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1.  Increase in Net Activity of Serine Proteinases but Not Gelatinases after Local Endotoxin Exposure in the Peripheral Airways of Healthy Subjects 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(9):e75032.
We tested the hypothesis that activation of the innate immune response induces an imbalance in the proteolytic homeostasis in the peripheral airways of healthy subjects, towards excess serine or gelatinase proteinase activity. During bronchoscopy, 18 healthy human subjects underwent intra-bronchial exposure to endotoxin and contra-lateral exposure to vehicle. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples were harvested 24 or 48 hours (h) later. We quantified archetype proteinases, anti-proteinases, inflammatory BAL cells, and, importantly, total plus net proteinase activities using functional substrate assays. As expected, endotoxin exposure increased the concentrations of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN's) and macrophages, of proteinases and the anti-proteinases tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1, α-1-antitrypsin and, to a lesser extent, secretory leukoproteinase inhibitor, at both time points. Notably, at these time points, endotoxin exposure substantially increased the quantitative NE/SLPI ratio and the net serine proteinase activity corresponding to neutrophil elastase (NE). Endotoxin exposure also increased the total gelatinase activity corresponding to matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9; an activity dominating over that of MMP-2. However, endotoxin exposure had no impact on net gelatinolytic activity at 24 or 48 h after exposure. Thus, local activation of the innate immune response induces an imbalance towards increased net serine proteinase activity in the proteolytic homeostasis of the peripheral airways in healthy subjects. Hypothetically, this serine proteinase activity can contribute to tissue remodelling and hypersecretion via NE from PMN's, if it is triggered repeatedly, as might be the case in chronic inflammatory airway disorders.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0075032
PMCID: PMC3781029  PMID: 24086430
2.  A gender difference in circulating neutrophils in malnourished patients with COPD 
Background
Circulating markers of inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) may correlate to disease progression and extrapulmonary complications such as malnourishment. However, surprisingly little is known about gender-related differences for circulating inflammatory markers in COPD.
Purpose
To characterize differences in circulating markers of inflammation in malnourished female and male patients with COPD.
Subjects
Thirty female and 11 male patients with a clinical diagnosis of COPD and malnourishment were examined. A group of control subjects without evidence of COPD was recruited for comparison of some variables.
Methods
Blood samples were drawn, and the following parameters were studied: leukocytes and differential counts, C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8, myeloperoxidase (MPO), neutrophil elastase (NE), intracellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular endothelial adhesion molecule-1, and E-selectin.
Results
The mean neutrophil concentration was significantly (P = 0.019) higher in female (4.5 × 109/L) than in male patients with COPD (3.5 × 109/L) and significantly higher than in female control subjects (3.1 × 109/L) (P < 0.01, n = 85). The mean CRP values were considerably higher in female (4.9 mg/mL) than in male patients with COPD (1.5 mg/mL), but the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.20). The mean concentrations of IL-6 and IL-8 tended to be higher in female than in male patients with COPD, but these differences did not reach statistical significance either (P > 0.05). Confounding factors (smoking, medication) could not explain the gender differences noted. The concentrations of MPO and NE displayed a strong correlation (r = 0.89; P < 0.01, n = 41) but revealed no gender differences. The latter was true for concentrations of adhesion molecules as well.
Conclusions
Our study puts forward evidence of a gender-related difference in systemic inflammation in malnourished patients with COPD in terms of circulating neutrophils being more abundant in female patients. Among these female patients, there was also a trend toward an increase in two neutrophil-mobilizing cytokines. New and better-powered studies are warranted to confirm and characterize this potentially important phenomenon in greater detail.
doi:10.2147/COPD.S15351
PMCID: PMC3048083  PMID: 21407820
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; inflammatory markers; leukocytosis; malnutrition
3.  West Sweden Asthma Study: Prevalence trends over the last 18 years argues no recent increase in asthma 
Respiratory Research  2009;10(1):94.
Asthma prevalence has increased over the last fifty years, but the more recent changes have not been conclusively determined. Studies in children indicate that a plateau in the prevalence of asthma may have been reached, but this has not yet been confirmed in adults. Epidemiological studies have suggested that the prevalence of asthma in adults is approximately 7-10% in different parts of the western world.
We have now performed a large-scale epidemiological evaluation of the prevalence of asthma and respiratory symptoms in adults between the ages of 16-75 in West Sweden. Thirty thousand randomly chosen individuals were sent a detailed questionnaire focusing on asthma and respiratory symptoms, as well possible risk factors. Sixty-two percent of the contacted individuals responded to the questionnaire. Asthma prevalence, defined as asthma diagnosed by a physician, was 8.3%. Moreover, the prevalence of respiratory symptoms was lower compared to previous studies. The most common respiratory symptom was any wheeze (16.6%) followed by sputum production (13.3%). In comparison with studies performed 18 years ago, the prevalence of asthma has not increased, and the prevalence of most respiratory symptoms has decreased. Therefore, our data argues that the continued increase in asthma prevalence that has been observed over the last half century is over.
doi:10.1186/1465-9921-10-94
PMCID: PMC2772988  PMID: 19821983
4.  Interleukin-17A mRNA and protein expression within cells from the human bronchoalveolar space after exposure to organic dust 
Respiratory Research  2005;6(1):44.
Background
In mice, the cytokine interleukin (IL)-17A causes a local accumulation of neutrophils within the bronchoalveolar space. IL-17A may thereby also contribute to an increased local proteolytic burden. In the current study, we determined whether mRNA for IL-17A is elevated and protein expression of IL-17A occurs locally in inflammatory cells within the human bronchoalveolar space during severe inflammation caused by organic dust. We also assessed the expression of the elastinolytic protease MMP-9 in this airway compartment.
Methods
Six healthy, non-smoking human volunteers were exposed to organic dust in a swine confinement, a potent stimulus of neutrophil accumulation within the human bronchoalveolar space. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid was harvested 2 weeks before and 24 hours after the exposure and total and differential counts were conducted for inflammatory BAL cells. Messenger RNA for IL-17A was measured using reverse transcript polymerase chain reaction-enzyme linked immunoassay (RT-PCR-ELISA). Intracellular immunoreactivity (IR) for IL-17A and MMP-9, respectively, was determined in BAL cells.
Results
The exposure to organic dust caused more than a forty-fold increase of mRNA for IL-17A in BAL cells. IL-17A immunoreactivity was detected mainly in BAL lymphocytes, and the number of these IL-17A expressing lymphocytes displayed an eight-fold increase, even though not statistically significant. The increase in IL-17A mRNA was associated with a substantial increase of the number of BAL neutrophils expressing MMP-9 immunoreactivity.
Conclusion
Exposure to organic dust increases local IL-17A mRNA and because there is intracellular expression in BAL lymphocytes, this suggests that IL-17A protein can originate from lymphocytes within the human bronchoalveolar space. The fact that the increased IL-17A mRNA is associated with an increased number of MMP-9-expressing neutrophils is compatible with IL-17A increasing the local proteolytic burden through its neutrophil-accumulating effect.
doi:10.1186/1465-9921-6-44
PMCID: PMC1166577  PMID: 15916703

Results 1-4 (4)