Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cells refractory to initial chemotherapy frequently develop disease relapse and distant metastasis. We show here that tumor suppressor WW domain-containing oxidoreductase (WWOX) (also named FOR or WOX1) regulates the susceptibility of SCC to methotrexate (MTX) in vitro and cure of SCC in MTX therapy. MTX increased WWOX expression, accompanied by caspase activation and apoptosis, in MTX-sensitive SCC cell lines and tumor biopsies. Suppression by a dominant-negative or small interfering RNA targeting WWOX blocked MTX-mediated cell death in sensitive SCC-15 cells that highly expressed WWOX. In stark contrast, SCC-9 cells expressed minimum amount of WWOX protein and resisted MTX-induced apoptosis. Transiently overexpressed WWOX sensitized SCC-9 cells to apoptosis by MTX. MTX significantly downregulated autophagy-related Beclin-1, Atg12–Atg5 and LC3-II protein expression and autophagosome formation in the sensitive SCC-15, whereas autophagy remained robust in the resistant SCC-9. Mechanistically, WWOX physically interacted with mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), which potentiated MTX-increased phosphorylation of mTOR and its downstream substrate p70 S6 kinase, along with dramatic downregulation of the aforementioned proteins in autophagy, in SCC-15. When WWOX was knocked down in SCC-15, MTX-induced mTOR signaling and autophagy inhibition were blocked. Thus, WWOX renders SCC cells susceptible to MTX-induced apoptosis by dampening autophagy, and the failure in inducing WWOX expression leads to chemotherapeutic drug resistance.
tumor suppressor; methotrexate; chemotherapy; autophagy; apoptosis
PEP02, also known as MM-398, is a novel nanoliposomal irinotecan that has improved pharmacokinetics and tumour bio-distribution of the free drug. This phase 2 study evaluated PEP02 monotherapy as second-line treatment for pancreatic cancer.
Patients who had metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma, Karnofsky performance status ⩾70, and had progressed following gemcitabine-based therapy were eligible. Intravenous injection of PEP02 120 mg m−2 was given every 3 weeks. Simon 2-stage design was used. The primary objective was 3-month survival rate (OS3-month).
A total of 40 patients were enrolled. The most common severe adverse events included neutropenia, abdominal pain, asthenia, and diarrhoea. Three patients (7.5%) achieved an objective response, with an additional 17 (42.5%) demonstrating stable disease for a minimum of two cycles. Ten (31.3%) of 32 patients with an elevated baseline CA19-9 had a >50% biomarker decline. The study met its primary end point with an OS3-month of 75%, with median progression-free survival and overall survival of 2.4 and 5.2 months, respectively.
PEP02 demonstrates moderate antitumour activity with a manageable side effect profile for metastatic, gemcitabine-refractory pancreatic cancer patients. Given the limited treatment options available to this patient population, a phase 3 trial of PEP02 (MM-398), referred to as NAPOLI-1, is currently underway.
Irinotecan sucrosofate; liposome; pancreatic cancer; second-line; gemcitabine-refractory
Despite focused research in conventional therapies and considerable advances in the understanding of the molecular carcinogenesis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), the 5-year survival rate for patients with advanced disease remains ∼15–20%. The major causes of HNSCC-related deaths are cervical node and distant metastasis. E-cadherin has a key role in epithelial intercellular adhesion and its downregulation is a hallmark of epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT), which is associated with invasion, metastasis, and poor prognosis. Epithelial–mesenchymal transition is the major mechanism responsible for mediating invasiveness and metastasis of epithelial cancers. Recently, we reported the role of E-cadherin transcriptional repressors in the inflammation-induced promotion of EMT in HNSCC, which is mediated by COX-2. These findings suggest that therapies targeting the cyclooxygenase pathway may diminish the propensity for tumour metastasis in HNSCC by blocking the PGE2-mediated induction of E-cadherin transcriptional repressors.
