in corresponding melanoma tissues, possibly acting as a chemoattractant for monocytes to modulate the melanoma microenvironment.
doi:10.1038/jid.2013.437
PMCID: PMC3961532  PMID: 24157461
14.  miR-143 and miR-145 synergistically regulate ERBB3 to suppress cell proliferation and invasion in breast cancer 
Molecular Cancer  2014;13(1):220.
Introduction
ERBB3, one of the four members of the ErbB family of receptor tyrosine kinases, plays an important role in breast cancer etiology and progression. In the present study, we aimed to identify novel miRNAs that can potentially target ERBB3 and their biological functions.
Method
The expression levels of miR-143/145 and target mRNA were examined by relative quantification RT-PCR, and the expression levels of target protein were detected by Western blot. We used bioinformatic analyses to search for miRNAs that can potentially target ERBB3. Luciferase reporter plasmids were constructed to confirm direct targeting. Furthermore, the biological consequences of the targeting of ERBB3 by miR-143/145 were examined by cell proliferation and invasion assays in vitro and by the mouse xenograft tumor model in vivo.
Results
We identified an inverse correlation between miR-143/145 levels and ERBB3 protein levels, but not between miR-143/145 levels and ERBB3 mRNA levels, in breast cancer tissue samples. We identified specific targeting sites for miR-143 and miR-145 (miR-143/145) in the 3’-untranslated region (3’-UTR) of the ERBB3 gene and regulate ERBB3 expression. We demonstrated that the repression of ERBB3 by miR-143/145 suppressed the proliferation and invasion of breast cancer cells, and that miR-143/145 showed an anti-tumor effect by negatively regulating ERBB3 in the xenograft mouse model. Interestingly, miR-143 and miR-145 showed a cooperative repression of ERBB3 expression and cell proliferation and invasion in breast cancer cells, such that the effects of the two miRNAs were greater than with either miR-143 or miR-145 alone.
Conclusion
Taken together, our findings provide the first clues regarding the role of the miR-143/145 cluster as a tumor suppressor in breast cancer through the inhibition of ERBB3 translation. These results also support the idea that different miRNAs in a cluster can synergistically repress a given target mRNA.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1476-4598-13-220) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/1476-4598-13-220
PMCID: PMC4181414  PMID: 25248370
microRNA; miR-143; miR-145; ERBB3; Breast cancer; Proliferation; Invasion
15.  Phytochemical Profiles and Antioxidant Activities in Six Species of Ramie Leaves 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(9):e108140.
Increased consumption of vegetables or plant food has been associated with decreased risk of developing major chronic diseases, such as cancers, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and age-related functional decline. Ramie leaves are rich in phenolics and flavonoids, which have been suggested for human health benefits. Phenolic contents, flavonoid contents, phenolic compounds, and anti-cancer properties in six species of ramie leaves were analyzed by Folin-reagent method, sodium borohydride/chloranil-based assay (SBC), HPLC method and antiproliferation, cytoxicity, respectively. Antioxidant activities were measured through peroxyl radical scavenging capacity (PSC) method, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) method, and cellular antioxidant activity (CAA). Research indicated that Boehmeria penduliflora contained the highest total phenolic content (2313.7±27.28 mg GAE/100 g FW), and flavonoid content (1682.4±27.70 mg CAE/100 g FW). Boehmeria tricuspis showed the highest PSC value (9574.8±117.63 µM vit. C equiv./100 g FW), while Boehmeria penduliflora indicated the highest ORAC value (330.44±16.88 µmol Trolox equiv./g FW). The antioxidant activities were correlated with phenolic contents and flavonoid contents. Boehmeria tricuspis had the highest antiproliferative capacity with the lowest EC50 (4.11±0.19 mg/mL). The results for the analyzed ramie for CAA were significantly different from each other (p<0.05), Boehmeria tricuspis had the highest CAA value (133.63±7.10 µmol QE/100 g). Benzoic acid, 4-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, and ferulic acid were the dominant phenolic ingredients in the ramie leaves according to HPLC analysis. Our research is the first report to study the phytochemical profiles and antioxidant activities in different species of ramie leaves for their health benefit.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0108140
PMCID: PMC4171523  PMID: 25243741
16.  miR-199a-5p regulates the expression of metastasis-associated genes in B16F10 melanoma cells 
MicroRNAs are regulatory factors that play important roles in tumor development, invasion and metastasis. Previously, we showed that miR-199a is abnormally expressed in clinical melanoma specimens and expression was closely associated with clinical features of metastasis. However, the exact molecular mechanisms by which miR-199a-5p influences melanoma invasion and metastasis remains unclear. In this study, we investigated gene expression changes of metastasis-associated genes in B16F10 melanoma cells following targeted silencing or overexpression of miR-199a-5p, using mouse tumor metastasis PCR arrays. Comparison of gene expression changes in miR-199a-5p-silenced versus overexpressing cells identified a set of upregulated genes (> 2-fold) including Cd44, Cdh1, Cxcr4, Etv4, Fxyd5, Rpsa, Mmp3, Myc, Rb1, Tcf20, Hprt1, Actb1 and downregulated genes (> 2-fold) including Ctsk, Itga7 and Tnfsf10. Regulation of a subset of these genes (Myc, Tnfsf10 and Cd44) following miR-199a-5p silencing or overexpression was validated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that miR-199a-5p regulates melanoma metastasis-related genes, and may provide a basis for the development of novel, molecularly targeted drugs.
