Neuropathic pain is an intractable clinical problem. Drug treatments such as tramadol have been reported to effectively decrease neuropathic pain by inhibiting the activity of nociceptive neurons. It has also been reported that modulating glial activation could also prevent or reverse neuropathic pain via the administration of a glial modulator or inhibitor, such as propentofylline. Thus far, there has been no clinical strategy incorporating both neuronal and glial participation for treating neuropathic pain. Therefore, the present research study was designed to assess whether coadministration of tramadol and propentofylline, as neuronal and glial activation inhibitors, respectively, would exert a synergistic effect on the reduction of rat spinal nerve ligation (SNL)-induced neuropathic pain. Rats underwent SNL surgery to induce neuropathic pain. Pain behavioral tests were conducted to ascertain the effect of drugs on SNL-induced mechanical allodynia with von-Frey hairs. Proinflammatory factor interleukin-1β (IL-1β) expression was also detected by Real-time RT-PCR. Intrathecal tramadol and propentofylline administered alone relieved SNL-induced mechanical allodynia in a dose-dependent manner. Tramadol and propentofylline coadministration exerted a more potent effect in a synergistic and dose dependent manner than the intrathecal administration of either drug alone. Real-time RT-PCR demonstrated IL-1β up-expression in the ipsilateral spinal dorsal horn after the lesion, which was significantly decreased by tramadol and propentofylline coadministration. Inhibiting proinflammatory factor IL-1β contributed to the synergistic effects of tramadol and propentofylline coadministration on rat peripheral nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain. Thus, our study provided a rationale for utilizing a novel strategy for treating neuropathic pain by blocking the proinflammatory factor related pathways in the central nervous system.
In eukaryotes, miR-16 is an important microRNA (miRNA) that is involved in numerous biological processes. However, it is not fully understood how miR-16 executes its physiological functions. In the present study, we aimed to identify novel miR-16 targets and study their biological functions.
Candidate target genes of miR-16 were screened by microarray analysis of mRNA levels in several cancer cell lines with enhanced miR-16. Three bioinformatics algorithms, including TargetScan, PicTar, and miRanda, were used in combination to calculate the miR-16 targets. The expression levels of miR-16 and target mRNA were examined by relative quantification RT-PCR, and the expression levels of target protein were detected by Western blot. Luciferase reporter plasmids were constructed to confirm direct targeting. The effect of miR-16 and target gene on cell viability was evaluated using MTT assays. The effects of miR-16 and target gene on apoptosis and cell cycle distribution were evaluated by flow cytometry analysis.
By overexpressing miR-16 in several cancer cell lines and measuring global mRNA levels using microarray analysis, we identified 27 genes that may be regulated by miR-16. After the bioinformatics filtering process, 18 genes were selected as candidate miR-16 targets. Furthermore, we experimentally validated three of these candidates, MAP7 (microtubule-associated protein 7), PRDM4 (PR domain containing 4) and CDS2 (CDP-diacylglycerol synthase 2), as direct targets of miR-16. Finally, we demonstrated that miR-16 targeting MAP7 played a critical role in regulating proliferation but not apoptosis and cell cycle progression in cancer cells.
In summary, the present study identifies several novel miR-16 targets and illustrates a novel function of miR-16 targeting MAP7 in modulating proliferation in cancer cells.