Herein, we evaluate the efficacy of the COX-2 inhibitor, apricoxib, in HNSCC cell lines. Apricoxib is effective in preventing tumour cell growth in three-dimensional, and anchorage-independent growth assays, as well as decreasing the capacity for tumour cell migration.
Herein, we evaluate the efficacy of the COX-2 inhibitor, apricoxib, in HNSCC cell lines. Apricoxib is effective in preventing tumour cell growth in three-dimensional, and anchorage-independent growth assays, as well as decreasing the capacity for tumour cell migration. Treatment of HNSCC cells with apricoxib also causes greater upregulation of E-cadherin and Muc1 expression and downregulation of vimentin, as compared with celecoxib treatment. This has significant implications for targeted chemoprevention and anti-cancer therapy because E-cadherin expression has been implicated as a marker of sensitivity to epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor and other therapies. We show for the first time the molecular mechanisms underlying the efficacy of apricoxib in HNSCC cells.
In addition to reversing EMT via inhibition of COX-2, apricoxib upregulates 15-prostaglandin dehydrogenase and the prostaglandin transporter, thereby reducing the levels of active PGE2 by both suppressing its synthesis and increasing its catabolism. These findings have significant implications for metastasis and tumour progression in HNSCC.
EMT; PGT; 15-PGDH; HNSCC; metastasis; COX-2 inhibitor
In an effort to update and clarify policies on tuberculosis drug susceptibility testing (DST), the World Health Organization (WHO) commissioned a systematic review evaluating WHO-endorsed diagnostic tests. We report the results of this systematic review and meta-analysis of the diagnostic accuracy and reproducibility of phenotypic DST for first-line and second-line antituberculosis drugs. This review provides support for recommended critical concentrations for isoniazid and rifampin in commercial broth-based systems. Further studies are needed to evaluate critical concentrations for ethambutol and streptomycin that accurately detect susceptibility to these drugs. Evidence is limited on the performance of DST for pyrazinamide and second-line drugs.
Retinal photoreceptor degeneration takes many forms. Mutations in rhodopsin genes or disorders of the retinal pigment epithelium, defects in the adenosine triphosphate binding cassette transporter, ABCR gene defects, receptor tyrosine kinase defects, ciliopathies and transport defects, defects in both transducin and arrestin, defects in rod cyclic guanosine 3′,5′-monophosphate phosphodiesterase, peripherin defects, defects in metabotropic glutamate receptors, synthetic enzymatic defects, defects in genes associated with signaling, and many more can all result in retinal degenerative disease like retinitis pigmentosa (RP) or RP-like disorders. Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and AMD-like disorders are possibly due to a constellation of potential gene targets and gene/gene interactions, while other defects result in diabetic retinopathy or glaucoma. However, all of these insults as well as traumatic insults to the retina result in retinal remodeling. Retinal remodeling is a universal finding subsequent to retinal degenerative disease that results in deafferentation of the neural retina from photoreceptor input as downstream neuronal elements respond to loss of input with negative plasticity. This negative plasticity is not passive in the face of photoreceptor degeneration, with a phased revision of retinal structure and function found at the molecular, synaptic, cell, and tissue levels involving all cell classes in the retina, including neurons and glia. Retinal remodeling has direct implications for the rescue of vision loss through bionic or biological approaches, as circuit revision in the retina corrupts any potential surrogate photoreceptor input to a remnant neural retina. However, there are a number of potential opportunities for intervention that are revealed through the study of retinal remodeling, including therapies that are designed to slow down photoreceptor loss, interventions that are designed to limit or arrest remodeling events, and oplogenetic approaches that target appropriate classes of neurons in the remnant neural retina.
Retinal remodeling; Retina; Retinal degeneration; Retinitis pigmentosa; Macular degeneration
Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) play pivotal roles in the calcium-signaling pathway in plants, ciliates and apicomplexan parasites, and comprise a CaMK-like kinase domain regulated by a calcium-binding domain in the C-terminus. To understand this intramolecular mechanism of activation, we solved the structures of the autoinhibited (apo) and activated (calcium-bound) conformations of CDPKs from the apicomplexan parasites Toxoplasma gondii and Cryptosporidium parvum. In the apo form, the C-terminal CDPK activation domain (CAD) resembles a calmodulin protein with an unexpected long helix in the N-terminus that inhibits the kinase domain in the same manner as CaMKII. Calcium binding triggers the reorganization of the CAD into a highly intricate fold, leading to its relocation around the base of the kinase domain to a site remote from the substrate-binding site. This large conformational change constitutes a distinct mechanism in calcium signal transduction pathways.
