The availability of highly sensitive substrates is critical for the development of precise and rapid assays for detecting changes in glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity that are associated with GST-mediated metabolism of insecticides. In this study, six pyrethroid-like compounds were synthesized and characterized as substrates for insect and mammalian GSTs. All of the substrates were esters composed of the same alcohol moiety, 7-hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin, and acid moieties that structurally mimic some commonly used pyrethroid insecticides including cypermethrin and cyhalothrin. CpGSTD1, a recombinant Delta class GST from the mosquito Culex pipiens, metabolized our pyrethroid-like substrates with both chemical and geometric (i.e., the cis-isomers were metabolized at 2- to 5-fold higher rates than the corresponding trans-isomers) preference. A GST preparation from mouse liver also metabolized most of our pyrethroid-like substrates with both chemical and geometric preference but at 10- to 170-fold lower rates. CpGSTD1 and mouse GSTs metabolized CDNB, a general GST substrate, at more than 200-fold higher rates than our novel pyrethroid-like substrates. There was a 10-fold difference in the specificity constant (kcat/KM ratio) of CpGSTD1 for CDNB and those of CpGSTD1 for cis-DCVC and cis-TFMCVC suggesting that cis-DCVC and cis-TFMCVC may be useful for the detection of GST-based metabolism of pyrethroids in mosquitoes.
glutathione S-transferase; GST; pyrethroid; fluorescent substrate
P2X receptors participate in cardiovascular regulation and disease. After myocardial ischemic injury, sensory–sympathetic coupling between rat cervical DRG nerves and superior cervical ganglia (SCG) facilitated sympathoexcitatory action via P2X7 receptor. The results showed that after myocardial ischemic injury, the systolic blood pressure, heart rate, serum cardiac enzymes, IL-6, and TNF-α were increased, while the levels of P2X7 mRNA and protein in SCG were also upregulated. However, these alterations diminished after treatment of myocardial ischemic (MI) rats with the P2X7 antagonist oxATP. After siRNA P2X7 in MI rats, the systolic blood pressure, heart rate, serum cardiac enzymes, the expression levels of the satellite glial cell (SGC) or P2X7 were significantly lower than those in MI group. The phosphorylation of ERK 1/2 in SCG participated in the molecular mechanism of the sympathoexcitatory action induced by the myocardial ischemic injury. Retrograde tracing test revealed the sprouting of CGRP or SP sensory nerves (the markers of sensory afferent fibers) from DRG to SCG neurons. The upregulated P2X7 receptor promoted the activation of SGCs in SCG, resulting in the formation of sensory–sympathetic coupling which facilitated the sympathoexcitatory action. P2X7 antagonist oxATP could inhibit the activation of SGCs and interrupt the formation of sensory–sympathetic coupling in SCG after the myocardial ischemic injury. Our findings may benefit the treatment of coronary heart disease and other cardiovascular diseases.
P2X7 receptor; Superior cervical ganglia; Dorsal root ganglia; Myocardial ischemic injury; Sensory–sympathetic coupling
Shewanella decolorationis is a valuable microorganism for degrading diverse synthetic textile dyes. Here, we present an annotated draft genome sequence of S. decolorationis S12, which contains 4,219 protein-coding genes and 86 structural RNAs. This information regarding the genetic basis of this bacterium can greatly advance our understanding of the physiology of this species.
Summary: We propose a parametric model, HiCNorm, to remove systematic biases in the raw Hi-C contact maps, resulting in a simple, fast, yet accurate normalization procedure. Compared with the existing Hi-C normalization method developed by Yaffe and Tanay, HiCNorm has fewer parameters, runs >1000 times faster and achieves higher reproducibility.
Availability: Freely available on the web at: http://www.people.fas.harvard.edu/∼junliu/HiCNorm/.
Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
Turmeric (Curcuma longa), a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial plant of the ginger family, has been used for the treatment of diabetes in Ayurvedic and traditional Chinese medicine. The active component of turmeric, curcumin, has caught attention as a potential treatment for diabetes and its complications primarily because it is a relatively safe and inexpensive drug that reduces glycemia and hyperlipidemia in rodent models of diabetes. Here, we review the recent literature on the applications of curcumin for glycemia and diabetes-related liver disorders, adipocyte dysfunction, neuropathy, nephropathy, vascular diseases, pancreatic disorders, and other complications, and we also discuss its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The applications of additional curcuminoid compounds for diabetes prevention and treatment are also included in this paper. Finally, we mention the approaches that are currently being sought to generate a “super curcumin” through improvement of the bioavailability to bring this promising natural product to the forefront of diabetes therapeutics.