microRNA; miR-16; MAP7; PRDM4; CDS2
The concentration of glutathione (GSH), the most abundant intracellular free thiol and an important antioxidant, is decreased in the lung in both fibrotic diseases and experimental fibrosis models. The underlying mechanisms and biological significance of GSH depletion, however, remain unclear. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) is the most potent and ubiquitous profibrogenic cytokine and its expression is increased in almost all fibrotic diseases. In this study, we show that increasing TGF-β1 expression in mouse lung to a level comparable to those found in lung fibrotic diseases by intranasal instillation of AdTGF-β1223/225, an adenovirus expressing constitutively active TGF-β1, suppressed the expression of both catalytic and modifier subunits of glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL), the rate-limiting enzyme in de novo GSH synthesis, decreased GSH concentration, and increased protein and lipid peroxidation in mouse lung. Furthermore, we show that increasing TGF-β1 expression activated JNK and induced activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3), a transcriptional repressor involved in the regulation of the catalytic subunit of GCL (GCLC), in mouse lung. Control virus (AdDL70-3) had no significant effect on any of these parameters, compared to saline treated control. Concurrent with GSH depletion, TGF-β1 induced lung epithelial apoptosis and robust pulmonary fibrosis. Importantly, lung GSH levels returned to the normal whereas fibrosis persisted at least 21 days after TGF-β1 instillation. Together, the data suggest that increased TGF-β1 expression may contribute to the GSH depletion observed in pulmonary fibrosis diseases and that GSH depletion may be an early event in, rather than a consequence of, fibrosis development.
GSH depletion; lung fibrosis; transforming growth factor beta 1; glutamate cysteine ligase; oxidative stress
Human enterovirus type 71 (EV71) is the major pathogen of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) and has been associated with severe neurological disease and even death in infants and young children. The pathogenesis of EV71 infection in the human central nervous system remains unclear. In this study, human whole genome microarray was employed to perform transcriptome profiling in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells infected with EV71. The results indicated that EV71 infection lead to altered expression of 161 human mRNAs, including 74 up-regulated genes and 87 down-regulated genes. Bioinformatics analysis indicated the possible roles of the differentially regulated mRNAs in selected pathways, including cell cycle/proliferation, apoptosis, and cytokine/chemokine responses. Finally, the microarray results were validated using real-time RT-PCR with high identity. Overall, our results provided fundamental information regarding the host response to EV71 infection in human neuroblastoma cells, and this finding will help explain the pathogenesis of EV71 infection and virus-host interaction.
Si nanowires; photosynthesis; aromatic ketone; carboxylation
Spatially heterogeneous distribution of interspecific competitors and intraspecific aggregation of offspring ramets may affect the growth and size structure of clonal plant populations, but these have been rarely studied. We conducted a greenhouse experiment in which we grew a population of eight offspring ramets (plants) of the stoloniferous clonal plant Hydrocotyle vulgaris aggregately or segregately in two homogeneous treatments with or without a competing grass Festuca elata and a heterogeneous treatment with a patchy distribution of the grass. In patchy grass treatments, H. vulgaris produced markedly more biomass, ramets and stolons in open patches (without grasses) than in grass patches, but displayed lower size variations as measured by coefficient of variation of biomass, ramets and stolons among the eight plants. In open areas, H. vulgaris produced statistically the same amounts of biomass and even more stolons and showed higher size variations in patchy grass treatments than in open (no grass) treatments. In grass areas, H. vulgaris grew much worse and displayed higher size variations in patchy grass treatments than in full grass treatments. Ramet aggregation decreased the growth of H. vulgaris in open treatments and in both open and grass patches in patchy grass treatments, but had little effect in full grass treatments. Ramet aggregation had little effect on size variations. Therefore, heterogeneous distribution of competitors can affect the growth and size structure of clonal plant populations, and ramet aggregation may decrease population growth when they grow in open environments or heterogeneous environments with a patchy distribution of interspecific competitors.
Recently, we identified a population of Oct4+Sca-1+Lin-CD45- very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs) in murine and human adult tissues. VSELs can differentiate in vitro into cells from all 3 germ layers and in vivo tissue-committed stem cells. Open chromatin structure of core pluripotency transcription factors (TFs) supports the pluripotent state of VSELs. However, it has been difficult to determine how primitive VSELs maintain pluripotency, owing to their limited number in adult tissues. Here, we demonstrate by genome-wide gene-expression analysis with a small number of highly purified murine bone marrow–derived VSELs that Oct4+ VSELs (i) express a similar, yet nonidentical, transcriptome as embryonic stem cells (ESCs), (ii) highly express cell cycle checkpoint genes, (iii) express at a low level genes involved in protein turnover and mitogenic pathways, and (iv) highly express enhancer of zeste drosophila homolog 2 (Ezh2), a polycomb group protein. Furthermore, as a result of high expression of Ezh2, VSELs, like ESCs, exhibit bivalently modified nucleosomes (trimethylated H3K27 and H3K4) at promoters of important homeodomain-containing developmental TFs, thus preventing premature activation of the lineage-committing factors. Notably, spontaneous or RNA interference-enforced downregulation of Ezh2 during VSEL differentiation removes the bivalent domain (BD) structure, which leads to de-repression of several BD-regulated genes. Therefore, we suggest that Oct4+ VSELs, like other pluripotent stem cells, maintain their pluripotent state through an Ezh2-dependent BD-mediated epigenetic mechanism. Furthermore, our global survey of VSEL gene expression signature would not only advance our understanding of biological process for their pluripotency, differentiation, and quiescence but should also help to develop better protocols for ex vivo expansion of VSELs.