We demonstrated a protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent phosphorylation of canine ezrin/radixin/moesin (ERM)-binding phosphoprotein 50 (EBP50) at serine 347/348 by site-directed mutagenesis and a phospho-specific antibody. Cell fractionation and confocal imaging revealed the relocation of EBP50 from the plasma membrane to cytosol that accompanied this phosphorylation event. Increased phosphorylation at these serine residues led to the dissociation of EBP50 from ezrin and β-PIX, which are two upstream regulators of Rac1 activation. Cells overexpressing an EBP50 mutant, mimicking serine 347/348 phosphorylation, became refractory to hepatocyte growth factor-induced cell spreading and scattering, which is normally mediated by Rac1 activation. Detachment of cells from the substratum also elicited an increase in EBP50 phosphorylation, apparently due to counteracting activities of PKC and protein phosphastase 2A, which resulted in decreased Rac1 activation and induction of anoikis. Cells overexpressing an EBP50 mutant defective in serine 347/348 phosphorylation did not undergo apoptosis in suspension culture. These studies reveal a signaling cascade in which different phosphorylation states and subcellular localization of EBP50 regulate Rac1 function.
EBP50; Rac1; β-PIX; anoikis; PP2A
Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, known as favism, is classically manifested by hemolytic anemia in human. More recently, it has been shown that mild G6PD deficiency moderately affects cardiac function, whereas severe G6PD deficiency leads to embryonic lethality in mice. How G6PD deficiency affects organisms has not been fully elucidated due to the lack of a suitable animal model. In this study, G6PD-deficient Caenorhabditis elegans was established by RNA interference (RNAi) knockdown to delineate the role of G6PD in animal physiology. Upon G6PD RNAi knockdown, G6PD activity was significantly hampered in C. elegans in parallel with increased oxidative stress and DNA oxidative damage. Phenotypically, G6PD-knockdown enhanced germ cell apoptosis (2-fold increase), reduced egg production (65% of mock), and hatching (10% of mock). To determine whether oxidative stress is associated with G6PD knockdown-induced reproduction defects, C. elegans was challenged with a short-term hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The early phase egg production of both mock and G6PD-knockdown C. elegans were significantly affected by H2O2. However, H2O2-induced germ cell apoptosis was more dramatic in mock than that in G6PD-deficient C. elegans. To investigate the signaling pathways involved in defective oogenesis and embryogenesis caused by G6PD knockdown, mutants of p53 and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways were examined. Despite the upregulation of CEP-1 (p53), cep-1 mutation did not affect egg production and hatching in G6PD-deficient C. elegans. Neither pmk-1 nor mek-1 mutation significantly affected egg production, whereas sek-1 mutation further decreased egg production in G6PD-deficient C. elegans. Intriguingly, loss of function of sek-1 or mek-1 dramatically rescued defective hatching (8.3- and 9.6-fold increase, respectively) induced by G6PD knockdown. Taken together, these findings show that G6PD knockdown reduces egg production and hatching in C. elegans, which are possibly associated with enhanced oxidative stress and altered MAPK pathways, respectively.
