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1.  Genetic Ancestry and the Relationship of Cigarette Smoking to Lung Function and Percent Emphysema in Four Race/Ethnic Groups: a Cross-sectional Study 
Thorax  2013;68(7):634-642.
Background
Cigarette smoking is the major cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema. Recent studies suggest that susceptibility to cigarette smoke may vary by race/ethnicity; however, they were generally small and relied on self-reported race/ethnicity.
Objective
To test the hypothesis that relationships of smoking to lung function and percent emphysema differ by genetic ancestry and self-reported race/ethnicity among Whites, African-Americans, Hispanics and Chinese-Americans.
Design
Cross-sectional population-based study of adults age 45-84 years in the United States
Measurements
Principal components of genetic ancestry and continental ancestry estimated from one-million genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms. Pack-years calculated as years smoking cigarettes-per-day/20. Spirometry measured for 3,344 and percent emphysema on computed tomography for 8,224 participants.
Results
The prevalence of ever-smoking was: Whites, 57.6%; African-Americans, 56.4%; Hispanics, 46.7%; and Chinese-Americans, 26.8%. Every 10 pack-years was associated with −0.73% (95% CI −0.90%, −0.56%) decrement in the forced expiratory volume in one second to forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) and a 0.23% (95% CI 0.08%, 0.38%) increase in percent emphysema. There was no evidence that relationships of pack-years to the FEV1/FVC, airflow obstruction and percent emphysema varied by genetic ancestry (all p>0.10), self-reported race/ethnicity (all p>0.10) or, among African-Americans, African ancestry. There were small differences in relationships of pack-years to the FEV1 among male Chinese-Americans and to the FEV1/FVC with African and Native American ancestry among male Hispanics only.
Conclusions
In this large cohort, there was little-to-no evidence that the associations of smoking to lung function and percent emphysema differed by genetic ancestry or self-reported race/ethnicity.
doi:10.1136/thoraxjnl-2012-202116
PMCID: PMC4020409  PMID: 23585509
cigarette smoke; genetic ancestry; lung function; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; COPD; emphysema; FVC; Forced Vital Capacity; FEV1; Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second
2.  Mercury Exposure in Young Adulthood and Incidence of Diabetes Later in Life 
Diabetes Care  2013;36(6):1584-1589.
OBJECTIVE
Laboratory studies suggest that exposure to methylmercury at a level similar to those found in fish may induce pancreatic islet β-cell dysfunction. Few, if any, human studies have examined the association between mercury exposure and diabetes incidence. We examined whether toenail mercury levels are associated with incidence of diabetes in a large prospective cohort.
RESEACH DESIGN AND METHODS
A prospective cohort of 3,875 American young adults, aged 20–32 years, free of diabetes in 1987 (baseline), were enrolled and followed six times until 2005. Baseline toenail mercury levels were measured with instrumental neutron-activation analysis. Incident diabetes was identified by plasma glucose levels, oral glucose tolerance tests, hemoglobin A1C levels, and/or antidiabetes medications.
RESULTS
A total of 288 incident cases of diabetes occurred over 18 years of follow-up. In multivariate analyses adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, study center, education, smoking status, alcohol consumption, physical activity, family history of diabetes, intakes of long-chain n-3 fatty acids and magnesium, and toenail selenium, toenail mercury levels were positively associated with the incidence of diabetes. The hazard ratio (95% CI) of incident diabetes compared the highest to the lowest quintiles of mercury exposure was 1.65 (1.07–2.56; P for trend = 0.02). Higher mercury exposure at baseline was also significantly associated with decreased homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function index (P for trend < 0.01).
CONCLUSIONS
Our results are consistent with findings from laboratory studies and provide longitudinal human data suggesting that people with high mercury exposure in young adulthood may have elevated risk of diabetes later in life.
doi:10.2337/dc12-1842
PMCID: PMC3661833  PMID: 23423697
3.  Proximal Superficial Femoral Artery Occlusion, Collateral Vessels, and Walking Performance in Peripheral Artery Disease 
JACC. Cardiovascular imaging  2013;6(6):687-694.
Objective
We studied associations of MRI-measured SFA occlusions with functional performance, leg symptoms, and collateral vessel number in PAD. We studied associations of collateral vessel number with functional performance in PAD.
Background
Associations of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-detected superficial femoral artery (SFA) occlusion and collateral vessel number with functional performance among individuals with peripheral artery disease (PAD) have not been reported.
Methods
457 participants with an ankle brachial index (ABI) < 1.00 had MRI measurement of the proximal SFA with twelve consecutive 2.5 millimeter cross-sectional images. An occluded SFA was defined as an SFA in which at least one segment was occluded. A non-occluded SFA was defined as absence of any occluded slices. Collateral vessels were visualized with magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Lower extremity functional performance was measured with the six-minute walk, four-meter walking velocity at usual and fastest pace, and the short physical performance battery (SPPB) (0-12 scale, 12=best).
Results
Adjusting for age, sex, race, comorbidities, and other confounders, the presence of an SFA occlusion was associated with poorer six-minute walk performance (1,031 vs. 1,169 feet, P=0.006), slower fast-paced walking velocity (1.15 vs. 1.22 meters/second, P =0.042), and lower SPPB score (9.07 vs. 9.75, P=0.038) compared to the absence of an SFA occlusion. More numerous collateral vessels were associated with better six-minute walk performance (0-3 collaterals-1,064 feet, 4-7 collaterals-1,165 feet, ≥ 8 collaterals-1,246 feet, P trend=0.007), faster usual-paced walking speed (0-3 collaterals-0.84 meters/second, 4-7 collaterals-0.88 meters/second, ≥ 8 collaterals-0.91 meters/second, P trend=0.029), and faster rapid-paced walking speed (0-3 collaterals-1.17 meters/second, 4-7 collaterals-1.22 meters/second, ≥ 8 collaterals-1.29 meters/second, P trend=0.002), adjusting for age, sex, race, comorbidities, ABI, and other confounders.