Ozone (O3), a commonly encountered environmental pollutant, has been shown to induce pulmonary fibrosis in different animal models; the underlying mechanism, however, remains elusive. To investigate the molecular mechanism underlying O3-induced pulmonary fibrosis, 6- to 8-week-old C57BL/6 male mice were exposed to a cyclic O3 exposure protocol consisting of 2 days of filtered air and 5 days of O3 exposure (0.5 ppm, 8 h/day) for 5 and 10 cycles with or without intraperitoneal injection of IN-1233, a specific inhibitor of the type 1 receptor of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), the most potent profibrogenic cytokine. The results showed that O3 exposure for 5 or 10 cycles increased the TGF-β protein level in the epithelial lining fluid (ELF), associated with an increase in the expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), a TGF-β-responsive gene that plays a critical role in the development of fibrosis under various pathological conditions. Cyclic O3 exposure also increased the deposition of collagens and alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in airway walls. However, these fibrotic changes were not overt until after 10 cycles of O3 exposure. Importantly, blockage of the TGF-β signaling pathway with IN-1233 suppressed O3-induced Smad2/3 phosphorylation, PAI-1 expression, as well as collagens and α-SMA deposition in the lung. Our data demonstrate for the first time that O3 exposure increases TGF-β expression and activates TGF-β signaling pathways, which mediates O3-induced lung fibrotic responses in vivo.
Ozone; TGF-β; PAI-1; airway fibrosis
Meiosis is a germ cell-specific cell division process through which haploid gametes are produced for sexual reproduction1. Prior to initiation of meiosis, mouse primordial germ cells (PGCs) undergo a series of epigenetic reprogramming steps2,3, including global erasure of DNA methylation on the 5-position of cytosine (5mC) at CpG4,5. Although several epigenetic regulators, such as Dnmt3l, histone methyltransferases G9a and Prdm9, have been reported to be critical for meiosis6, little is known about how the expression of meiotic genes is regulated and how their expression contributes to normal meiosis. Using a loss of function approach, here we demonstrate that the 5mC-specific dioxygenase Tet1 plays an important role in regulating meiosis in mouse oocytes. Tet1 deficiency significantly reduces female germ cell numbers and fertility. Univalent chromosomes and unresolved DNA double strand breaks are also observed in Tet1-deficient oocytes. Tet1 deficiency does not greatly affect the genome-wide demethylation that takes place in PGCs but leads to defective DNA demethylation and decreased expression of a subset of meiotic genes. Our study thus establishes a function for Tet1 in meiosis and meiotic gene activation in female germ cells.
Fibrosis is characterized by excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) in basement membranes and interstitial tissues, resulting from increased synthesis or decreased degradation of ECM or both. The plasminogen activator/plasmin system plays an important role in ECM degradation, whereas the plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) is a physiologic inhibitor of plasminogen activators. PAI-1 expression is increased in the lung fibrotic diseases and in experimental fibrosis models. The deletion of the PAI-1 gene reduces, whereas the overexpression of PAI-1 enhances, the susceptibility of animals to lung fibrosis induced by different stimuli, indicating an important role of PAI-1 in the development of lung fibrosis. Many growth factors, including transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), as well as other chemicals/agents, induce PAI-1 expression in cultured cells and in vivo. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) have been shown to mediate the induction of PAI-1 by many of these stimuli. This review summarizes some recent findings that help us to understand the role of PAI-1 in the development of lung fibrosis and ROS/RNS in the regulation of PAI-1 expression during fibrogenesis.