CYP4A11 oxidizes endogenous arachidonic acid to 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, a renal vasoconstrictor and natriuretic in humans. Previous studies demonstrated an association between a functional variant (T8590C) of CYP4A11 and essential hypertension, though with conflicting results. To elucidate this relationship, a case-control study and meta-analysis were performed to assess the possible association of essential hypertension with CYP4A11 genetic variations.
Associations between the T8590C polymorphism and essential hypertension were examined in 328 unrelated cases and 297 age-matched controls in Han Chinese individuals. High-resolution melting was used to identify the CYP4A11 variant. To further investigate the association, we conducted a meta-analysis including eight studies published previously in July 2012.
The frequency of the CYP4A11 T8590C polymorphism showed no significant difference between cases and controls (all P>0.05). However, the meta-analysis showed that the CYP4A11 T8590C polymorphism may increase the risk of essential hypertension in an additive model (OR: 1.15, 95% CI: 1.02–1.29, P = 0.02), a dominant model (OR: 1.06, 95% CI: 1.01–1.32, P = 0.03), a recessive model (OR: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.15–2.02, P = 0.003) and a homozygote contrast (OR: 1.38, 95% CI: 1.07–1.78, P = 0.01). Also, a significant relationship was observed among Caucasians in the additive model, the homozygote contrast, the recessive model and the dominant model (all P<0.05). However, no association was observed in an Asian population (all P>0.05).
This meta-analysis suggests there is a significant association between the CYP4A11 T8590C variant and essential hypertension, especially in Caucasians. The case-control study did not find a significant association among the Han Chinese population, but the controls were poorly matched and meaningful conclusions cannot therefore be made. Further large-scale studies are needed to clarify whether the CYP4A11 T8590C polymorphism is associated with hypertension risk in Asians or has a gender-specific effect.
The Ten-Eleven-Translocation 2 (TET2) gene, which oxidates 5-methylcytosine in DNA to 5-hydroxylmethylcytosine (5hmC), is a key tumor suppressor frequently mutated in hematopoietic malignancies. However, the molecular regulation of TET2 expression is poorly understood. We show that TET2 is under extensive microRNA (miRNA) regulation and such TET2-targeting is an important pathogenic mechanism in hematopoietic malignancies. Using a high-throughput 3′UTR activity screen, we identify >30 miRNAs that inhibit TET2 expression and cellular 5hmC. Forced expression of TET2-targeting miRNAs in vivo disrupts normal hematopoiesis, leading to hematopoietic expansion and/or myeloid differentiation bias, whereas co-expression of TET2 corrects these phenotypes. Importantly, several TET2-targeting miRNAs, including miR-125b, miR-29b, miR-29c, miR-101, and miR-7, are preferentially overexpressed in TET2-wildtype acute myeloid leukemia. Our results demonstrate the extensive roles of miRNAs in functionally regulating TET2 and cellular 5hmC, and reveal miRNAs with previously unrecognized oncogenic potential. Our work suggests that TET2-targeting miRNAs might be exploited in cancer diagnosis.
To investigate the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and new detection of DM using fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and 2 h plasma glucose (2-hPG) in hypertensive outpatients in China.
Multicenter cross-sectional study.
46 hospitals in China.
Study patients were consecutively recruited from June to December 2009 from hypertension outpatient clinics in 46 hospitals in 22 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities in China. At least 100 consecutive patients were recruited in each hospital. FPG was measured for all patients and 2-hPG was measured in those without a history of DM. A total of 4942 hypertensive outpatients aged ≥20 years were included.