Conclusions
Among PAD participants, MRI-visualized occlusions in the proximal SFA are associated with poorer functional performance, while more numerous collaterals are associated with better functional performance.
Clinical Trial ID
NCT00520412
doi:10.1016/j.jcmg.2012.10.024
PMCID: PMC3766720  PMID: 23647796
atherosclerotic plaque; intermittent claudication; peripheral arterial disease; physical functioning
4.  Associations of Calf Skeletal Muscle Characteristics and Peripheral Nerve Function with Self-Perceived Physical Functioning and Walking Ability in Persons with Peripheral Arterial Disease 
We determined whether more adverse calf muscle characteristics and poorer peripheral nerve function were associated with impairments in self-perceived physical functioning and walking ability in persons with lower extremity peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Participants included 462 persons with PAD; measures included the ankle-brachial index (ABI), medical history, electrophysiologic characteristics of nerves, and computed tomography of calf muscle. Self-perceived physical functioning and walking ability were assessed using the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) and the Walking Impairment Questionnaire (WIQ). Results were adjusted for age, sex, race, ABI, body-mass index, comorbidities, and other confounders. Lower calf muscle area was associated with a poorer SF-36 physical function (PF) score (overall p trend<0.001, 33.76 PF score for the lowest quartile vs. 59.74 for the highest, pair wise p<0.001) and a poorer WIQ walking distance score (p trend=0.001, 29.71 WIQ score for the lowest quartile vs. 48.43 for the highest, pair wise p<0.001). Higher calf muscle percent fat was associated with a poorer SF-36 PF score (p trend<0.001, 53.76 PF score for the lowest quartile vs. 40.28 for the highest, pair wise p=0.009). Slower peroneal nerve conduction velocity was associated with a poorer WIQ speed score (p trend=0.023, 30.49 WIQ score for the lowest quartile vs. 40.48 for the highest, pair wise p=0.031). In summary, adverse calf muscle characteristics and poorer peripheral nerve function are associated significantly and independently with impairments in self-perceived physical functioning and walking ability in PAD persons.
doi:10.1177/1358863X10395656
PMCID: PMC4034534  PMID: 21471147
peripheral arterial disease; calf muscle characteristics; peripheral nerve function; quality of life
5.  The Association of Endogenous Sex hormones with Lipoprotein Subfraction Profile in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) 
There traditional lipid profile differs by sex hormone levels. However, associations of sex hormones with lipoprotein subfractions, which may more accurately represent metabolic pathways to atherosclerosis, are not well studied. We quantified the cross-sectional associations of endogenous sex hormones with lipoprotein subfractions in 3143 men and 2038 postmenopausal women who were not on hormone replacement therapy, aged 45–84 years, in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis baseline examination. Particle sizes and numbers of Very Low Density (VLDL), Low Density (LDL) and High Density (HDL) Lipoproteins were measured by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. In both men and women, after multivariable adjustment, higher Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) levels are associated with smaller, fewer VLDL, larger, fewer LDL, and larger, more numerous HDL particles; while higher endogenous estradiol levels are associated with smaller VLDL, and smaller, more numerous HDL and LDL particles (all p < 0.05). Testosterone (adjusted for SHBG) is associated with a smaller VLDL particles in men but not women (sex difference p = 0.040). Higher dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) levels are associated with more numerous, smaller VLDL particles only in women (sex difference p = 0.030, 0.004, respectively). In conclusion, we found sex differences in the association of endogenous androgens with lipoprotein particle sizes and numbers. Higher endogenous estradiol, but lower SHBG is associated with a more atherogenic lipoprotein particle profile. These findings highlight the potential to improve the lipoprotein profile with sex hormones, but emphasize the intricacies of the interactions.
doi:10.1016/j.metabol.2008.01.019
PMCID: PMC4017356  PMID: 18502260
6.  Associations Between a Parental History of Premature Cardiovascular Disease and Coronary Calcium and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness: The Coronary Artery Risk Development In Young Adults (CARDIA) Study 
Background
It is unclear if associations between a parental history of premature CVD (pCVD) and subclinical atherosclerosis are attenuated by adjustment for long-term risk factors levels through middle adulthood.
Design
Prospective community-based cohort study
Methods
CARDIA participants who attended the year 20 exam (N=2283, mean age 45 years) were grouped by pCVD status: maternal only, paternal only, any parental, and no parental history (referent). We used separate logistic regression models, adjusted for average risk factor levels over 20 years' follow-up to assess associations of parental pCVD and subclinical atherosclerosis in offspring.
Results
White participants with any parental history of pCVD had a higher odds of CAC>0 than participants with no parental history (OR 1.55; 95% CI, 1.01-2.37). This was largely driven by the association of a paternal history of pCVD with CAC>0 (OR 2.15; 95% CI, 1.42-3.23), which was minimally attenuated by multivariable adjustment (OR 2.09; 95% CI, 1.31-3.32). Similarly, adjusted associations between parental pCVD and IMT > 90%tile were observed in white participants with a paternal history of pCVD (OR=1.93; 95% CI, 1.10-3.39) and any parental history pCVD (OR 1.67; 95% CI, 1.02-2.74). No significant associations between a parental history of pCVD and the odds of subclinical atherosclerosis were observed in black participants.