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a major cause of dementia in the elderly with no effective treatment. Accumulation of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) in the brain, one of the pathological features of AD, is considered to be a central disease-causing and disease-promoting event in AD. In this study, we showed that feeding male AβPP/PS1 transgenic mice, a well established mouse model of AD, with a diet containing phenolic antioxidant tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) dramatically reduced brain Aβ load with no significant effect on the amounts of alpha- and beta-C-terminal fragments or full-length AβPP. Further studies showed that TBHQ diet inhibited the expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), a protease inhibitor which plays a critical role in brain Aβ accumulation in AD, accompanied by increases in the activities of tissue type and urokinase type plasminogen activators (tPA and uPA) as well as plasmin. Moreover, we showed that TBHQ diet increased the expression of low density lipoprotein related protein-1, a multi ligand endocytotic receptor involved in transporting Aβ out of the brain, and plasma Aβ40 and Aβ42 levels. We also showed that TBHQ diet increased the concentration of glutathione, an important antioxidant, and suppressed the expression of NADPH oxidase 2 as well as lipid peroxidation. Collectively, our data suggest that TBHQ may have therapeutic potential for AD by increasing brain antioxidant capacity/reducing oxidative stress level and by stimulating Aβ degradation/clearance pathways.
Alzheimer’s disease; amyloid-β degradation; amyloid-β efflux; antioxidant
Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β upregulates plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) in a variety of cell types, and PAI-1 is considered to be an essential factor for the development of fibrosis. Our previous studies demonstrated that TGF-β decreased intracellular glutathione (GSH) content in murine embryonic fibroblasts (NIH/3T3 cells), whereas treatment of the cells with GSH, which restored intracellular GSH concentration, inhibited TGF-β-induced collagen accumulation by blocking PAI-1 expression and enhancing collagen degradation. In the present study, we demonstrate that GSH blocks TGF-β-induced PAI-1 promoter activity in NIH/3T3 cells, which is associated with an inhibition of TGF-β-induced JNK and p38 phosphorylation. Interestingly, although exogenous GSH does not affect phosphorylation and/or nuclear translocation of Smad2/3 and Smad4, it completely eliminates TGF-β-induced binding of transcription factors to not only AP-1 and SP-1 but also Smad cis elements in the PAI-1 promoter. Decoy oligonucleotides (ODN) studies further demonstrate that AP-1, SP-1, and Smad ODNs abrogate the inhibitory effect of GSH on TGF-β-induced PAI-1 promoter activity and inhibit TGF-β-induced expression of endogenous PAI-1. Furthermore, we show that GSH reduces TGF-β-stimulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) signal. Blocking ROS production with diphenyleneiodonium or scavenging ROS with a superoxide dismutase and catalase mimetic MnTBaP dramatically reduces TGF-β-induced p38 and JNK phosphorylation as well as PAI-1 gene expression. In composite, these findings suggest that GSH inhibits TGF-β-stimulated PAI-1 expression in fibroblasts by blocking the JNK/p38 pathway, probably by reducing ROS, which leads to an inhibition of the binding of transcription factors to the AP-1, SP-1, and Smad cis elements in the PAI-1 promoter.
transforming growth factor-β; plasminogen activator inhibitor-1; mitogen-activated protein kinase
The epidemiologic evidence on alcohol consumption and Parkinson’s disease (PD) is equivocal. We prospectively examined total alcohol consumption and consumption of specific types of alcoholic beverage in relation to future risk of PD.
The study comprised 306,895 participants (180,235 male and 126,660 female) ages 50–71 years in 1995–1996 from the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. Consumption of alcoholic beverages in the past 12 months was assessed in 1995–1996. Multivariate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were obtained from logistic regression models.
