Few studies have evaluated the effect of weight change from pre-pregnancy to post partum with the risk of cardiometabolic diseases among women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between weight change from pre-pregnancy to 1–5 years post partum with metabolic syndrome among Chinese women with prior gestational diabetes mellitus.
We performed a retrospective cohort study in 1263 women with gestational diabetes mellitus at 1–5 years post partum. Participants were divided into four groups based on their weight change from pre-pregnancy to 1–5 years post partum: loss of ≥ 3 kg, ± 3 kg, gain of 3–7 kg and gain of ≥7 kg.
The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 12.1%, 16.2%, 26.0% and 44.3% among women with weight loss ≥ 3 kg, stable weight (± 3 kg), weight gain 3–7 kg and weight gain ≥ 7 kg from pre-pregnancy to post partum, respectively. The positive association between weight change and metabolic syndrome was observed among women with pre-pregnancy normal weight (BMI < 24 kg/m2), overweight (BMI 24–27.9 kg/m2) and obesity (BMI ≥ 28 kg/m2). The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was almost similar among pre-pregnancy normal weight women with weight gain ≥ 7 kg, pre-pregnancy overweight women with stable weight (± 3 kg) and pre-pregnancy obese women with weight loss ≥3 kg from pre-pregnancy to post partum (P = 0.62).
Women with gestational diabetes mellitus who had large weight gain from pre-pregnancy to post partum were more likely to develop metabolic syndrome. Women who are pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity and also diagnosed as gestational diabetes mellitus during pregnancy need more weight control after delivery.