Conclusions
Parental pCVD is independently associated with early development of subclinical atherosclerosis; these associations may be race-specific for participants in their 5th decade of life.
doi:10.1177/2047487312462801
PMCID: PMC3779512  PMID: 23027592
Family History of Premature Cardiovascular Disease; Coronary Artery Calcium; Carotid Intima-Media Thickness
7.  Duration of Abdominal Obesity Beginning in Young Adulthood and Incident Diabetes Through Middle Age 
Diabetes Care  2013;36(5):1241-1247.
OBJECTIVE
To examine whether the duration of abdominal obesity determined prospectively using measured waist circumference (WC) is associated with the development of new-onset diabetes independent of the degree of abdominal adiposity.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study is a multicenter, community-based, longitudinal cohort study of 5,115 white and black adults aged 18–30 years in 1985 to 1986. Years spent abdominally obese were calculated for participants without abdominal obesity (WC >102 cm in men and >88 cm in women) or diabetes at baseline (n = 4,092) and was based upon repeat measurements conducted 2, 5, 7, 10, 15, 20, and 25 years later.
RESULTS
Over 25 years, 392 participants developed incident diabetes. Overall, following adjustment for demographics, family history of diabetes, study center, and time varying WC, energy intake, physical activity, smoking, and alcohol, each additional year of abdominal obesity was associated with a 4% higher risk of developing diabetes [hazard ratio (HR) 1.04 (95% CI 1.02–1.07)]. However, a quadratic model best represented the data. HRs for 0, 1–5, 6–10, 11–15, 16–20, and >20 years of abdominal obesity were 1.00 (referent), 2.06 (1.43–2.98), 3.45 (2.28–5.22), 3.43 (2.28–5.22), 2.80 (1.73–4.54), and 2.91 (1.60–5.29), respectively; P-quadratic < 0.001.
CONCLUSIONS
Longer duration of abdominal obesity was associated with substantially higher risk for diabetes independent of the degree of abdominal adiposity. Preventing or at least delaying the onset of abdominal obesity in young adulthood may lower the risk of developing diabetes through middle age.
doi:10.2337/dc12-1714
PMCID: PMC3631861  PMID: 23248193
8.  Association of Functional Polymorphism rs2231142 (Q141K) in the ABCG2 Gene With Serum Uric Acid and Gout in 4 US Populations 
American Journal of Epidemiology  2013;177(9):923-932.
A loss-of-function mutation (Q141K, rs2231142) in the ATP-binding cassette, subfamily G, member 2 gene (ABCG2) has been shown to be associated with serum uric acid levels and gout in Asians, Europeans, and European and African Americans; however, less is known about these associations in other populations. Rs2231142 was genotyped in 22,734 European Americans, 9,720 African Americans, 3,849 Mexican Americans, and 3,550 American Indians in the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) Study (2008–2012). Rs2231142 was significantly associated with serum uric acid levels (P = 2.37 × 10−67, P = 3.98 × 10−5, P = 6.97 × 10−9, and P = 5.33 × 10−4 in European Americans, African Americans, Mexican Americans, and American Indians, respectively) and gout (P = 2.83 × 10−10, P = 0.01, and P = 0.01 in European Americans, African Americans, and Mexican Americans, respectively). Overall, the T allele was associated with a 0.24-mg/dL increase in serum uric acid level (P = 1.37 × 10−80) and a 1.75-fold increase in the odds of gout (P = 1.09 × 10−12). The association between rs2231142 and serum uric acid was significantly stronger in men, postmenopausal women, and hormone therapy users compared with their counterparts. The association with gout was also significantly stronger in men than in women. These results highlight a possible role of sex hormones in the regulation of ABCG2 urate transporter and its potential implications for the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of hyperuricemia and gout.
doi:10.1093/aje/kws330
PMCID: PMC4023295  PMID: 23552988
ABCG2 protein, human; genetic association studies; gout; meta-analysis; polymorphism, single nucleotide; urate transporter; uric acid
9.  Childhood Obesity Predicts Adult Metabolic Syndrome: The Fels Longitudinal Study 
The Journal of pediatrics  2007;152(2):191-200.
Objectives
To determine the age of significant divergence in body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference in adults with and without the metabolic syndrome, and to provide age- and sex-specific childhood values that predict adult metabolic syndrome.
Study design
Part 1 of this study is a retrospective cohort study of 92 men and 59 women (mean age, 51 years) who had metabolic syndrome and 154 randomly selected adults matched for age and sex who did not have the syndrome. Part 2 is a study of predictive accuracy in a validation sample of 743 participants.
Results
The first appearance of differences between adults with and without metabolic syndrome occurred at ages 8 and 13 for BMI and 6 and 13 for waist circumference in boys and girls, respectively. Odds ratios (ORs) for the metabolic syndrome at 30 years and older ranged from 1.4 to 1.9 across age groups in boys and from 0.8 to 2.8 across age groups in girls if BMI exceeded criterion values in childhood. The corresponding ORs for waist circumference ranged from 2.5 to 31.4 in boys and 1.7 to 2.5 in girls. These ORs increased with the number of examinations.
Conclusions
Children with BMI and waist circumference values exceeding the established criterion values are at increased risk for the adult metabolic syndrome.
doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2007.07.055
PMCID: PMC3988700  PMID: 18206688
10.  Left Ventricular Global Function Index By Magnetic Resonance Imaging- A Novel Marker for Assessment of Cardiac Performance for the Prediction Of Cardiovascular Events: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis 
Hypertension  2013;61(4):770-778.