C. elegans; G6PD; oxidative stress; germ cell apoptosis; embryogenesis; MAPK
The potential importance of DNA methylation in the etiology of complex diseases has led to interest in the development of methylome-wide association studies (MWAS) aimed at interrogating all methylation sites in the human genome. When using blood as biomaterial for a MWAS the DNA is typically extracted directly from fresh or frozen whole blood that was collected via venous puncture. However, DNA extracted from dry blood spots may also be an alternative starting material. In the present study, we apply a methyl-CpG binding domain (MBD) protein enrichment-based technique in combination with next generation sequencing (MBD-seq) to assess the methylation status of the ~27 million CpGs in the human autosomal reference genome. We investigate eight methylomes using DNA from blood spots. This data are compared with 1,500 methylomes previously assayed with the same MBD-seq approach using DNA from whole blood. When investigating the sequence quality and the enrichment profile across biological features, we find that DNA extracted from blood spots gives comparable results with DNA extracted from whole blood. Only if the amount of starting material is ≤ 0.5µg DNA we observe a slight decrease in the assay performance. In conclusion, we show that high quality methylome-wide investigations using MBD-seq can be conducted in DNA extracted from archived dry blood spots without sacrificing quality and without bias in enrichment profile as long as the amount of starting material is sufficient. In general, the amount of DNA extracted from a single blood spot is sufficient for methylome-wide investigations with the MBD-seq approach.
archived blood spots; methylation; next-generation sequencing; DNA extraction; MBD-seq
Background and Methods
Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma (lelc) is a rare malignancy in ocular adnexa.
Here, we report 4 patients with lelc and review 11 patients reported in the literature. Clinical profiles, association with Epstein–Barr virus (ebv), treatment, and outcomes are analyzed.
Lacrimal glands and the lacrimal drainage system, eyelid, and conjunctiva are potential primary sites for lelc. The tumours are characterized histologically by nests of undifferentiated malignant cells surrounded by lymphoid infiltrates. Infection with ebv was confirmed in lelc of ocular adnexa, and that association seemed to be restricted to Asian populations. Results from our centre uniformly showed expression of ebv-encoded small rnas in primary tumour, locally recurrent tumour, and metastatic lymph nodes. This disease had a tendency to relapse regionally. Postoperative radiotherapy seems to improve disease-free survival. Tumours appear to be sensitive to radiotherapy and chemotherapy based on cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil. At our centre, 3 patients were still living at 22, 33, and 76 months after surgery. One patient died of distant metastasis after a survival of 38 months.
Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma is a heterogenous entity among ocular adnexal malignancies. Multimodality treatment provides a better chance at survival. Further investigation is required to achieve a better understanding of the biologic behavior of this entity and of its optimal treatment.
Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma; ocular adnexa; Epstein–Barr virus; surgery; radiotherapy
Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) evolves from a chronic phase characterized by the Philadelphia chromosome as the sole genetic abnormality and the accumulation of mature cells in peripheral blood into blast crisis, which is characterized by the rapid expansion of myeloid- or lymphoid-differentiation-arrested blast cells. Although ample studies have been conducted on the disease progress mechanisms, the underlying molecular mechanisms of the malignant phenotype transition are still unclear. In this study, we have shown that myofibrillogenesis regulator-1 (MR-1) was overexpressed in blast crisis patients and leukemic cells, but there was little trace expressed in healthy individuals and in most patients in CML chronic phase. MR-1 could inhibit the differentiation of myeloid cells into megakaryocytic lineages and accelerate cell proliferation. The molecular mechanism responsible for these effects was the interaction of MR-1 with MEK, which blocked the MEK/ERK signaling pathway by dephosphorylating MEK. Our results provide compelling and important evidence that MR-1 might act as a diagnostic marker and potential target of CML progression from chronic phase to blast crisis.
MR-1; chronic myeloid leukemia; blast crisis; megakaryocytic differentiation; ERK; MEK
This is the first of a three-part study designed to demonstrate dynamic entanglements among gaseous organic compounds (VOC), particulate matter (PM), and their subsequent potential biological effects. We study these entanglements in increasingly complex VOC and PM mixtures in urban-like conditions in a large outdoor chamber. To the traditional chemical and physical characterizations of gas and PM, we added new measurements of gas-only- and PM-only-biological effects, using cultured human lung cells as model indicators. These biological effects are assessed here as increases in cellular damage or expressed irritation (i.e., cellular toxic effects) from cells exposed to chamber air relative to cells exposed to clean air. The exposure systems permit gas-only- or PM-only-exposures from the same air stream containing both gases and PM in equilibria, i.e., there are no extractive operations prior to cell exposure.