PMCID: PMC4230055  PMID: 25400815
Melanoma; miR-199a-5p; metastasis PCR array
17.  Partial greater trochanter osteotomy for hip reduction in total hip arthroplasty for high dislocated hip: a preliminary report 
Background
Hip reduction in total hip arthroplasty for high dislocated hips is difficult. Various femur osteotomy procedures have been used for hip reduction, but these methods increase operative time and risk of nonunion. We investigated the efficacy of a novel partial greater trochanter osteotomy technique for hip reduction in total hip arthroplasty for patients with high hip dislocation.
Methods
Twenty-one patients (23 hips) with high dislocated hip were treated with total hip arthroplasty that included partial greater trochanter osteotomy, i.e., the upper 2/3 greater trochanter was resected, and the gluteus medius muscle attachment was spared. The clinical outcome was evaluated by comparing the Harris hip scores and radiographic exam results, obtained before surgery and at follow-ups.
Results
Follow-ups of 21 patients ranged from 13 to 56 months. The mean Harris hip score increased from preoperative 55.0 (36–69) to postoperative 86.1 (71–93; P = 0.00). The average preoperative leg length discrepancy in patients with unilateral high hip dislocation was 46 mm (28–65 mm); postoperatively leg length discrepancy was less than 1 cm in 11 patients, between 1 and 2 cm in 8 patients, and more than 2 cm in 2 patients. The average leg lengthening at the time of surgery was 36 mm (24–54 mm). Trendelenburg’s gait changed from positive to negative in 20 hips by the last follow-up. No nerve injury occurred postoperative.
Conclusion
Partial greater trochanter osteotomy is an effective method to render hip reduction in total hip arthroplasty for patients with high dislocation of the hip.
doi:10.1186/1471-2474-15-293
PMCID: PMC4174664  PMID: 25186094
Partial greater trochanter osteotomy; Hip reduction; High dislocated hip; Total hip arthroplasty
18.  Anti-proteolytic capacity and bonding durability of proanthocyanidin-biomodified demineralized dentin matrix 
Our previous studies showed that biomodification of demineralized dentin collagen with proanthocyanidin (PA) for a clinically practical duration improves the mechanical properties of the dentin matrix and the immediate resin–dentin bond strength. The present study sought to evaluate the ability of PA biomodification to reduce collagenase-induced biodegradation of demineralized dentin matrix and dentin/adhesive interfaces in a clinically relevant manner. The effects of collagenolytic and gelatinolytic activity on PA-biomodified demineralized dentin matrix were analysed by hydroxyproline assay and gelatin zymography. Then, resin-/dentin-bonded specimens were prepared and challenged with bacterial collagenases. Dentin treated with 2% chlorhexidine and untreated dentin were used as a positive and negative control, respectively. Collagen biodegradation, the microtensile bond strengths of bonded specimens and the micromorphologies of the fractured interfaces were assessed. The results revealed that both collagenolytic and gelatinolytic activity on demineralized dentin were notably inhibited in the PA-biomodified groups, irrespective of PA concentration and biomodification duration. When challenged with exogenous collagenases, PA-biomodified bonded specimens exhibited significantly less biodegradation and maintained higher bond strengths than the untreated control. These results suggest that PA biomodification was effective at inhibiting proteolytic activity on demineralized dentin matrix and at stabilizing the adhesive/dentin interface against enzymatic degradation, is a new concept that has the potential to improve bonding durability.
doi:10.1038/ijos.2014.22
PMCID: PMC4170148  PMID: 24810807
bonding durability; collagenolysis; crosslinking agents; dentin; proanthocyanidins
19.  Overview on Biological Activities and Molecular Characteristics of Sulfated Polysaccharides from Marine Green Algae in Recent Years 
Marine Drugs  2014;12(9):4984-5020.