A total of 1,113 PD cases diagnosed between 2000 and 2006 were included in the analysis. Total alcohol consumption was not associated with PD. However, the association differed by types of alcoholic beverages. Compared with non-beer drinkers, the multivariate ORs for beer drinkers were 0.79 (95% CI: 0.68, 0.92) for <1 drink/day, 0.73 (95% CI: 0.50, 1.07) for 1–1.99 drinks/day, and 0.86 (95% CI: 0.60, 1.21) for ≥2 drinks/day. For liquor consumption, a monotonic increase in PD risk was suggested: ORs (95% CI) were 1.06 (0.91, 1.23), 1.22 (0.94, 1.58), and 1.35 (1.02, 1.80) for <1, 1–1.99, and ≥2 drinks/day, respectively (P for trend <0.03). Additional analyses among exclusive drinkers of one specific type of alcoholic beverage supported the robustness of these findings. The results for wine consumption were less clear, although a borderline lower PD risk was observed when comparing wine drinkers of 1–1.99 drinks/day with none drinkers (OR = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.53, 1.02).
Our results suggest that beer and liquor consumption may have opposite associations with PD: low to moderate beer consumption with lower PD risk and greater liquor consumption with higher risk. These findings and potential underlying mechanisms warrant further investigations.
Depression is one of the most frequent neuropsychiatric comorbidities associated with opiate addiction. Mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) and MAPK phosphatase (MKP) are involved in drug addiction and depression. However, the potential role of MAPK and MKP in depression caused by morphine withdrawal remains unclear. We utilized a mouse model of repeated morphine administration to examine the molecular mechanisms that contribute to prolonged withdrawal induced depressive-like behaviors. Depressive-like behaviors were significant at 1 week after withdrawal and worsened over time. Phospho-ERK (extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase) was decreased and MKP-1 was elevated in the hippocampus, and JNK (c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase), p38 (p38 protein kinase) and MKP-3 were unaffected. A pharmacological blockade of MKP-1 by intra-hippocampal sanguinarine (SA) infusion prevented the development of depressive-like behaviors and resulted in relatively normal levels of MKP-1 and phospho-ERK after withdrawal. Our findings support the association between hippocampal MAPK phosphorylation and prolonged morphine withdrawal-induced depression, and emphasize the MKP-1 as an negative regulator of the ERK phosphorylation that contributes to depression.
Data from human epidemiological studies, cultured mammalian cells, and animal models have supported a potentially beneficial role of selenium (Se) in prostate cancer prevention. In addition, Se-containing proteins including members of the glutathione peroxidase (GPx) family and Selenium Binding Protein 1 (SBP1) have been linked to either cancer risk or development. For example, SBP1 levels are typically reduced in tumors compared to non-cancerous tissue, with the degree of reduction associated with increasingly poor clinical outcome.
In order to investigate inter-relationships between blood and tissue Se levels and GPx activity, tissue SBP1 levels, and disease aggressiveness using the Gleason Score, we measured these selenium status biomarkers in fasting serum and histologically normal prostate tissues obtained from 24 men undergoing radical prostatectomy for the treatment of localized prostate cancer.
GPx enzyme activity was inversely correlated with SBP1 levels in prostate tissue as determined by densitometry of western blots obtained using anti-SBP1 antibodies (partial Spearman correlation coefficients and corresponding p-values overall and in African-Americans = −0.42 (0.08) and −0.53 (0.10), respectively), which is consistent with previous observations in cultured cells and mice. Of particular interest was the positive correlation between tissue GPx activity and Gleason Score, with this relationship achieving statistical significance among African Americans (r=0.67, p=0.02).
. These studies support the continued investigation of the role of Se and selenoproteins in prostate cancer prevention, development and prognosis.