Prevalence of DM was 24.3% (which included both previously and newly diagnosed cases). Among the 1202 patients with DM, 417 (34.7%) were newly detected. In patients aged <45 years, 52.6% of cases of DM were newly detected. Of the 417 cases of newly detected diabetes, 54.9% were identified using FPG tests and the remaining 45.1% by 2-hPG tests; 27.1% of patients with newly detected DM had FPG <6.1 mmol/L and 16.5% had FPG <5.6 mmol/L. Among the elderly patients (≥65 years), 32.4% had normal FPG (<6.1 mmol/L) and 24.5% had optimal FPG (<5.6 mmol/L).
Our findings showed a high prevalence of DM and newly detected DM among Chinese hypertensive outpatients. Application of additional 2-hPG testing to FPG assay can improve the detection rate of DM, especially in elderly patients.
Epidemiology; Public Health
We aimed to conduct a meta-analysis of human papillomavirus (HPV) as a risk factor for oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) in China, using all eligible studies published in the English and Chinese language literature.
The random effect model was used to analyse the pooled OR. The I2 and Q tests were included in the subgroup analyses.
Literature searches of databases including MEDLINE, PUBMED, EMBASE and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and other available resources were performed to retrieve studies investigating OSCC tissue from Chinese participants for the presence of HPV DNA.
Primary outcome measure
A collective analysis of OSCC cases and control specimens was carried out from 15 case–control studies (6 in the English language and 9 in the Chinese language) for HPV prevalence.
Of a total of 1177 OSCC and 1648 oesophageal control samples, 55% (642/1177) of cancer specimens and 27% (445/1648) of control samples were positive for HPV DNA. A positive strong association between HPV DNA and OSCC was observed among the included studies, with a pooled OR of 3.69 (95% CI 2.74 to 4.96). Heterogeneity and publication bias were not observed in the analysis. Subgroup analyses of the included studies also supported the measure of association of causal links between HPV and OSCC.
This meta-analysis provides the strongest evidence until now of an association between HPV and OSCC in the Chinese population. China has a high burden of OSCC, making this an important research finding. A strength and new contribution of this study is combining data from the English and Chinese language literature to analyse all studies conducted in China. These findings may inform the population level use of prophylactic HPV vaccination to reduce the burden of OSCC in China.
To determine the optimal standardized uptake value (SUV) of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging, at which the PET-defined gross tumor volume (GTVPET) best matches with the pathological volume (GTVPATH) in the cervical cancer.
Materials and Methods
Ten patients with the cervical cancer who underwent surgery were enrolled in this study. The excised specimens were processed for whole-mount serial sections and H-E staining. The tumor borders were outlined in sections under a microscope, histopathological images were scanned and the GTVPATH calculated. The GTVPET was delineated automatically by using various percentages relative to the maximal SUV and absolute SUV. The optimal threshold SUV was further obtained as the value at which the GTVPET best matched with the GTVPATH.
An average of 85±10% shrinkage of tissue was observed after the formalin fixation. The GTVPATH was 13.38±2.80 cm3 on average. The optimal threshold on percentile SUV and absolute SUV were 40.50%±3.16% and 7.45±1.10, respectively. The correlation analysis showed that the optimal percentile SUV threshold was inversely correlated with GTVPATH (p<0.05) and tumor diameter (p<0.05). The absolute SUV was also positively correlated with SUVmax (p<0.05).
The pathological volume could provide the more accurate tumor volume. The optimal SUV of FDG for PET imaging by use of GTVPATH as standard for cervical cancer target volume delineation was thus determined in this study, and more cases are being evaluated to substantiate this conclusion.
Magnesium battery is potentially a safe, cost-effective, and high energy density technology for large scale energy storage. However, the development of magnesium battery has been hindered by the limited performance and the lack of fundamental understandings of electrolytes. Here, we present a study in understanding coordination chemistry of Mg(BH4)2 in ethereal solvents. The O donor denticity, i.e. ligand strength of the ethereal solvents which act as ligands to form solvated Mg complexes, plays a significant role in enhancing coulombic efficiency of the corresponding solvated Mg complex electrolytes. A new electrolyte is developed based on Mg(BH4)2, diglyme and LiBH4. The preliminary electrochemical test results show that the new electrolyte demonstrates a close to 100% coulombic efficiency, no dendrite formation, and stable cycling performance for Mg plating/stripping and Mg insertion/de-insertion in a model cathode material Mo6S8 Chevrel phase.
Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) are inexhaustible and can be obtained without an invasive surgery. To date, there has been no report on seeding hUCMSCs in three-dimensional scaffolds for muscle tissue engineering. The objectives of this study were to (1) investigate hUCMSC seeding in a scaffold for muscle engineering and (2) develop a novel construct consisting of hUCMSC-encapsulating and fast-degradable microbeads inside a hydrogel matrix. The rationale was that the hydrogel matrix would maintain the defect volume, while the microbeads would degrade to release the cells and concomitantly create macropores in the matrix. hUCMSCs were encapsulated in alginate-fibrin microbeads, which were packed in an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD)-modified alginate matrix (AM). This construct is referred to as hUCMSC-microbead-AM. The control consisted of the usual cell encapsulation in AM without microbeads (referred to as hUCMSC-AM). In the hUCMSC-AM construct, the hUCMSCs showed as round dots with no spreading at 1–14 days. In contrast, cells in the hUCMSC-microbead-AM construct had a healthy spreading and elongated morphology. The microbeads successfully degraded and released the cells at 8 days. Myogenic expressions for hUCMSC-microbead-AM were more than threefold those of hUCMSC-AM (p<0.05). Immunofluorescence for myogenic markers was much stronger for hUCMSC-microbead-AM than hUCMSC-AM. Muscle creatine kinase of hUCMSC-microbead-AM at 14 days was twofold that of hUCMSC-AM (p<0.05). In conclusion, hUCMSC encapsulation in novel fast-degradable microbeads inside a hydrogel matrix was investigated for muscle engineering. Compared to the usual method of seeding cells in a hydrogel matrix, hUCMSC-microbead-AM construct had greatly improved cell viability and myogenic differentiation, and hence, is promising to enhance muscle regeneration.
Our previous studies have shown good biocompatibility of fluorapatite (FA) crystal surfaces in providing a favorable environment for functional cell–matrix interactions of human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) and also in supporting their long-term growth. The aim of the current study was to further investigate whether this enamel-like surface can support the differentiation and mineralization of DPSCs, and, therefore, act as a potential model for studying the enamel/dentin interface and, perhaps, dentine/pulp regeneration in tooth tissue engineering. The human pathway-focused osteogenesis polymerase chain reaction (PCR) array demonstrated that the expression of osteogenesis-related genes of human DPSCs was increased on FA surfaces compared with that on etched stainless steel (SSE). Consistent with the PCR array, FA promoted mineralization compared with the SSE surface with or without the addition of a mineralization promoting supplement (MS). This was confirmed by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining, Alizarin red staining, and tetracycline staining for mineral formation. In conclusion, FA crystal surfaces, especially ordered (OR) FA surfaces, which mimicked the physical architecture of enamel, provided a favorable extracellular matrix microenvironment for the cells. This resulted in the differentiation of human DPSCs and mineralized tissue formation, and, thus, demonstrated that it may be a promising biomimetic model for dentin-pulp tissue engineering.
Selenoprotein K (SelK) is a membrane protein residing in the endoplasmic reticulum. The function of SelK is mostly unknown; however, it has been shown to participate in anti-oxidant defense, calcium regulation and in the Endoplasmic Reticulum Associated Protein Degradation (ERAD) pathway. In order to study the function of SelK and the role of selenocysteine in catalysis, we have tested heterologous expression of human SelK in E. coli. Consequently, we have developed an over-expression strategy that exploits the maltose binding protein as a fusion partner to stabilize and solubilize SelK. The fusion partner can be cleaved from SelK in the presence of a variety of detergents compatible with structural characterization and the protein purified to homogeneity. SelK acquires a helical secondary structure in detergent micelles, even though it was predicted to be an intrinsically disordered protein due to its high percentage of polar residues. The same strategy was successfully applied to preparation of SelK binding partner - selenoprotein S (SelS). Hence, this heterologous expression and purification strategy can be applied to other members of the membrane enzyme family to which SelK belongs.