Our simple experiments in this part of the study were designed to eliminate many competing atmospheric processes to reduce ambiguity in our results. Simple volatile and semi-volatile organic gases that have inherent cellular toxic properties were tested individually for biological effect in the dark (at constant humidity). Airborne mixtures were then created with each compound and PM that has no inherent cellular toxic properties for another cellular exposure. Acrolein and p-tolualdehyde were used as model VOCs and mineral oil aerosol (MOA) was selected as a surrogate for organic-containing PM. MOA is appropriately complex in composition to represent ambient PM, and it exhibits no inherent cellular toxic effects and thus did not contribute any biological detrimental effects on its own.
Chemical measurements, combined with the responses of our biological exposures, clearly demonstrate that gas-phase pollutants can modify the composition of PM (and its resulting detrimental effects on lung cells) – even if the gas-phase pollutants are not considered likely to partition to the condensed phase: the VOC-modified-PM showed significantly more damage and inflammation to lung cells than did the original PM. Because gases and PM are transported and deposited differently within the atmosphere and the lungs, these results have significant consequences. For example, current US policies for research and regulation of PM do not recognize this “effect modification” phenomena (NAS, 2004).
These results present an unambiguous demonstration that – even in these simple mixtures – physical and thermal interactions alone can cause a modification of the distribution of species among the phases of airborne pollution mixtures and can result in a non-toxic phase becoming toxic due to atmospheric thermal processes only. Subsequent work extends the simple results reported here to systems with photochemical transformations of complex urban mixtures and to systems with diesel exhaust produced by different fuels.
Methylation studies are a promising complement to genetic studies of DNA sequence. However, detailed prior biological knowledge is typically lacking, so methylome-wide association studies (MWAS) will be critical to detect disease relevant sites. A cost-effective approach involves the next-generation sequencing (NGS) of single-end libraries created from samples that are enriched for methylated DNA fragments. A limitation of single-end libraries is that the fragment size distribution is not observed. This hampers several aspects of the data analysis such as the calculation of enrichment measures that are based on the number of fragments covering the CpGs.
We developed a non-parametric method that uses isolated CpGs to estimate sample-specific fragment size distributions from the empirical sequencing data. Through simulations we show that our method is highly accurate. While the traditional (extended) read count methods resulted in severely biased coverage estimates and introduces artificial inter-individual differences, through the use of the estimated fragment size distributions we could remove these biases almost entirely. Furthermore, we found correlations of 0.999 between coverage estimates obtained using fragment size distributions that were estimated with our method versus those that were “observed” in paired-end sequencing data.
We propose a non-parametric method for estimating fragment size distributions that is highly precise and can improve the analysis of cost-effective MWAS studies that sequence single-end libraries created from samples that are enriched for methylated DNA fragments.
Methylation; Next-generation sequencing; MBD/MeDIP; Association studies
In 2006, the Canadian National Advisory Committee on Blood and Blood Products (NAC) developed a transfusion policy framework for the use of off-label recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa) in massive bleeding. Because the number of randomised controlled trials has doubled, the NAC undertook a review of the policy framework in 2011. On the basis of the review of 29 randomised controlled trials, there remains little evidence to support the routine use of rFVIIa in massive bleeding. Mortality benefits have not been demonstrated. Contrarily, an increase in arterial thromboembolic events has been observed with the use of off-label rFVIIa. Given the absence of evidence of benefit and with evidence of the risk of harm, the NAC recommends that recombinant VIIa no longer be used for the off-label indications of prevention and treatment of bleeding in patients without haemophilia.
