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1.  Systemic signs of neutrophil mobilization during clinically stable periods and during exacerbations in smokers with obstructive pulmonary disease 
Background
It is still unclear whether signs of neutrophil mobilization in the blood of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease represent true systemic events and how these relate to bacterial colonization in the airways. In this study, we evaluated these issues during clinically stable periods and during exacerbations in smokers with obstructive pulmonary disease and chronic bronchitis (OPD-CB).
Methods
Over a period of 60 weeks for each subject, blood samples were repeatedly collected from 60 smokers with OPD-CB during clinically stable periods, as well as during and after exacerbations. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) and neutrophil elastase (NE) protein and mRNA, growth of bacteria in sputum, and clinical parameters were analyzed. Ten asymptomatic smokers and ten never-smokers were included as controls.
Results
We found that, during clinically stable periods, neutrophil and NE protein concentrations were increased in smokers with OPD-CB and in the asymptomatic smokers when compared with never-smokers. During exacerbations, neutrophil and MPO protein concentrations were further increased in smokers with OPD-CB, without a detectable increase in the corresponding mRNA during exacerbations. However, MPO and NE protein and mRNA displayed positive correlations. During exacerbations, only increased neutrophil concentrations were associated with growth of bacteria in sputum. Among patients with low transcutaneous oxygen saturation during exacerbations, PaO2 (partial oxygen pressure) correlated with concentrations of MPO and NE protein and neutrophils in a negative manner.
Conclusion
There are signs of systemic neutrophil mobilization during clinically stable periods and even more so during exacerbations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In this condition, MPO and NE may share a cellular origin, but its location remains uncertain. Factors other than local bacteria, including hypoxemia, may be important for driving systemic signs of neutrophil mobilization.
doi:10.2147/COPD.S77274
PMCID: PMC4493974  PMID: 26170654
C-reactive protein; COPD; elastase; infection; myeloperoxidase; oxygen
2.  Systemic cytokine signaling via IL-17 in smokers with obstructive pulmonary disease: a link to bacterial colonization? 
We examined whether systemic cytokine signaling via interleukin (IL)-17 and growth-related oncogene-α (GRO-α) is impaired in smokers with obstructive pulmonary disease including chronic bronchitis (OPD-CB). We also examined how this systemic cytokine signaling relates to bacterial colonization in the airways of the smokers with OPD-CB. Currently smoking OPD-CB patients (n=60, corresponding to Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease [GOLD] stage I–IV) underwent recurrent blood and sputum sampling over 60 weeks, during stable conditions and at exacerbations. We characterized cytokine protein concentrations in blood and bacterial growth in sputum. Asymptomatic smokers (n=10) and never-smokers (n=10) were included as control groups. During stable clinical conditions, the protein concentrations of IL-17 and GRO-α were markedly lower among OPD-CB patients compared with never-smoker controls, whereas the asymptomatic smoker controls displayed intermediate concentrations. Notably, among OPD-CB patients, colonization by opportunistic pathogens was associated with markedly lower IL-17 and GRO-α, compared with colonization by common respiratory pathogens or oropharyngeal flora. During exacerbations in the OPD-CB patients, GRO-α and neutrophil concentrations were increased, whereas protein concentrations and messenger RNA for IL-17 were not detectable in a reproducible manner. In smokers with OPD-CB, systemic cytokine signaling via IL-17 and GRO-α is impaired and this alteration may be linked to colonization by opportunistic pathogens in the airways. Given the potential pathogenic and therapeutic implications, these findings deserve to be validated in new and larger patient cohorts.
doi:10.2147/COPD.S76273
PMCID: PMC4381892  PMID: 25848245
COPD; exacerbation; infection; neutrophil; lung; opportunist
3.  Comorbidity and health-related quality of life in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease attending Swedish secondary care units 
Introduction
Our understanding of how comorbid diseases influence health-related quality of life (HRQL) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is limited and in need of improvement. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between comorbidities and HRQL as measured by the instruments EuroQol-5 dimension (EQ-5D) and the COPD Assessment Test (CAT).
Methods
Information on patient characteristics, chronic bronchitis, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, renal impairment, musculoskeletal symptoms, osteoporosis, depression, and EQ-5D and CAT questionnaire results was collected from 373 patients with Forced Expiratory Volume in one second (FEV1) <50% of predicted value from 27 secondary care respiratory units in Sweden. Correlation analyses and multiple linear regression models were performed using EQ-5D index, EQ-5D visual analog scale (VAS), and CAT scores as response variables.