Selenoprotein K; Selenoprotein S; endoplasmic reticulum associated protein degradation; ERAD; selenoproteins; selenocysteine; SelK; SelS; VIMP; oxidative stress
In this article, a stepwise procedure, correlation pursuit (COP), is developed for variable selection under the sufficient dimension reduction framework, in which the response variable Y is influenced by the predictors X1, X2, …, Xp through an unknown function of a few linear combinations of them. Unlike linear stepwise regression, COP does not impose a special form of relationship (such as linear) between the response variable and the predictor variables. The COP procedure selects variables that attain the maximum correlation between the transformed response and the linear combination of the variables. Various asymptotic properties of the COP procedure are established, and in particular, its variable selection performance under diverging number of predictors and sample size has been investigated. The excellent empirical performance of the COP procedure in comparison with existing methods are demonstrated by both extensive simulation studies and a real example in functional genomics.
variable selection; projection pursuit regression; sliced inverse regression; stepwise regression; dimension reduction
We hypothesized that for obese patients, abdominal-based free flap, rather than implant-based, and delayed, rather than immediate, breast reconstruction would result in fewer overall complications and reconstruction losses.
We retrospectively analyzed consecutive implant- and abdominal-based free-flap breast reconstructions performed in obese patients between 2005 and 2010 utilizing the World Health Organization obesity classifications: class I (30.0–34.9 kg/m2), class II (35.0–39.9 kg/m2), and class III (≥40 kg/m2). Primary outcome measures included flap failures and overall complications. Logistic regression analysis identified associations between patient, defect, and reconstructive characteristics and surgical outcomes.
The analysis included 990 breast reconstructions (548 flaps vs. 442 implants) in 700 patients. Mean follow-up was 17 months. Age (p<0.01), smoking (p=0.02), medical illness (p=0.01), and BMI>37 (p=0.01) predicted overall complications on regression analysis. Implants demonstrated a higher failure rate (15.8%) than flaps (1.5%; p<0.001). While failure rates were similar for immediate and delayed flap reconstructions overall (1.3% vs. 1.9%; p=0.7) and among obesity classifications, there was a trend toward more implant failures in immediate rather than delayed reconstructions (16.8% vs. 5.3%; p=0.06). Differences between immediate implant versus flap reconstruction failure rates were highest among more obese patients (class II [24.7% vs. 1.3%, respectively; p<0.01] and class III [25.4% vs. 0%, respectively; p<0.01] compared to class I [11.7% vs. 1.4%, respectively; p<0.01]).
Obese patients, particularly patients with class II and III obesity, experience higher failure rates with implant-based breast reconstruction, particularly immediate reconstruction. Free flap techniques or delayed implant reconstruction may be warranted in this population.
Coronary artery disease and associated ischemic heart disease are prevalent disorders worldwide. Further, systemic hypertension is common and markedly increases the risk for heart disease. A common denominator of systemic hypertension of various etiologies is increased myocardial load/mechanical stress. Thus, it is likely that high pressure/mechanical stress attenuates the contribution of cardioprotective but accentuates the contribution of cardiotoxic pathways thereby exacerbating the outcome of an ischemia reperfusion insult to the heart. Critical events which contribute to cardiomyocyte injury in the ischemic-reperfused heart include cellular calcium overload and generation of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species which, in turn, promote the opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore, an important event in cell death. Increasing evidence also indicates that the myocardium is capable of mounting a robust inflammatory response which contributes importantly to tissue injury. On the other hand, cardioprotective maneuvers of ischemic preconditioning and postconditioning have led to identification of complex web of signaling pathways (e.g., reperfusion injury salvage kinase) which ultimately converge on the mitochondria to exert cytoprotection. The present review is intended to briefly describe mechanisms of cardiac ischemia reperfusion injury followed by a discussion of our work focused on how pressure/mechanical stress modulates endogenous cardiotoxic and cardioprotective mechanisms to ultimately exacerbate ischemia reperfusion injury.