LV function is generally assessed independent of structural remodeling and vice versa. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a novel LV global function index (LVGFI) that integrates LV structure with global function and to assess its predictive value for cardiovascular (CV) events throughout adult life in a multi-ethnic population of men and women without history of cardiovascular diseases at baseline. A total of 5004 participants in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis underwent a cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) study and were followed up for a median of 7.2 years. The LVGFI by CMR was defined by the ratio of stroke volume divided by LV total volume defined as the sum of mean LV cavity and myocardial volumes. Cox proportional hazard models were constructed to predict the end points of heart failure (HF), hard CV events and a combined endpoint of all CV events after adjustment for established risk factors, calcium score and biomarkers. A total of 579 (11.6%) incident events were observed during the follow-up period. In adjusted models, the end points of HF, hard CV events and all events were all significantly associated with LVGFI (HF, hazard ratio [HR]= 0.64, p<0.0001; hard CV events, HR=0.79, p=0.007; all events, HR=0.79, p<0.0001). LVGFI had a significant independent predictive value in the multivariable models for all CV event categories. The LVGFI was a powerful predictor of incident heart failure, hard CV events and a composite endpoint including all events in this multiethnic cohort.
doi:10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.111.198028
PMCID: PMC3691067  PMID: 23424238
left ventricle; ejection fraction; heart failure; LV mass; LV global function index
11.  The Walking Impairment Questionnaire Stair-Climbing Score predicts mortality in men and women with peripheral arterial disease 
Journal of vascular surgery  2012;55(6):1662-73.e2.
Objectives
The Walking Impairment Questionnaire (WIQ) measures self-reported walking distance, walking speed, and stair-climbing ability in men and women with lower extremity peripheral arterial disease (PAD). We determined whether poorer WIQ scores are associated with higher all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in individuals with and without PAD.
Methods
1048 men and women with and without PAD were identified from Chicago-area medical centers. Participants completed the WIQ at baseline and were followed for a median of 4.5 years. Cox proportional hazards models were used to relate baseline WIQ scores with mortality, adjusting for age, sex, race, the ankle brachial index (ABI), comorbidities, and other covariates.
Results
461 participants (44.0%) died during follow-up, including 158 deaths from cardiovascular disease. PAD participants in the lowest baseline quartile of the WIQ stair-climbing scores had higher all-cause mortality (HR = 1.70 [95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.08-2.66, p=0.02] and higher CVD mortality (HR = 3.11 [95% CI 1.30 – 7.47, p=0.01]) compared to those with the highest baseline WIQ stair climbing score. Among PAD participants there were no significant associations of lower baseline WIQ distance or speed scores with rates of all-cause mortality (p for trend = 0.20 and 0.07, respectively) or CVD mortality (p for trend = 0.51 and p for trend = 0.33, respectively). Among non-PAD participants there were no significant associations of lower baseline WIQ stair climbing, distance, or speed score with rates of all-cause mortality (p for trend = 0.94, 0.69, and 0.26, respectively) or CVD mortality (p for trend = 0.28, 0.68, and 0.78, respectively).
Conclusions
Among participants with PAD, lower WIQ stair climbing scores are associated with higher all-cause and CVD mortality, independently of the ABI and other covariates.
doi:10.1016/j.jvs.2011.12.010
PMCID: PMC3963605  PMID: 22608041
12.  The vitamin E isoforms α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol have opposite associations with spirometric parameters: the CARDIA study 
Respiratory Research  2014;15(1):31.
Background
Clinical studies of the associations of vitamin E with lung function have reported conflicting results. However, these reports primarily examine the α-tocopherol isoform of vitamin E and have not included the isoform γ-tocopherol which we recently demonstrated in vitro opposes the function of α-tocopherol. We previously demonstrated, in vitro and in animal studies, that the vitamin E isoform α-tocopherol protects, but the isoform γ-tocopherol promotes lung inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness.
Methods
To translate these findings to humans, we conducted analysis of 4526 adults in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) multi-center cohort with available spirometry and tocopherol data in blacks and whites. Spirometry was obtained at years 0, 5, 10, and 20 and serum tocopherol was from years 0, 7 and 15 of CARDIA.
Results
In cross-sectional regression analysis at year 0, higher γ-tocopherol associated with lower FEV1 (p = 0.03 in blacks and p = 0.01 in all participants) and FVC (p = 0.01 in blacks, p = 0.05 in whites, and p = 0.005 in all participants), whereas higher α-tocopherol associated with higher FVC (p = 0.04 in blacks and whites and p = 0.01 in all participants). In the lowest quartile of α-tocopherol, higher γ-tocopherol associated with a lower FEV1 (p = 0.05 in blacks and p = 0.02 in all participants). In contrast, in the lowest quartile of γ-tocopherol, higher α-tocopherol associated with a higher FEV1 (p = 0.03) in blacks. Serum γ-tocopherol >10 μM was associated with a 175–545 ml lower FEV1 and FVC at ages 21–55 years.
Conclusion
Increasing serum concentrations of γ-tocopherol were associated with lower FEV1 or FVC, whereas increasing serum concentrations of α-tocopherol was associated with higher FEV1 or FVC. Based on the prevalence of serum γ-tocopherol >10 μM in adults in CARDIA and the adult U.S. population in the 2011 census, we expect that the lower FEV1 and FVC at these concentrations of serum γ-tocopherol occur in up to 4.5 million adults in the population.
doi:10.1186/1465-9921-15-31
PMCID: PMC4003816  PMID: 24629024
α-tocopherol; γ-tocopherol; FEV1; FVC; Human
13.  Distributions and Determinants of Mercury Concentrations in Toenails among American Young Adults: the CARDIA Trace Element Study 
Background
Since data on mercury (Hg) levels in Caucasians and African Americans (AAs) of both genders are lacking, this study aims to present toenail Hg distributions and explore the potential determinants using data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Trace Element Study.