Results
Having more comorbid conditions was associated with a worse HRQL as assessed by all instruments. Chronic bronchitis was significantly associated with a worse HRQL as assessed by EQ-5D index (adjusted regression coefficient [95% confidence interval] −0.07 [−0.13 to −0.02]), EQ-5D VAS (−5.17 [−9.42 to −0.92]), and CAT (3.78 [2.35 to 5.20]). Musculoskeletal symptoms were significantly associated with worse EQ-5D index (−0.08 [−0.14 to −0.02]), osteoporosis with worse EQ-5D VAS (−4.65 [−9.27 to −0.03]), and depression with worse EQ-5D index (−0.10 [−0.17 to −0.04]). In stratification analyses, the associations of musculoskeletal symptoms, osteoporosis, and depression with HRQL were limited to female patients.
Conclusion
The instruments EQ-5D and CAT complement each other and emerge as useful for assessing HRQL in patients with COPD. Chronic bronchitis, musculoskeletal symptoms, osteoporosis, and depression were associated with worse HRQL. We conclude that comorbid conditions, in particular chronic bronchitis, depression, osteoporosis, and musculoskeletal symptoms, should be taken into account in the clinical management of patients with severe COPD.
doi:10.2147/COPD.S74645
PMCID: PMC4310343  PMID: 25653516
chronic bronchitis; EQ-5D; CAT; osteoporosis; depression; musculoskeletal symptoms
4.  Increase in Net Activity of Serine Proteinases but Not Gelatinases after Local Endotoxin Exposure in the Peripheral Airways of Healthy Subjects 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(9):e75032.
We tested the hypothesis that activation of the innate immune response induces an imbalance in the proteolytic homeostasis in the peripheral airways of healthy subjects, towards excess serine or gelatinase proteinase activity. During bronchoscopy, 18 healthy human subjects underwent intra-bronchial exposure to endotoxin and contra-lateral exposure to vehicle. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples were harvested 24 or 48 hours (h) later. We quantified archetype proteinases, anti-proteinases, inflammatory BAL cells, and, importantly, total plus net proteinase activities using functional substrate assays. As expected, endotoxin exposure increased the concentrations of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN's) and macrophages, of proteinases and the anti-proteinases tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1, α-1-antitrypsin and, to a lesser extent, secretory leukoproteinase inhibitor, at both time points. Notably, at these time points, endotoxin exposure substantially increased the quantitative NE/SLPI ratio and the net serine proteinase activity corresponding to neutrophil elastase (NE). Endotoxin exposure also increased the total gelatinase activity corresponding to matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9; an activity dominating over that of MMP-2. However, endotoxin exposure had no impact on net gelatinolytic activity at 24 or 48 h after exposure. Thus, local activation of the innate immune response induces an imbalance towards increased net serine proteinase activity in the proteolytic homeostasis of the peripheral airways in healthy subjects. Hypothetically, this serine proteinase activity can contribute to tissue remodelling and hypersecretion via NE from PMN's, if it is triggered repeatedly, as might be the case in chronic inflammatory airway disorders.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0075032
PMCID: PMC3781029  PMID: 24086430
5.  A gender difference in circulating neutrophils in malnourished patients with COPD 
Background
Circulating markers of inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) may correlate to disease progression and extrapulmonary complications such as malnourishment. However, surprisingly little is known about gender-related differences for circulating inflammatory markers in COPD.
Purpose
To characterize differences in circulating markers of inflammation in malnourished female and male patients with COPD.
Subjects
Thirty female and 11 male patients with a clinical diagnosis of COPD and malnourishment were examined. A group of control subjects without evidence of COPD was recruited for comparison of some variables.
Methods
Blood samples were drawn, and the following parameters were studied: leukocytes and differential counts, C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8, myeloperoxidase (MPO), neutrophil elastase (NE), intracellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular endothelial adhesion molecule-1, and E-selectin.
Results
The mean neutrophil concentration was significantly (P = 0.019) higher in female (4.5 × 109/L) than in male patients with COPD (3.5 × 109/L) and significantly higher than in female control subjects (3.1 × 109/L) (P < 0.01, n = 85). The mean CRP values were considerably higher in female (4.9 mg/mL) than in male patients with COPD (1.5 mg/mL), but the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.20). The mean concentrations of IL-6 and IL-8 tended to be higher in female than in male patients with COPD, but these differences did not reach statistical significance either (P > 0.05). Confounding factors (smoking, medication) could not explain the gender differences noted. The concentrations of MPO and NE displayed a strong correlation (r = 0.89; P < 0.01, n = 41) but revealed no gender differences. The latter was true for concentrations of adhesion molecules as well.