massive transfusion; off-label use; recombinant factor VIIa
Bisphenol A (BPA) is widely used in plastic products, through which humans are exposed to it. Accumulating evidence suggests that BPA exposure is associated with β-cell dysfunction. Mitochondrial defects can cause impairment and failure of β cells, but there is little information about the effects of BPA on the mitochondrial function of β cells. In this study, we assessed the role of mitochondria-mediated mechanisms underlying BPA-induced β-cell dysfunction and resulting β-cell apoptosis. INS-1 cells were cultured with 0, 0.0020, 0.020, 0.20, or 2.0 μM BPA. Cell viability, glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), and mitochondrial function were examined. The mitochondrial apoptotic pathway was also analyzed at molecular level. We found that BPA suppressed cell viability and disturbed GSIS in a dose-dependent manner. Positive Annexin- propidium iodide (PI) staining and altered expression of Bcl-2 family members and caspases in INS-1 cells indicated that the cells progressively became apoptotic after BPA exposure. Additionally, BPA-induced apoptosis was associated with mitochondrial defects in β cells, as evidenced by depletion of ATP, release of cytochrome c, loss of mitochondrial mass and membrane potential, and alterations in expression of genes involved in mitochondrial function and metabolism. Taken together, these findings provide strong evidence that BPA triggers INS-1 cells dysfunction and apoptosis may be meditated via the mitochondrial pathway.
bisphenol A; INS-1 cells; insulin secretion; mitochondrial dysfunction; apoptosis
Malaria remains a serious public health problem with significant morbidity and mortality. This study was conducted to identify whether ficolin-A could play an active role of against malaria infection.
The function of ficolin-A was analyzed in mouse model. The open reading frame of ficolin-A was cloned from the liver of new born C57BL/6 mice by RT-PCR and then inserted into the expression vector of eukaryon to construct pVAX1-ficolin-A plasmid. Meanwhile, the open reading frame of the 19-kDa fragment of merozoite surface protein-1 of Plasmodium berghei (MSP119) was cloned and then the expression vector of eukaryon, pVAX1- MSP119 was constructed. Both recombinant vectors were used in the mouse model of infection by Plasmodium berghei.
pVAX1-ficolin-A alone could not significantly suppress parasite density and prolong survival time of infection mice; however, when injected pVAX1-ficolin-A and pVAX1-MSP119 together, the percent of invasion by Plasmodium was decreased (from 43.78% to 22.23% at 10 day after infection, compared to vector) and the survival time was prolonged significantly in the infection mouse model (P=0.01).
Ficolin-A can enhance the immunoprotection of MSP119, it implies ficolin-A may be used as immunoenhancer in the study of vaccine defending malaria.
Ficolin-A; Plasmodium berghei; MSP119
Jun activation domain-binding protein 1 (JAB1) is a multifunctional protein that participates in the control cell proliferation and the stability of multiple proteins. JAB1 overexpression has been implicated in the pathogenesis of human cancer. JAB1 regulates several key proteins and thereby produces varied effects on cell cycle progression, genome stability, and cell survival. However, the biological significance of JAB1 activity in these cellular signaling pathways is unclear. Therefore, we developed mice that were deficient in Jab1 and analyzed the null embryos and heterozygous cells. This disruption of Jab1 in mice resulted in early embryonic lethality due to accelerated apoptosis. Loss of Jab1 expression sensitized both mouse primary embryonic fibroblasts and osteosarcoma cells to gamma radiation–induced apoptosis, with an increase in spontaneous DNA damage and homologous recombination (HR) defects, both of which correlated with reduced levels of the DNA repair protein Rad51 and elevated levels of p53. Furthermore, the accumulated p53 directly binds to Rad51 promoter, inhibited its activity, and represent a major mechanism underlying the HR repair defect in Jab1-deficient cells. These results indicate that Jab1 is essential for efficient DNA repair and mechanistically link Jab1 to the maintenance of genome integrity and to cell survival.
DNA repair; DNA damage; null mutation; embryonic lethality; Rad51
Amplification of aurora kinase A (AK-A) overrides the mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint, inducing resistance to taxanes. RNA interference targeting AK-A in human pancreatic cancer cell lines enhanced taxane chemosensitivity. In this study, a novel AK-A inhibitor, CYC3, was investigated in pancreatic cancer cell lines, in combination with paclitaxel.