Methods
Data from 4344 Americans, aged 20–32 in 1987, recruited from Oakland, Chicago, Minneapolis and Birmingham were used to measure toenail Hg levels by instrumental neutron-activation method. The Hg distribution was described with selected percentiles and geometric means. Multivariable linear regression (MLR) was used to examine potential determinants of Hg levels within ethnicity-gender subgroups.
Results
The geometric mean of toenail Hg was 0.212 (95% CI: 0.207–0.218) μg/g. Hg levels varied geographically with Oakland the highest [0.381 (0.367–0.395) μg/g] and Minneapolis the lowest [0.140 (0.134–0.147) μg/g]. MLR analyses showed that male gender and AA ethnicity were negatively associated with toenail Hg levels; and that age, living in Oakland city, education level, alcohol consumption and total fish intake were positively associated with toenail Hg concentrations within each ethnicity-gender subgroup. Current smokers were found to have higher Hg only in AA men.
Conclusions
This study suggested age, gender, ethnicity, study center, alcohol, education level and fish consumption consistently predict toenail Hg levels. As fish consumption was the key determinant, avoiding certain types of fish that have relatively high Hg levels may be crucial in reducing Hg intake.
doi:10.1007/s11356-012-1126-3
PMCID: PMC3556188  PMID: 22926255
Mercury; Toenail; Distribution; Determinants; American young adults; Ethnicity; CARDIA
14.  Cardiovascular Health through Young Adulthood and Cognitive Functioning in Midlife 
Annals of neurology  2013;73(2):170-179.
Objective
To examine the association between overall cardiovascular health as recently defined by the American Heart Association in young adulthood to middle-age and cognitive function in midlife. Overall ideal cardiovascular health incorporates 7 metrics, including the avoidance of overweight or obesity, a healthful diet, nonsmoking, and physical activity, total cholesterol, blood pressure, and fasting glucose at goal levels.
Methods
This analysis of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study, a multicenter community-based study with 25 years of follow-up, included 2,932 participants aged 18 to 30 years at baseline (Year 0) who attended follow-up exams at Years 7 and 25. Cardiovascular health metrics were measured at each examination. The Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST), modified Stroop Test, and Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) were completed at Year 25.
Results
A greater number of ideal cardiovascular metrics in young adulthood and middle-age was independently associated with better cognitive function in midlife (p-trend<0.01, for all). Specifically, each additional ideal metric was associated with 1.32 more symbols on the DSST (95% CI: 0.93 to 1.71), a 0.77-point lower interference score on the Stroop Test (−1.03 to −0.45), and 0.12 more words on the RAVLT (0.04 to 0.20). Participants who had ≥5 ideal metrics at a greater number of the 3 examinations over the 25-year period exhibited better performance on each cognitive test in middle-age (p-trend<0.01, for all).
Interpretation
Ideal cardiovascular health in young adulthood and its maintenance to middle-age is associated with better psychomotor speed, executive function, and verbal memory in midlife.
doi:10.1002/ana.23836
PMCID: PMC3608821  PMID: 23443990
15.  Natural History of the Early Repolarization Pattern in a Biracial Cohort: CARDIA (Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults) Study 
Objectives
The objective of this analysis was to determine the natural history and prospective association of cardiovascular risk factors with early repolarization (ER).
Background
ER is common and has been suggested to increase risk for cardiovascular mortality in middle-aged adults. Data are sparse regarding the natural history of ER from young adulthood to middle age.
Methods
We examined 5,069 participants (mean age 25 years at baseline; 40% black) from the CARDIA (Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults) cohort over 20 years. Electrocardiograms were recorded at years 0 (Y0), 7 (Y7), and 20 (Y20) and coded as either definite, probable, possible, or no ER. Logistic regression was used to determine the association of cardiovascular risk factors with the presence of ER cross-sectionally and prospectively.
Results
A total of 941 of the 5,069 participants (18.6%) had definite ER at baseline, and only 119 of 2,505 participants (4.8%) at the Y20 examination still demonstrated the presence of ER. Younger age, black race, male sex, longer exercise duration and QRS duration, and lower body mass index (BMI), heart rate, QT index, and Cornell voltage were associated cross-sectionally with the presence of ER. Predictors of maintenance of ER from Y0 to Y20 were black race (odds ratio [OR]: 2.62; 95% CI; 1.61 to 4.25), BMI (OR: 0.62 per 1 SD; 95% CI: 0.40 to 0.94), serum triglyceride levels (OR: 0.66 per 1 SD; 95% CI: 0.45 to 0.98), and QRS duration (OR: 1.68 per 1 SD; 95% CI: 1.37 to 2.06) at baseline.
Conclusions
The prevalence of ER was significantly higher than previous estimates among asymptomatic young adults, and the majority of ER regressed by middle age. Black race, lower BMI, lower serum triglyceride levels, and longer QRS duration were independently associated with maintenance of ER over time.
doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2012.11.053
PMCID: PMC3748821  PMID: 23428218
early repolarization; electrocardiography; epidemiology
16.  Superficial Femoral Artery Plaque and Functional Performance in Peripheral Arterial Disease 
JACC. Cardiovascular imaging  2011;4(7):730-739.
OBJECTIVES
We studied associations of magnetic resonance imaging measurements of plaque area and relative percent lumen reduction in the proximal superficial femoral artery with functional performance among participants with peripheral arterial disease.
BACKGROUND
The clinical significance of directly imaged plaque characteristics in lower extremity arteries is not well established.
METHODS
A total of 454 participants with an ankle brachial index <1.00 underwent magnetic resonance cross-sectional imaging of the proximal superficial femoral artery and completed a 6-min walk test, measurement of 4-m walking velocity at usual and fastest pace, and measurement of physical activity with a vertical accelerometer.