Heart; ischemia-reperfusion; pressure; calcium overload; oxidative/nitrosative stress; signaling mechanisms; inflammation; stem cells
Chromium picolinate [Cr(pic)3] is a nutritional supplement widely promoted to exert beneficial metabolic effects in patients with type 2 diabetes/impaired glucose tolerance. Frequent comorbidities in these individuals include systemic hypertension, abnormal vascular function and ischemic heart disease but information on effects of the supplement on these aspects is sparse. Utilizing male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), we examined potential impact of Cr(pic)3 on blood pressure, vascular reactivity and myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI). Dietary Cr(pic)3 supplementation (as 10 mg chromium/kg diet for 6 weeks) did not affect blood pressure of the SHR. Also, neither norepinephrine (NE) and potassium chloride (KCl)-induced contractility nor sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-induced relaxation of aortic smooth muscle from the SHR was altered by Cr(pic)3 treatment. However, Cr(pic)3 augmented endothelium-dependent relaxation of aortas, produced by acetylcholine (ACh), and this effect was abolished by N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) suggesting induction of nitric oxide (NO) production/release. Treatment with Cr(pic)3 did not affect baseline coronary flow rate and rate-pressure-product (RPP) or infarct size following regional IRI. Nonetheless, Cr(pic)3 treatment was associated with improved coronary flow and recovery of myocardial contractility and relaxation following ischemia reperfusion insult. In conclusion, dietary Cr(pic)3 treatment of SHR neither alters blood pressure nor vascular smooth muscle reactivity, but causes enhancement of endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation associated with NO production/release. Additionally, while the treatment does not affect infarct size, it improves functional recovery of the viable portion of the myocardium following IRI.
Chromium picolinate; spontaneously hypertensive rat; vascular reactivity; heart; ischemia reperfusion injury
Despite advances in surgical training, microsurgery is still based on an apprenticeship model. To evaluate skill acquisition and apply targeted feedback to improve our training model, we applied the Structured Assessment of Microsurgery Skills (SAMS) to microsurgical fellows training. We hypothesized that subjects would demonstrate measurable improvement in performance throughout the study period and consistently across evaluators.
Seven fellows were evaluated during 118 microsurgical cases by 16 evaluators over three 1-month evaluation periods in 1 year (2010-2011). Evaluators used SAMS, which consists of 12 items in four areas: dexterity, visuo-spatial ability, operative flow, and judgment. To validate the SAMS data, microsurgical anastomoses in rodents performed by the fellows in a laboratory at the beginning and end of the study period were evaluated by five blinded plastic surgeons using the SAMS questionnaire. Primary outcomes were change in scores between evaluation periods and inter-evaluator reliability.
Between the first two evaluation periods, all skill areas and overall performance significantly improved. Between the second two periods, most skill areas improved, but only a few significantly. Operative errors decreased significantly between the first and subsequent periods (81 vs. 36; p<0.05). In the laboratory study, all skills were significantly (p<0.05) or marginally (0.05≤p<0.10) improved between time points. The overall inter-evaluator reliability of SAMS was acceptable (α=0.67).
SAMS is a valid instrument for assessing microsurgical skill, providing individualized feedback with acceptable inter-evaluator reliability. Between the first two evaluation intervals, the microsurgical fellows’ skills increased significantly, but they plateaued thereafter. The use of SAMS is anticipated to enhance microsurgical training.
Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)–positive breast cancer is highly aggressive and has higher risk of recurrence than HER2-negative cancer. With few treatment options available, new drug targets specific for HER2-positive breast cancer are needed.
We conducted a pharmacological profiling of seven genotypically distinct breast cancer cell lines using a subset of inhibitors of breast cancer cells from a screen of the Johns Hopkins Drug Library. To identify molecular targets of nelfinavir, identified in the screen as a selective inhibitor of HER2-positive cells, we conducted a genome-wide screen of a haploinsufficiency yeast mutant collection. We evaluated antitumor activity of nelfinavir with xenografts in athymic nude mouse models (n = 4–6 per group) of human breast cancer and repeated mixed-effects regression analysis. All statistical tests were two-sided.
Pharmacological profiling showed that nelfinavir, an anti-HIV drug, selectively inhibited the growth of HER2-positive breast cancer cells in vitro. A genome-wide screening of haploinsufficiency yeast mutants revealed that nelfinavir inhibited heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) function. Further characterization using proteolytic footprinting experiments indicated that nelfinavir inhibited HSP90 in breast cancer cells through a novel mechanism. In vivo, nelfinavir selectively inhibited the growth of HER2-positive breast cancer cells (tumor volume index of HCC1954 cells on day 29, vehicle vs nelfinavir, mean = 14.42 vs 5.16, difference = 9.25, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 5.93 to 12.56, P < .001; tumor volume index of BT474 cells on day 26, vehicle vs nelfinavir, mean = 2.21 vs 0.90, difference = 1.31, 95% CI = 0.83 to 1.78, P < .001). Moreover, nelfinavir inhibited the growth of trastuzumab- and/or lapatinib-resistant, HER2-positive breast cancer cells in vitro at clinically achievable concentrations.