Western blot, flow cytometry and immunostaining were used to investigate the specificity of CYC3. Sulforhodamine B staining, time-lapse microscopy and colony-formation assays were employed to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of CYC3 and paclitaxel. Human colony-forming unit of granulocyte and macrophage (CFU-GM) cells were used to compare the effect in tumour and normal tissue.
CYC3 was shown to be a specific AK-A inhibitor. Three nanomolar paclitaxel (growth inhibition 50% (GI50) 3 nℳ in PANC-1, 5.1 nℳ in MIA PaCa-2) in combination with 1 μℳ CYC3 (GI50 1.1 μℳ in MIA PaCa2 and 2 μℳ in PANC-1) was synergistic in inhibiting pancreatic cell growth and causing mitotic arrest, achieving similar effects to 10-fold higher concentrations of paclitaxel (30 nℳ). In CFU-GM cells, the effect of the combination was simply additive, displaying significantly less myelotoxicity compared with high concentrations of paclitaxel (30 nℳ; 60–70% vs 100% inhibition).
The combination of lower doses of paclitaxel and CYC3 merits further investigation with the potential for an improved therapeutic index in vivo.
pancreatic cancer; paclitaxel; CYC3; mitotic inhibitor; combination treatment
Engineering design often involves the determination of design variable settings to optimize competing performance requirements. In the early design stages we propose narrowing down the domain of design solutions using metamodels of principal components of the multiple performance levels that have been scaled by a multivariate quadratic loss function. The multivariate quadratic loss function is often used as the objective function in reaching optimal solutions because it utilizes the correlation structure of the design’s performance metrics and penalizes off-target performance in a symmetrical manner. We also compare the computational performance of these loss-scaled principal components when used to solve for the design with minimal expected multivariate quadratic loss under three modeling approaches: response surface methodology, multivariate adaptive regression splines, and spatial point modeling. We demonstrate the technique on the design of the mechanical frame of an electric vehicle with six desired performance levels determined simultaneously by the dimensions of eight mechanical design elements. The method is the focus in this work.
multiple response; multivariate quadratic loss function; optimal solutions; robust engineering design
We have previously demonstrated that interrupting the protein–protein interaction (PPI) of β-tubulin:chaperonin-containing TCP-1β (CCT-β) induces the selective killing of multidrug-resistant cancer cells due to CCT-β overexpression. However, the molecular mechanism has not yet been identified. In this study, we found that CCT-β interacts with a myriad of intracellular proteins involved in the cellular functions of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), mitochondria, cytoskeleton, proteasome and apoptosome. Our data show that the targeted cells activate both the heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90)-associated protein ubiquitination/degradation pathway to eliminate misfolded proteins in the cytoplasm and the valosin-containing protein (VCP)-centered ER-associated protein degradation pathway to reduce the excessive levels of unfolded polypeptides from the ER, thereby mitigating ER stress, at the onset of β-tubulin:CCT-β complex disruption. Once ER stress is expanded, ER stress-associated apoptotic signaling is enforced, as exhibited by cellular vacuolization and intracellular Ca2+ release. Furthermore, the elevated intracellular Ca2+ levels resulting from capacitative Ca2+ entry augments apoptotic signaling by provoking mitochondrial perturbation and caspase overactivation in the targeted cells. These findings not only provide a detailed picture of the apoptotic signaling cascades evoked by targeting the β-tubulin:CCT-β complex but also demonstrate a strategy to combat malignancies with chemoresistance to Hsp90- and VCP-related anticancer agents.