RESULTS
Adjusting for age, sex, race, body mass index, smoking, statin use, comorbidities, and other covariates, higher mean plaque area (1st quintile [least plaque]: 394 m, 2nd quintile: 360 m, 3rd quintile: 359 m, 4th quintile: 329 m, 5th quintile [greatest plaque]: 311 m; p trend <0.001) and smaller mean percent lumen area (1st quintile [greatest plaque]: 319 m, 2nd quintile: 330 m, 3rd quintile: 364 m, 4th quintile: 350 m, 5th quintile: 390 m; p trend <0.001) were associated with shorter distance achieved in the 6-min walk test. Greater mean plaque area was also associated with slower usual-paced walking velocity (p trend = 0.006) and slower fastest-paced 4-m walking velocity (p trend = 0.003). Associations of mean plaque area and mean lumen area with 6-min walk distance remained statistically significant even after additional adjustment for the ankle brachial index and leg symptoms.
CONCLUSIONS
Among participants with peripheral arterial disease, greater plaque burden and smaller lumen area in the proximal superficial femoral artery are associated independently with poorer functional performance, even after adjusting for the ankle brachial index and leg symptoms.
doi:10.1016/j.jcmg.2011.04.009
PMCID: PMC3906625  PMID: 21757163
atherosclerotic plaque intermittent claudication; peripheral arterial disease; physical functioning
17.  Association of early adult modifiable cardiovascular risk factors with left atrial size over a 20-year follow-up period: the CARDIA study 
BMJ Open  2014;4(1):e004001.
Objectives
We investigate how early adult and 20-year changes in modifiable cardiovascular risk factors (MRF) predict left atrial dimension (LAD) at age 43–55 years.
Methods
The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study enrolled black and white adults (1985–1986). We included 2903 participants with echocardiography and MRF assessment in follow-up years 5 and 25. At years 5 and 25, LAD was assessed by M-mode echocardiography, then indexed to body surface area (BSA) or height. Blood pressure (BP), body mass index (BMI), heart rate (HR), smoking, alcohol use, diabetes and physical activity were defined as MRF. Associations of MRF with LAD were assessed using multivariable regression adjusted for age, ethnicity, gender and year-5 left atrial (LA) size.
Results
The participants were 30±4 years; 55% white; 44% men. LAD and LAD/height were modest but significantly higher over the follow-up period, but LAD/BSA decreased slightly. Increased baseline and 20-year changes in BP were related to enlargement of LAD and indices. Higher baseline and changes in BMI were also related to higher LAD and LAD/height, but the opposite direction was found for LAD/BSA. Increase in baseline HR was related to lower LAD but not LAD indices, when only baseline covariates were included in the model. However, baseline and 20-year changes in HR were significantly associated to LA size.
Conclusions
In a biracial cohort of young adults, the most robust predictors for LA enlargement over a 20-year follow-up period were higher BP and BMI. However, an inverse direction was found for the relationship between BMI and LAD/BSA. HR showed an inverse relation to LA size.
doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2013-004001
PMCID: PMC3902509  PMID: 24384901
Cardiology; Epidemiology
18.  13-Year Long-Term Associations between Changes in Traditional Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Changes in Fibrinogen Levels: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study 
Atherosclerosis  2012;226(1):214-219.
Objective
Cross-sectional and prospective studies have linked cardiovascular events and traditional risk factors (TRFs) with higher plasma fibrinogen levels. In a young cohort, we sought to determine longitudinal associations between changes in/development of TRFs and fibrinogen levels over 13 years.
Methods
We included 2525 adults from the CARDIA study, aged 25-37 with fibrinogen and TRFs measured at year 7 (study baseline; 1992-1993); and year 20 (follow-up). Multiple linear regressions were used to compare mean changes in fibrinogen to TRFs.
Results
Mean fibrinogen increased by 71mg/dL vs. 70mg/dL (p=NS) in black vs. white men, and 78mg/dL vs. 68mg/dL (p<0.05) in black vs. white women, respectively over 13 years. After multivariable adjustments, fibrinogen generally rose with increasing BMI (p<0.001; all sex/race groups), LDL-cholesterol, log triglycerides and diastolic blood pressure; and fell with increasing HDL-cholesterol and physical activity. 13-year increase in fibrinogen for persons who quit smoking or became non-obese were comparable (p=NS) to that of never-smokers and never-obese persons.
Conclusions
Among young black and white men and women with few baseline cardiovascular risk factors, fibrinogen tracked longitudinally with changes in TRFs over 13 years through middle-age. There was a strong inverse longitudinal relationship between modifiable risk factors (weight loss/smoking cessation) and 13-year change in fibrinogen. Our study helps provide some insight into the role of fibrinogen as a disease marker in the associations between fibrinogen and CVD.
doi:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2012.10.043
PMCID: PMC3529787  PMID: 23177973
Fibrinogen; risk factors; cardiovascular disease prevention; obesity; smoking; sex; race
19.  Prevalence, Prospective Risk Markers, and Prognosis Associated With the Presence of Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction in Young Adults 
American Journal of Epidemiology  2012;177(1):20-32.