Conclusions
Our study puts forward evidence of a gender-related difference in systemic inflammation in malnourished patients with COPD in terms of circulating neutrophils being more abundant in female patients. Among these female patients, there was also a trend toward an increase in two neutrophil-mobilizing cytokines. New and better-powered studies are warranted to confirm and characterize this potentially important phenomenon in greater detail.
doi:10.2147/COPD.S15351
PMCID: PMC3048083  PMID: 21407820
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; inflammatory markers; leukocytosis; malnutrition
6.  West Sweden Asthma Study: Prevalence trends over the last 18 years argues no recent increase in asthma 
Respiratory Research  2009;10(1):94.
Asthma prevalence has increased over the last fifty years, but the more recent changes have not been conclusively determined. Studies in children indicate that a plateau in the prevalence of asthma may have been reached, but this has not yet been confirmed in adults. Epidemiological studies have suggested that the prevalence of asthma in adults is approximately 7-10% in different parts of the western world.
We have now performed a large-scale epidemiological evaluation of the prevalence of asthma and respiratory symptoms in adults between the ages of 16-75 in West Sweden. Thirty thousand randomly chosen individuals were sent a detailed questionnaire focusing on asthma and respiratory symptoms, as well possible risk factors. Sixty-two percent of the contacted individuals responded to the questionnaire. Asthma prevalence, defined as asthma diagnosed by a physician, was 8.3%. Moreover, the prevalence of respiratory symptoms was lower compared to previous studies. The most common respiratory symptom was any wheeze (16.6%) followed by sputum production (13.3%). In comparison with studies performed 18 years ago, the prevalence of asthma has not increased, and the prevalence of most respiratory symptoms has decreased. Therefore, our data argues that the continued increase in asthma prevalence that has been observed over the last half century is over.
doi:10.1186/1465-9921-10-94
PMCID: PMC2772988  PMID: 19821983
7.  Interleukin-17A mRNA and protein expression within cells from the human bronchoalveolar space after exposure to organic dust 
Respiratory Research  2005;6(1):44.
Background
In mice, the cytokine interleukin (IL)-17A causes a local accumulation of neutrophils within the bronchoalveolar space. IL-17A may thereby also contribute to an increased local proteolytic burden. In the current study, we determined whether mRNA for IL-17A is elevated and protein expression of IL-17A occurs locally in inflammatory cells within the human bronchoalveolar space during severe inflammation caused by organic dust. We also assessed the expression of the elastinolytic protease MMP-9 in this airway compartment.
Methods
Six healthy, non-smoking human volunteers were exposed to organic dust in a swine confinement, a potent stimulus of neutrophil accumulation within the human bronchoalveolar space. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid was harvested 2 weeks before and 24 hours after the exposure and total and differential counts were conducted for inflammatory BAL cells. Messenger RNA for IL-17A was measured using reverse transcript polymerase chain reaction-enzyme linked immunoassay (RT-PCR-ELISA). Intracellular immunoreactivity (IR) for IL-17A and MMP-9, respectively, was determined in BAL cells.
Results
The exposure to organic dust caused more than a forty-fold increase of mRNA for IL-17A in BAL cells. IL-17A immunoreactivity was detected mainly in BAL lymphocytes, and the number of these IL-17A expressing lymphocytes displayed an eight-fold increase, even though not statistically significant. The increase in IL-17A mRNA was associated with a substantial increase of the number of BAL neutrophils expressing MMP-9 immunoreactivity.
Conclusion
Exposure to organic dust increases local IL-17A mRNA and because there is intracellular expression in BAL lymphocytes, this suggests that IL-17A protein can originate from lymphocytes within the human bronchoalveolar space. The fact that the increased IL-17A mRNA is associated with an increased number of MMP-9-expressing neutrophils is compatible with IL-17A increasing the local proteolytic burden through its neutrophil-accumulating effect.
doi:10.1186/1465-9921-6-44
PMCID: PMC1166577  PMID: 15916703
8.  IL-17-induced cytokine release in human bronchial epithelial cells in vitro: role of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases 
British Journal of Pharmacology  2001;133(1):200-206.
Recent data indicate that interleukin (IL)-17 may contribute to neutrophilic airway inflammation by inducing the release of neutrophil-mobilizing cytokines from airway cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of mitogen activated protein kinases in IL-17 induced release of IL-8 and IL-6 in bronchial epithelial cells.Transformed human bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE) were stimulated with either IL-17 or vehicle. Both groups were treated either with SB202190 (inhibitor of p38 MAP kinase), PD98059 (inhibitor of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase [ERK] pathway), Ro-31-7549 (protein kinase C [PKC] inhibitor), LY 294002 (a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase [PI 3-kinase] inhibitor) or vehicle. IL-6 and IL-8 levels were measured in conditioned media by ELISA.The IL-17-induced release of IL-6 and IL-8 was concentration-dependently inhibited by SB202190 and by PD98059 in bronchial epithelial cells without affecting cell proliferation or survival.Ro-31-7549 and LY294002 had no significant effect on IL-17-induced IL-6 or IL-8 release in bronchial epithelial cells.Taken together, these data indicate a role for p38 and ERK kinase pathways in IL-17-induced release of neutrophil-mobilizing cytokines in human bronchial epithelial cells. These mechanisms constitute potential pharmacotherapeutical targets for inhibition of the IL-17-mediated airway neutrophilia.
doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0704063
PMCID: PMC1572774  PMID: 11325811
Interleukin-17; bronchial epithelial cell; MAP kinase; neutrophil
9.  Bronchodilatation in vivo by carbon monoxide, a cyclic GMP related messenger 
British Journal of Pharmacology  1998;124(6):1065-1068.
Recent studies suggest that gaseous carbon monoxide (CO) is involved in neurotransmission and that this molecule also is an important vasodilator in vivo. In the present study we evaluated the effect of inhaled CO on guinea-pig airway smooth muscle tone. The mechanisms involved were characterized by use of a cyclic GMP antagonist, Rp-8Br-cyclic GMPS, and a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, L-NAME.Anaesthetized, ventilated guinea-pigs were given a bolus injection of histamine (0.12 mg kg−1, i.v.), followed by a continuous infusion of histamine (0.30 μg kg−1 min−1) to increase total pulmonary resistance (RL). Subsequent exposure to 7, 15 or 30 breaths of CO (100%), resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of the bronchoconstriction. In the highest dose tested (30 breaths), CO inhibited 80% of the histamine-induced increase in RL.In separate experiments, animals receiving histamine infusions followed by 30 breaths of CO, were pretreated with Rp-8Br-cyclic GMPS (0.05 mg kg−1). This pretreatment abolished >60% of the CO-induced reduction in RL, but it had no effect on the bronchodilator response induced by salbutamol. In another set of experiments animals were pretreated with L-NAME (1.60 mg kg−1). In contrast to the Rp-8Br-cyclic GMPS pretreatment, the pretreatment with L-NAME did not affect the CO-induced reduction in RL.The present findings indicate that CO causes bronchodilatation in vivo via cyclic GMP.
doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0701878
PMCID: PMC1565478  PMID: 9720774
Carbon monoxide; Rp-8Br-cyclic GMPS; airway; in vivo pharmacology; trachea; lung; dilatation
10.  Long lasting smooth muscle relaxation by a novel PACAP analogue in guinea-pig and primate airways in vitro 
British Journal of Pharmacology  1997;121(8):1730-1734.
We compared the relaxant effect of pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP) 1–27 with that of a newly developed PACAP 1–27 analogue, [Arg15,20,21Leu17]-PACAP-Gly-Lys-Arg-NH2, in the guinea-pig trachea and primate bronchi in vitro (n=4–5).In the guinea-pig trachea precontracted by a submaximally effective carbachol concentration (0.1 μM), cumulative administration of PACAP 1–27 and the β2-adrenoceptor agonist salbutamol (3 nM–3 μM) caused significant and concentration-dependent smooth muscle relaxation, with salbutamol being approximately one log-step more potent in this model. However, in primate bronchi precontracted by carbachol (0.1 μM), cumulative administration of PACAP 1–27 and salbutamol caused concentration-dependent smooth muscle relaxation with very similar potencies and maximum relaxant effects.In the guinea-pig trachea, non-cumulative administration of the PACAP 1–27 analogue and the original PACAP 1–27 (0.3–3 μM) caused concentration-dependent relaxation with a very similar maximum relaxant effect and potency. However, the onset and offset of action was markedly slower for the PACAP 1–27 analogue than for the original PACAP 1–27 (>90% versus <10% of peak relaxation remaining 6 h after administration). Separate experiments confirmed that the PACAP 1–27 analogue also caused significant relaxation with slower onset and offset of action than did the original PACAP 1–27 in primate bronchi.Peptidase inhibition by captopril (10 μM) and phosphoramidon (1 μM) significantly increased the maximum relaxant effect and duration of action of PACAP 1–27 but not of the PACAP 1–27 analogue, during the 3 h of observation in the guinea-pig trachea.We conclude that [Arg15,20,21Leu17]-PACAP-Gly-Lys-Arg-NH2 produces significant, concentration-dependent and sustained airway smooth muscle relaxation in vitro. The sustained relaxant effect is due, at least in part, to the PACAP 1–27 analogue being less susceptible to cleavage by peptidases than the original peptide PACAP 1–27.
doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0701310
PMCID: PMC1564867  PMID: 9283710
Bronchodilator; guinea-pig airways; pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP); primate airways; smooth muscle relaxation; salbutamol

Results 1-10 (10)