Selenium; GPx; SBP1; prostate; Gleason score
Pot-culture experiments were carried out to assess the phytoremediation potential of 14 ornamental plants in weathered petroleum-contaminated soil, which was collected in the Shengli Oil Field, one of the biggest oil fields in China, by examining their impact on the degradation potential of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) and its composition. Results showed Gaillardia aristata, Echinacea purpurea, Fawn (Festuca arundinacea Schreb), Fire Phoenix (a combined F. arundinacea), and Medicago sativa L. could effectively reduce TPHs and its composition in 10,000 mg kg−1 TPH-contaminated soil. After a 30-day pot-culture experiment, the removal rates were 37.16%, 46.74%, 49.42%, 41.00%, and 37.93%, respectively, significantly higher than that in the control (only 12.93%). Removal rates of TPH composition including saturated hydrocarbon, aromatic hydrocarbon, asphaltene, and polar compound reached 39.41%, 38.47%, 45.11%, 42.92%, and 37.52%, respectively, also higher than that in the control (only 6.90%). Further, the total biomass did not significantly decrease for all plants tested in 10,000 mg kg−1 TPH-contaminated soil. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the presence of oil in the plant tissues. These results suggested that the typical ornamental species including G. aristata, E. purpurea, Fawn, Fire Phoenix, and M. sativa can be adopted in phytoremediation of oil-contaminated soil.
phytoremediation; total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs); petroleum-contaminated soil; ornamental species
The authors prospectively examined whether caffeine intake was associated with lower risk of Parkinson disease (PD) in both men and women among 304,980 participants in the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study and whether smoking affected this relation. Multivariate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were derived from logistic regression models. Higher caffeine intake as assessed in 1995–1996 was monotonically associated with lower PD risk (diagnosed in 2000–2006) in both men and women. After adjustment for age, race, and physical activity, the odds ratio comparing the highest quintile of caffeine intake with the lowest was 0.75 (95% confidence interval: 0.60, 0.94; Ptrend = 0.005) for men and 0.60 (95% confidence interval: 0.39, 0.91; Ptrend = 0.005) for women. Further adjustment for duration of smoking and analyses carried out among never smokers showed similar results. A joint analysis with smoking suggested that smoking and caffeine may act independently in relation to PD risk. Finally, the authors conducted a meta-analysis of prospective studies and confirmed that caffeine intake was inversely associated with PD risk in both men and women. These findings suggest no gender difference in the relation between caffeine and PD.
caffeine; coffee; Parkinson disease; prospective studies; smoking
Aims: ApoL-I is a newly found component of high-density lipoprotein, and has a potential role in lipid metabolism. This study was mainly to examine the possible association of the ApoL-I gene polymorphism with obesity and plasma lipid levels in the Chinese population. Methods: Three hundred nineteen Han Chinese (109 obese and 210 nonobese control subjects) in Chengdu area were studied using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Results: The Lys and Glu allele frequencies of the apoL-I gene at the Lys166Glu site in obese and nonobese control groups were 0.830, 0.170 and 0.814, 0.186, respectively. The Ile and Met allele frequencies of the gene at Ile244Met site in the obese and the control groups were 0.844, 0.156 and 0.831, 0.169, respectively. The 166Glu and 244Met allele frequencies of the two polymorphisms in obese subjects were not different from those in the controls, respectively (p>0.05). In the nonobese group, subjects with genotype Lys/Lys at the Lys166Glu site or Ile/Ile at the Ile244Met site had a higher serum mean concentration of triglyceride (TG) as compared with those of corresponding Glu or Met allele carriers (p<0.05). In addition, serum apoC-III and apoE levels were affected by genotypes of Lys166Glu and Ile224Met polymorphisms, respectively, in the control group (all p<0.05). Conclusion: The current study, for the first time, provides evidence that Lys166Glu and Ile244Met polymorphisms in apoL-I gene are associated with TG, apoC-III, and apoE levels in nonobese Chinese. However, these polymorphisms are not associated with obesity in the population.