The authors sought to determine the prevalence, prospective risk markers, and prognosis associated with diastolic dysfunction in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study. The CARDIA Study cohort includes approximately equal proportions of white and black men and women. The authors collected data on risk markers at year 0 (1985–1986), and echocardiography was done at year 5 when the participants were 23–35 years of age. Participants were followed for 20 years (through 2010) for a composite endpoint of all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction, heart failure, and stroke. Diastolic function was defined according to a validated hierarchical classification algorithm. In the 2,952 participants included in the primary analysis, severe diastolic dysfunction was present in 1.1% and abnormal relaxation was present in 9.3%. Systolic blood pressure at year 0 was associated with both severe diastolic dysfunction and abnormal relaxation 5 years later, whereas exercise capacity and pulmonary function abnormalities were associated only with abnormal relaxation 5 years later. After multivariate adjustment, the hazard ratios for the composite endpoint in participants with severe diastolic dysfunction and abnormal relaxation were 4.3 (95% confidence interval: 2.0, 9.3) and 1.6 (95% confidence interval: 1.1, 2.5), respectively. Diastolic dysfunction in young adults is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, and the identification of prospective risk markers associated with diastolic dysfunction could allow for targeted primary prevention efforts.
doi:10.1093/aje/kws224
PMCID: PMC3590041  PMID: 23211639
CARDIA study; clinical outcomes; diastolic dysfunction; left ventricle
20.  Relationship of Body Mass Index in Young Adulthood and Health-Related Quality of Life Two Decades Later: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study 
International journal of obesity (2005)  2010;35(1):10.1038/ijo.2010.120.
Objective
The expanding overweight and obesity epidemic notwithstanding, little is known about their long-term effect on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The main objective of this study was to investigate whether overweight (body mass index [BMI] 25–<30 kg/m2) and obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) young adults have poorer HRQoL 20 years later.
Methods
The authors studied 3014 participants in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study, a longitudinal, community-dwelling, biracial cohort from four cities. BMI was measured at baseline and 20 years later. HRQoL was assessed via the physical component summary (PCS) and the mental component summary (MCS) scores of the Medical Outcomes Study 12-Item Short Form Health Survey at year 20. Higher PCS or MCS scores indicate better HRQoL.
Results
Mean year 20 PCS score was 52.2 for normal weight participants at baseline, 50.3 for overweight, and 46.4 for obese (P-trend <0.001). This relation persisted after adjustment for baseline demographics, general health, and physical and behavioral risk factors and after further adjustment for 20-year changes in risk factors. No association was observed for MCS scores (P-trend 0.43).
Conclusion
Overweight and obesity in early adulthood are adversely associated with self-reported physical HRQoL, but not mental HRQoL 20 years later.
doi:10.1038/ijo.2010.120
PMCID: PMC3875360  PMID: 20548305
21.  Maintaining a High Physical Activity Level Over 20 Years and Weight Gain 
JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association  2010;304(23):10.1001/jama.2010.1843.
Context
Data supporting physical activity guidelines to prevent long-term weight gain are sparse, particularly during the period when the highest risk of weight gain occurs.
Objective
To evaluate the relationship between habitual activity levels and changes in body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference over 20 years.
Design, Setting, and Participants
The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study is a prospective longitudinal study with 20 years of follow-up, 1985-86 to 2005-06. Habitual activity was defined as maintaining high, moderate, and low activity levels based on sex-specific tertiles of activity scores at baseline. Participants comprised a population-based multi-center cohort (Chicago, Illinois; Birmingham, Alabama; Minneapolis, Minnesota; and Oakland, California) of 3554 men and women aged 18 to 30 years at baseline.
Main Outcome Measures
Average annual changes in BMI and waist circumference
Results
Over 20 years, maintaining high levels of activity was associated with smaller gains in BMI and waist circumference compared with low activity levels after adjustment for race, baseline BMI, age, education, cigarette smoking status, alcohol use, and energy intake. Men maintaining high activity gained 2.6 fewer kilograms (+ 0.15 BMI units per year; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.11-0.18 vs +0.20 in the lower activity group; 95% CI, 0.17-0.23) and women maintaining higher activity gained 6.1 fewer kilograms (+0.17 BMI units per year; 95 % CI, 0.12-0.21 vs. +0.30 in the lower activity group; 95 % CI, 0.25-0.34). Men maintaining high activity gained 3.1 fewer centimeters in waist circumference (+0.52 cm per year; 95 % CI, 0.43-0.61 cm vs 0.67 cm in the lower activity group; 95 % CI, 0.60-0.75) and women maintaining higher activity gained 3.8 fewer centimeters (+0.49 cm per year; 95 % CI, 0.39-0.58 vs 0.67 cm in the lower activity group; 95 % CI, 0.60-0.75).
Conclusion
Maintaining high activity levels through young adulthood may lessen weight gain as young adults transition to middle age, particularly in women.
doi:10.1001/jama.2010.1843
PMCID: PMC3864556  PMID: 21156948
22.  The Association of Health Professional Shortage Areas and Cardiovascular Risk Factor Prevalence, Awareness and Control in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) 
Circulation. Cardiovascular quality and outcomes  2011;4(5):10.1161/CIRCOUTCOMES.111.960922.
Background
Individuals living in primary care health professional shortage areas (PC-HPSA) often have difficulty obtaining medical care; however, no previous studies have examined association of PC-HPSA residence with prevalence of CVD risk factors.
Methods and Results
To examine this question, the authors used data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis baseline exam (2000–2002). Outcomes included the prevalence of diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, smoking and obesity as well as the awareness and control of diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. Multivariable Poisson models were used to examine the independent association of PC-HPSA residence with each outcome. Models were sequentially adjusted for demographics, acculturation, socioeconomic status, access to health care and neighborhood socioeconomic status. Similar to the national average, 16.7% of MESA participants lived in a PC-HPSA. In unadjusted analyses, prevalence rates of diabetes (14.8% vs 11.0%), hypertension (48.2% vs 43.1%), obesity (35.7% vs 31.1%) and smoking (15.5% vs 12.1%) were significantly higher among residents of PC-HPSAs. There were no significant differences in the awareness or control of diabetes, hypertension, or hyperlipidemia. After adjustment, residence in a PC-HPSA was not independently associated with CVD risk factor prevalence, awareness or control.