Nelfinavir was found to be a new class of HSP90 inhibitor and can be brought to HER2-breast cancer treatment trials with the same dosage regimen as that used among HIV patients.
Growing evidence indicates that advanced glycation end-product receptor (RAGE) might play a contributory role in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease (CAD). To shed some light from a genetic perspective, we sought to investigate the interactive association of RAGE gene four common polymorphisms (rs1800625 or T-429C, rs1800624 or T-374A, rs2070600 or Gly82Ser, and rs184003 or G1704A) with the risk of developing CAD in a large northeastern Han Chinese population.
This was a hospital-based case-control study incorporating 1142 patients diagnosed with CAD and 1106 age- and gender-matched controls. All individuals were angiographically confirmed. Risk estimates were expressed as odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Overall there were significant differences in the genotype and allele distributions of rs1800625 and rs184003, even after the Bonferroni correction. Logistic regression analyses indicated that rs1800625 and rs184003 were associated with significant risk of CAD under both additive (OR = 1.20 and 1.23; 95% CI: 1.06–1.37 and 1.06–1.42; P = 0.006 and 0.008) and recessive (OR = 1.75 and 2.39; 95% CI: 1.28–2.40 and 1.47–3.87; P<0.001 and <0.001) models after adjusting for confounders. In haplotype analyses, haplotypes C-T-G-G and T-A-G-T (alleles in order of rs1800625, rs1800624, rs2070600 and rs184003), overrepresented in patients, were associated with 52% (95% CI: 1.19–1.87; P = 0.0052) and 63% (95% CI: 1.14–2.34; P = 0.0075) significant increases in adjusted risk for CAD. Further interactive analyses identified an overall best multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) model including rs1800625 and rs184003. This model had a maximal testing accuracy of 0.6856 and a cross-validation consistency of 10 out of 10 (P = 0.0016). The validity of this model was substantiated by classical Logistic regression analysis.
Our findings provided strong evidence for the potentially contributory roles of RAGE multiple genetic polymorphisms, especially in the context of locus-to-locus interaction, in the pathogenesis of CAD among northeastern Han Chinese.
Though prostate cancer (PCa) has slow progression, the hormone refractory (HRCP) and metastatic entities are substantially lethal and lack effective treatments. Transcription factor Slug is critical in regulating metastases of various tumors including PCa. Here we studied targeted therapy against Slug using combination of 3 drugs targeting 3 pathways respectively converging via Slug and further regulating PCa metastasis. Using in vitro assays we confirmed that Slug up-regulation incurred inhibition of E-cadherin that was anti-metastatic, and inhibited Bim-regulated cell apoptosis in PCa. Upstream PTEN/Akt, mTOR, Erk, and AR/Hsp90 pathways were responsible for Slug up-regulation and each of these could be targeted by rapamycin, CI-1040, and 17-AAG respectively. In 4 PCa cell lines with different traits in terms of PTEN loss and androgen sensitivity we tested the efficacy of mono- and combined therapy with the drugs. We found that metastatic capacity of the cells was maximally inhibited only when all 3 drugs were combined, due to the crosstalk between the pathways. 17-AAG decreases Slug expression via blockade of HSP90-dependent AR stability. Combination of rapamycin and CI-1040 diminishes invasiveness more potently in PCa cells that are androgen insensitive and with PTEN loss. Slug inhibited Bim-mediated apoptosis that could be rescued by mTOR/Erk/HSP90 inhibitors. Using mouse models for circulating PCa DNA quantification, we found that combination of mTOR/Erk/HSP90 inhibitors reduced circulating PCa cells in vivo significantly more potently than combination of 2 or monotherapy. Conclusively, combination of mTOR/Erk/Hsp90 inhibits metastatic capacity of prostate cancer via Slug inhibition.