Among the three main divisions of marine macroalgae (Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta), marine green algae are valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds and remain largely unexploited in nutraceutical and pharmaceutical areas. Recently, a great deal of interest has been developed to isolate novel sulfated polysaccharides (SPs) from marine green algae because of their numerous health beneficial effects. Green seaweeds are known to synthesize large quantities of SPs and are well established sources of these particularly interesting molecules such as ulvans from Ulva and Enteromorpha, sulfated rhamnans from Monostroma, sulfated arabinogalactans from Codium, sulfated galacotans from Caulerpa, and some special sulfated mannans from different species. These SPs exhibit many beneficial biological activities such as anticoagulant, antiviral, antioxidative, antitumor, immunomodulating, antihyperlipidemic and antihepatotoxic activities. Therefore, marine algae derived SPs have great potential for further development as healthy food and medical products. The present review focuses on SPs derived from marine green algae and presents an overview of the recent progress of determinations of their structural types and biological activities, especially their potential health benefits.
doi:10.3390/md12094984
PMCID: PMC4178480  PMID: 25257786
marine green algae; sulfated polysaccharide; biological activities
20.  Culturing surplus poor-quality embryos to blastocyst stage have positive predictive value of clinical pregnancy rate  
Background: Clinical reproductive centers produce large amounts of surplus poor-quality embryos annually, how to maximize the use of these embryos, and which of them have the potential to develop into blastocyst stage and influencing factors were lack of systematic research.
Objective: To investigate the fate of surplus poor-quality embryos which were cultured to obtain blastocyst, determine the factors which may influence the blastulation, and discuss their application in predicting of the pregnancy outcomes.
Materials and Methods: Day 3 (D3) after embryo transfer and freezing, surplus poor-quality embryos from IVF/ICSI cycles were cultured to blastocyst by the sequential method, then the blastulation outcomes were observed. Focusing on the blastulation rate of those embryos with different number cells and different embryonic grade; and last the relationship between the pregnancy outcomes of remained poor-quality embryos with successful blastulation or failed blastulation groups were studied.
Results: Of 127 patients with 569 poor-quality in vitro cultured embryos, there were formation of 248 blastocysts from 91 patients (43.59%), which lead to development of 138 high-quality blastocysts (24.25%). With the increase in cells number of D 3 blastomeres, the blastulation rate gradually increased, that, 7-cell blastomeres blastulation rate was the highest (70.59%), and 8-cell blastomeres is a little below (70.37%); while the embryonic levels and blastulation rate did not show this positive relationship. The clinical pregnancy rate and implantation rate of those who had successful blastulation (67.03% and 42.39%) were higher than of those who failed to develop to blastocyst (p=0.039).
Conclusion: Day 3 poor-quality embryos with successful blastulation or with failed blastulation had predictive value on pregnancy outcomes. For embryo transfer 7-8 cells grade III-IV embryo is better than 4-5 cells grade I-II embryo, in case of lack good-quality embryos.
PMCID: PMC4248145  PMID: 25469133
Blastocyst; Embryonic development; Pregnancy rate; Fertilization in vitro; Sperm injections; Intracytoplasmic
21.  Pinocembrin alleviates memory impairment in transient global cerebral ischemic rats 
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of pinocembrin on cognitive ability impairment in a rat model of transient global cerebral ischemia (TGCI). The TGCI model was established by inducing global cerebral ischemia for 20 min, followed by reperfusion for two weeks. The rats were divided into five experimental groups, including the sham group that were not subjected to ischemia, and four ischemic groups where the rats were exposed to TGCI. The sham and control TGCI groups were administered a vehicle intravenously immediately after reperfusion, while the other three groups were intravenously treated with 1, 5 and 10 mg/kg pinocembrin, respectively. In the present study, neurological scores were analyzed at 0 and 24 h after reperfusion, and the effect of pinocembrin on cognitive ability impairment in the TGCI rat model was investigated using a Morris water maze test. Neuronal loss was observed under an optical microscope with the assistance of Nissl staining. In addition, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive cells were observed under an optical microscope by an immunohistochemistry assay. Pinocembrin treatment was found to alleviate the cognitive impairments, decrease the neurological scores, diminish neuronal loss in the hippocampus and reduce the number of GFAP-positive cells in the hippocampal CA1 region of the TGCI rats. Therefore, pinocembrin alleviated memory impairment in the TGCI rats.
doi:10.3892/etm.2014.1923
PMCID: PMC4151662  PMID: 25187841
pinocembrin; transient global cerebral ischemia; cognition impairment; neuronal loss
22.  Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities of Twenty-Four Vitis vinifera Grapes 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(8):e105146.