capacitative Ca2+ entry; β-tubulin; CCT-β; caspases; apoptosis
The reported prevalence of dentine/root (hyper)sensitivity (DH/RS) in the published literature varies, and this may be due in part to a) the different study populations and (b) the different methodologies employed in evaluating the pain response. According to von Troil et al. (2002) there are limited data available in terms of the prevalence and intensity of DH/RS following periodontal therapy. Objectives. The aim of the present study was therefore to review the literature in order to identify all relevant studies for inclusion and to determine whether there was any evidence of DH/RS following periodontal procedures in the published literature up to 31st December 2009 using an agreed search protocol. Methods. 840 papers were identified, from searching both electronic databases (PUBMED) and hand searching of relevant written journals. Twelve papers were subsequently accepted for inclusion. Results. The results of the present study would indicate that the reported prevalence for DH/RS (following nonsurgical therapy) was between 62.5% and 90% one day after treatment decreasing to approximately 52.6% to 55% after one week. The prevalence of DH/RS following surgical therapy was between 76.8% and 80.4% one day after treatment subsequently decreasing over time to 36.8% after 1 week, 33.4% after 2 weeks, 29.6% after 4 weeks, and 21.7% after 8 weeks. Conclusions. It is evident from reviewing the included studies that patients may suffer from mild discomfort following periodontal procedures although both the prevalence and intensity of DH/RS may vary depending on the duration and the type of procedure involved. Most of the studies included in this paper would tend to suggest that DH/RS may be relatively mild/moderate in nature and transient in duration.
The field of phenomics has been investigating network structure among large arrays of phenotypes, and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been used to investigate the relationship between genetic variation and single diseases/outcomes. A novel approach has emerged combining both the exploration of phenotypic structure and genotypic variation, known as the phenome-wide association study (PheWAS). The Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) network is a National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI)-supported collaboration of four groups accessing eight extensively characterized epidemiologic studies. The primary focus of PAGE is deep characterization of well-replicated GWAS variants and their relationships to various phenotypes and traits in diverse epidemiologic studies that include European Americans, African Americans, Mexican Americans/Hispanics, Asians/Pacific Islanders, and Native Americans. The rich phenotypic resources of PAGE studies provide a unique opportunity for PheWAS as each genotyped variant can be tested for an association with the wide array of phenotypic measurements available within the studies of PAGE, including prevalent and incident status for multiple common clinical conditions and risk factors, as well as clinical parameters and intermediate biomarkers. The results of PheWAS can be used to discover novel relationships between SNPs, phenotypes, and networks of interrelated phenotypes; identify pleiotropy; provide novel mechanistic insights; and foster hypothesis generation. The PAGE network has developed infrastructure to support and perform PheWAS in a high-throughput manner. As implementing the PheWAS approach has presented several challenges, the infrastructure and methodology, as well as insights gained in this project, are presented herein to benefit the larger scientific community.
genetic epidemiology; high throughput; phenomics; genetics; PheWAS
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with the incidence of cardiovascular disease. CKD may also increase the risk of atrial fibrillation (AF), but existing studies have reported inconsistent results.
Methods and Results
We estimated cystatin C-based glomerular filtration rate (eGFRcys) and measured urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) in 10,328 men and women free of AF from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study in 1996–98. Incidence of AF was ascertained through the end of 2007. During a median follow-up of 10.1 years, we identified 788 incident AF cases. Compared to individuals with eGFRcys ≥90 mL/min/1.73 m2, multivariable hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of AF were 1.3 (1.1–1.6), 1.6 (1.3–2.1), and 3.2 (2.0–5.0) (p for trend <0.0001) in those with eGFRcys of 60–89, 30–59 and 15–29 mL/min/1.73 m2, respectively. Similarly, presence of macroalbuminuria (ACR ≥300 mg/g, HR 3.2, 95% CI 2.3–4.5) and microalbuminuria (ACR 30–299 mg/g, HR 2.0, 95% CI 1.6–2.4) were associated with higher AF risk compared to those with ACR <30 mg/g. Risk of AF was particularly elevated in those with both low eGFRcys and macroalbuminuria (HR 13.1, 95% CI 6.0–28.6, comparing individuals with ACR≥300 mg/g and eGFRcys 15–29 vs. ACR<30 mg/g and eGFRcys ≥90 mL/min/1.73 m2).
In this large population-based study, reduced kidney function and presence of albuminuria were strongly associated with the incidence of AF independently of other risk factors.
Epidemiology; atrial fibrillation; kidney