Biliary cystadenoma (BCA) is a rare hepatic neoplasm. Although considered a benign cystic tumor of the liver, BCA has a high risk of recurrence with incomplete excision and a potential risk for malignant degeneration. Correct diagnosis and complete tumor excision with negative margins are the mainstay of treatment. Unfortunately, due to the lack of presenting symptoms, and normal laboratory results in most patients, BCA is hard to distinguish from other cystic lesions of the liver such as biliary cystadenocarcinoma, hepatic cyst, hydatid cyst, Caroli disease, undifferentiated sarcoma, intraductal papillary mucinous tumor, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may be necessary. They demonstrate intrahepatic cystic lesions with features such as mural nodules, varying wall thickness, papillary projections, and internal septations. Nevertheless, surgery is still the only means of accurate diagnosis. Definitive diagnosis requires histological examination following formal resection. We describe a 57-year-old woman initially diagnosed with polycystic liver who was subsequently diagnosed with giant intrahepatic BCA in the left hepatic lobe. This indicates that both US physicians and hepatobiliary specialists should attach importance to hepatic cysts, and CT or MRI should be performed for further examination when a diagnosis of BCA is suspected.
Biliary cystadenoma; Diagnosis; Hepatic cysts; Ultrasound
Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) has exhibited efficacy at preventing the progression of pulmonary hypertension (PH); however, the exact mechanism is not completely clear. The aim of the present study was to assess whether this protective effect was mediated by the upregulation of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) via the nitric oxide (NO) system. PH was induced in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats by the administration of a single subcutaneous injection of monocrotaline (MCT). The rats were treated with recombinant human G-CSF (rhG-CSF, 50 μg/kg/day) by subcutaneous injection from day five to day seven subsequent to the injection of MCT. Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 4 mg/kg/day) was intragastrically administered in addition to rhG-CSF as a negative intervention. The changes in hemodynamics and histology, the number and function of circulating EPCs and the concentration of plasma NO were evaluated. With the occurrence of PH in the rat model, the number and function of circulating EPCs were demonstrated to be markedly downregulated. Moreover, a reduced plasma concentration of NO was observed, which was positively correlated with the number of circulating EPCs. Administration of rhG-CSF elevated the plasma level of NO, upregulated the number and function of circulating EPCs and effectively improved pulmonary hemodynamics and vascular reconstruction. Furthermore, the positive correlation between the levels of plasma NO and circulating EPCs was also observed in the rhG-CSF treatment group. However, the protective effect of rhG-CSF in PH was attenuated by L-NAME, which mediated the downregulation of NO and the EPCs. Thus, the present study suggests that G-CSF may attenuate the progression of MCT-induced PH by improving vascular injury repair mechanisms via the NO-mediated upregulation of EPCs.
pulmonary hypertension; model; endothelial progenitor cells; nitric oxide; granulocyte colony-stimulating factor; hemodynamics
This study aimed to examine the secular trends in body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and the prevalence of general and abdominal obesity among Chinese children and adolescents from 1993 to 2009.
Data were obtained from the China Health and Nutrition Survey conducted from 1993 to 2009. 9693 children and adolescents aged 6-17years were included in this study, with their height, weight and WC were measured. General obesity was defined using the BMI cutoffs for overweight recommended by the International Obesity Task Force, and abdominal obesity was assessed when a WC above the 90th percentile for sex and age.
Among total participants, mean BMI and WC increased significantly over the period 1993–2009: BMI increased from 17.6 to 17.8 kg/m2, and WC increased from 61.4 to 63.1 cm (both increases P <0.001). The prevalence of general obesity and abdominal obesity increased significantly over the period: general obesity (including overweight) rose from 6.1% to 13.1% and abdominal obesity from 4.9% to 11.7% (both increases P <0.001). WC and abdominal obesity increased at a relatively higher rate than BMI and general obesity. Upward trends in the prevalence of general and abdominal obesity were observed in all subgroups of sex, age and region (all increases P <0.05), except for abdominal obesity in girls aged 13–17 years old (P =0.102).
General and abdominal obesity increased significantly over the past 17 years in Chinese children.
trend; body mass index; waist circumference; obesity; children; adolescents; China