Grapes are rich in phytochemicals with many proven health benefits. Phenolic profiles, antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of twenty-four selected Vitis vinifera grape cultivars were investigated in this study. Large ranges of variation were found in these cultivars for the contents of total phenolics (95.3 to 686.5 mg/100 g) and flavonoids (94.7 to 1055 mg/100 g) and antioxidant activities (oxygen radical absorbance capacity 378.7 to 3386.0 mg of Trolox equivalents/100 g and peroxylradical scavenging capacity14.2 to 557 mg of vitamin C equivalents/100 g), cellular antioxidant activities (3.9 to 139.9 µmol of quercetin equivalents/100 g without PBS wash and 1.4 to 95.8 µmol of quercetin equivalents /100 g with PBS wash) and antiproliferative activities (25 to 82% at the concentrations of 100 mg/mL extracts).The total antioxidant activities were significantly correlated with the total phenolics and flavonoids. However, no significant correlations were found between antiproliferative activities and total phenolics or total flavonoids content. Wine grapes and color grapes showed much higher levels of phytochemicals and antioxidant activities than table grapes and green/yellow grapes. Several germplasm accessions with much high contents of phenolics and flavonoids, and total antioxidant activity were identified. These germplasm can be valuable sources of genes for breeding grape cultivars with better nutritional qualities of wine and table grapes in the future.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0105146
PMCID: PMC4136860  PMID: 25133401
23.  A Polymorphism in Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 1 Alpha, rs7310409, Is Associated with Left Main Coronary Artery Disease 
Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the world. Left main coronary artery disease (LMCAD) is a particularly severe phenotypic form of CAD and has a genetic basis. We hypothesized that some inflammation- and hyperhomocysteinemia-related gene polymorphisms may contribute to LMCAD susceptibility in a Chinese population. We studied the association between polymorphisms in the genes hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 alpha (HNF1A; rs7310409, G/A), C-reactive protein (rs1800947 and rs3093059 T/C), methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (rs1801133, C/T), and methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (rs1076991, A/G) in 402 LMCAD and 804 more peripheral CAD patients in a Chinese population. Genotyping was performed using the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry method. When the HNF1A rs7310409 GG homozygote genotype was used as the reference group, both the individual, GA and AA, and combined GA/AA genotypes were associated with an increased risk of LMCAD. This single nucleotide polymorphism (rs7310409) is strongly associated with plasma CRP levels. In conclusion, the present study provides evidence that the HNF1A rs7310409 G/A functional polymorphism may contribute to the risk of LMCAD.
doi:10.1155/2014/924105
PMCID: PMC4151485  PMID: 25202455
24.  A Study on the Protective Effect of Silybum Marianum Extract on Hepatic Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury 
The objective of the study was to study the protective effect of Silybum marianum extract on hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury. Rats were randomly divided into five groups; namely Silybum marianum extract high-, medium-, and low-dose protection groups, model group and control group. Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury model was prepared. Serum or plasma AST, ALT, MDA, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 levels were measured. The results revealed that after liver injury, AST, ALT, MDA, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 levels significantly increased in succession, showing significant differences. We concluded that inflammatory cytokines participate in liver injury and that Silybum marianum extract can reduce the production of inflammatory cytokines, and thus can have a protective effect on hepatic ischemia and reperfusion.
PMCID: PMC3847421  PMID: 24311841
Silybum marianum; hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury; protective effect
25.  Pinocembrin Protects Human Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells against Fibrillar Amyloid-β1−40Injury by Suppressing the MAPK/NF-κB Inflammatory Pathways 
BioMed Research International  2014;2014:470393.
Cerebrovascular accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides in Alzheimer's disease (AD) may contribute to disease progression through Aβ-induced microvascular endothelial pathogenesis. Pinocembrin has been shown to have therapeutic effects in AD models. These effects correlate with preservation of microvascular function, but the effect on endothelial cells under Aβ-damaged conditions is unclear. The present study focuses on the in vitro protective effect of pinocembrin on fibrillar Aβ1−40 (fAβ1−40) injured human brain microvascular endothelial cells (hBMECs) and explores potential mechanisms. The results demonstrate that fAβ1−40-induced cytotoxicity in hBMECs can be rescued by pinocembrin treatment. Pinocembrin increases cell viability, reduces the release of LDH, and relieves nuclear condensation. The mechanisms of this reversal from Aβ may be associated with the inhibition of inflammatory response, involving inhibition of MAPK activation, downregulation of phosphor-IKK level, relief of IκBα degradation, blockage of NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation, and reduction of the release of proinflammatory cytokines. Pinocembrin does not show obvious effects on regulating the redox imbalance after exposure to fAβ1−40. Together, the suppression of MAPK and the NF-κB signaling pathways play a significant role in the anti-inflammation of pinocembrin in hBMECs subjected to fAβ1−40. This may serve as a therapeutic agent for BMEC protection in Alzheimer's-related deficits.
doi:10.1155/2014/470393
PMCID: PMC4135138  PMID: 25157358

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