The emerging human enterovirus 71 (EV71) represents a growing threat to public health, and no vaccine or specific antiviral is currently available. Human intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is clinical used in treating severe EV71 infections. However, the discovery of antibody dependent enhancement (ADE) of EV71 infection illustrates the complex roles of antibody in controlling EV71 infection. In this study, to identify the distinct role of each IgG subclass on neutralization and enhancement of EV71 infection, different lots of pharmaceutical IVIG preparations manufactured from Chinese donors were used for IgG subclass fractionation by pH gradient elution with the protein A-conjugated affinity column. The neutralization and ADE capacities on EV71 infection of each purified IgG subclass were then assayed, respectively. The neutralizing activity of human IVIG is mainly mediated by IgG1 subclass and to less extent by IgG2 subclass. Interestingly, IgG3 fraction did not have neutralizing activity but enhanced EV71 infection in vitro. These results revealed the different roles of human IgG subclasses on EV71 infection, which is of critical importance for the rational design of immunotherapy and vaccines against severe EV71 diseases.
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a complex disease and harmful to human health, and most of the existing biomarkers are mainly to measure the disease phenotype after the disease onset (or drastic deterioration). Until now, there is no effective biomarker which can predict the upcoming disease (or pre-disease state) before disease onset or disease deterioration. Further, the detail molecular mechanism for such deterioration of the disease, e.g., driver genes or causal network of the disease, is still unclear.
In this study, we detected early-warning signals of T1D and its leading biomolecular networks based on serial gene expression profiles of NOD (non-obese diabetic) mice by identifying a new type of biomarker, i.e., dynamical network biomarker (DNB) which forms a specific module for marking the time period just before the drastic deterioration of T1D.
Two dynamical network biomarkers were obtained to signal the emergence of two critical deteriorations for the disease, and could be used to predict the upcoming sudden changes during the disease progression. We found that the two critical transitions led to peri-insulitis and hyperglycemia in NOD mices, which are consistent with other independent experimental results from literature.
The identified dynamical network biomarkers can be used to detect the early-warning signals of T1D and predict upcoming disease onset before the drastic deterioration. In addition, we also demonstrated that the leading biomolecular networks are causally related to the initiation and progression of T1D, and provided the biological insight into the molecular mechanism of T1D. Experimental data from literature and functional analysis on DNBs validated the computational results.
Autophagy is a cellular catabolic process by which long-lived proteins and damaged organelles are degradated by lysosomes. Activation of autophagy is an important survival mechanism that protects cancer cells from various stresses, including anticancer agents. Recent studies indicate that pyrvinium pamoate, an FDA-approved antihelminthic drug, exhibits wide-ranging anticancer activity. Here we demonstrate that pyrvinium inhibits autophagy both in vitro and in vivo. We further demonstrate that the inhibition of autophagy is mammalian target of rapamycin independent but depends on the transcriptional inhibition of autophagy genes. Moreover, the combination of pyrvinium with autophagy stimuli improves its toxicity against cancer cells, and pretreatment of cells with 3-MA or siBeclin1 partially protects cells from pyrvinium-induced cell death under glucose starvation, suggesting that targeted autophagy addiction is involved in pyrvinium-mediated cytotoxicity. Finally, in vivo studies show that the combination therapy of pyrvinium with the anticancer and autophagy stimulus agent, 2-deoxy-𝒟-glucose (2-DG), is significantly more effective in inhibiting tumor growth than pyrvinium or 2-DG alone. This study supports a novel cancer therapeutic strategy based on targeting autophagy addiction and implicates using pyrvinium as an autophagy inhibitor in combination with chemotherapeutic agents to improve their therapeutic efficacy.
pyrvinium pamoate; autophagy addiction; apoptosis; 2-deoxy-𝒟-glucose
The aim of this study was to explore the etiology and diagnosis of multiple intracranial hemorrhages (ICHs) following severe burns, with a retrospective review of 16 cases of severe burns further complicated by multiple ICHs. Using cranial CT scans of the brains, we identified that all patients presented with low platelet counts and coagulation abnormalities prior to intracranial hemorrhaging. Following conventional treatment and various supporting treatments, five cases succumbed following a progressive reduction in blood platelet levels and the ICHs were cured in 11 cases following the restoration of normal platelet levels. We conclude that low platelet counts and coagulation abnormalities may cause multiple ICHs following severe burns and early diagnosis and treatment is the key to successful treatment.
burn; multiple intracranial hemorrhages; platelet; coagulation abnormalities; complication