Conclusions
This study suggests that increased prevalence of CVD risk factors in PC-HPSAs are explained by the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of their residents. Future interventions aimed at increasing the number of primary care physicians may not improve cardiovascular risk without first addressing other factors underlying healthcare disparities.
doi:10.1161/CIRCOUTCOMES.111.960922
PMCID: PMC3857032  PMID: 21878669
epidemiology; prevention; risk factors
23.  Correlates of heart rate recovery over 20 years in a population sample 
Medicine and science in sports and exercise  2012;44(2):10.1249/MSS.0b013e31822cb190.
Introduction
Slow heart rate recovery (HRR) from a graded exercise treadmill test (GXT) is a marker of impaired parasympathetic reactivation that is associated with elevated mortality. Our objective was to test whether demographic, behavioral or coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors during young adulthood were associated with the development of slow HRR.
Methods
Participants from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study underwent symptom-limited maximal GXT using a modified Balke protocol at baseline (1985–86) and 20-year follow-up (2005–06) examinations. HRR was calculated as the difference between peak heart rate (HR) and HR two-minutes following cessation of the GXT. Slow HRR was defined as 2-minute HRR < 22 beats·min−1.
Results
In 2,730 participants who did not have slow HRR at baseline, mean HRR was 44 beats*min−1 (SD = 11) at baseline and declined to 40 beats·min−1 (SD=12) in 2005–06; slow HRR developed in 5% (n=135) of the sample by 2005–06. Female sex, black race, fewer years of education, obesity, cigarette smoking, higher depressive symptoms, higher fasting glucose, hypertension, metabolic syndrome and physical inactivity and low fitness were each associated with incident slow HRR. In a multivariable model higher BMI, larger waist, low education, fasting glucose and current smoking remained significantly associated with incident slow HRR. Increasing BMI (per SD higher) over follow-up and incident hypertension, diabetes and metabolic syndrome (in the subsets of participants who were free from those conditions at baseline), were each associated with a significantly elevated odds of incident slow HRR.
Conclusions
On average, HRR declines with aging; however, the odds of having slow HRR in early middle age is significantly associated with traditional CHD risk factors.
doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e31822cb190
PMCID: PMC3838873  PMID: 21796053
Epidemiology; Cardiovascular Disease; Exercise; Autonomic Nervous System
24.  Association between Dietary Fiber Intake and Physical Performance in Older Adults: A Nationwide Study in Taiwan 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(11):e80209.
Background
Physical performance is a major determinant of health in older adults, and is related to lifestyle factors. Dietary fiber has multiple health benefits. It remains unclear whether fiber intake is independently linked to superior physical performance. We aimed to assess the association between dietary fiber and physical performance in older adults.
Methods
This was a cross-sectional study conducted with community-dwelling adults aged 55 years and older (n=2680) from the ongoing Healthy Aging Longitudinal Study (HALST) in Taiwan 2008-2010. Daily dietary fiber intake was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Physical performance was determined objectively by measuring gait speed, 6-minute walk distance, timed “up and go” (TUG), summary performance score, hand grip strength.
Results
Adjusting for all potential confounders, participants with higher fiber intake had significantly faster gait speed, longer 6-minute walk distance, faster TUG, higher summary performance score, and higher hand grip strength (all P <.05). Comparing with the highest quartile of fiber intake, the lowest quartile of fiber intake was significantly associated with the lowest sex-specific quartile of gait speed (adjusted OR, 2.18 in men [95% CI, 1.33-3.55] and 3.65 in women [95% CI, 2.20-6.05]), 6-minute walk distance (OR, 2.40 in men [95% CI, 1.38-4.17] and 4.32 in women [95% CI, 2.37-7.89]), TUG (OR, 2.42 in men [95% CI, 1.43-4.12] and 3.27 in women [95% CI, 1.94-5.52]), summary performance score (OR, 2.12 in men [95% CI, 1.19-3.78] and 5.47 in women [95% CI, 3.20-9.35]), and hand grip strength (OR, 2.64 in men [95% CI, 1.61-4.32] and 4.43 in women [95% CI, 2.62-7.50]).
Conclusions
Dietary fiber intake was independently associated with better physical performance.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0080209
PMCID: PMC3823869  PMID: 24244650
25.  Short Sleep Duration is Associated with Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Among Men in the CARDIA Study 
Background and purpose
Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) is a subclinical marker of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Recent studies suggest that shorter sleep duration is a risk factor for CVD, but there is limited evidence regarding this association using high-quality, objective assessments of sleep. The aim of this study is to determine whether sleep duration is associated with CIMT.
Methods
The study used an observational cohort consisting of 617 black and white middle-aged healthy participants (37–52 y; 58% female) in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study. Multivariable-adjusted linear regression analyses were performed. Sleep duration was measured using wrist actigraphy monitors. CIMT was calculated using the average of 20 measurements of the mean common carotid, bulb and internal CIMT, which was assessed using ultrasound images.
Results
After adjusting for covariates, one hour of longer sleep duration was associated with 0.026 mm less CIMT among men (p=0.02, 95% CI -0.047, -0.005), and 0.001 mm less CIMT among women (p=0.91, 95% CI -0.020, 0.022). Segment-specific analyses indicated that the carotid bulb was a key driver of the observed association.
Conclusions
Shorter objectively assessed sleep duration was associated with greater CIMT among men but not women.
doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.112.660332
PMCID: PMC3479367  PMID: 22935396
Sleep; carotid intima-media thickness; atherosclerosis; cardiovascular disease

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