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1.  Incidence of Stroke According to Presence of Diabetic Nephropathy and Severe Diabetic Retinopathy in Patients With Type 1 Diabetes 
Diabetes Care  2013;36(12):4140-4146.
OBJECTIVE
Type 1 diabetes is associated with a markedly increased risk of stroke, but only a few studies on the incidence of stroke in type 1 diabetes exist. Therefore, we assessed the incidence of stroke in patients with type 1 diabetes and studied the impact of diabetic nephropathy (DN) and severe diabetic retinopathy (SDR) on this risk.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
We studied 4,083 patients with type 1 diabetes from the Finnish Diabetic Nephropathy Study. Mean age was 37.4 ± 11.8 years, duration of diabetes was 21.6 ± 12.1 years, and 52% were men. Strokes were identified from medical records, death certificates, and the National Hospital Discharge Register and classified based on medical files and brain images.
RESULTS
During 36,680 person-years of follow-up, 149 (4%) patients suffered an incident stroke (105 infarctions and 44 hemorrhages). Of the infarctions, 58 (55%) were lacunar. The incidence of stroke, cerebral infarction, and cerebral hemorrhage was 406 (95% CI 344–477), 286 (234–347), and 120 (87–161) per 100,000 person-years, respectively. In an adjusted analysis, microalbuminuria increased the risk of stroke with a hazard ratio (HR) of 3.2 (1.9–5.6), macroalbuminuria 4.9 (2.9–8.2), and end-stage renal disease 7.5 (4.2–13.3), and SDR increased the risk with an HR of 3.0 (1.9–4.5). The risk of cerebral infarction, cerebral hemorrhage, and lacunar infarction increased in a similar manner. The proportion of lacunar versus nonlacunar infarction did not change across DN groups.
CONCLUSIONS
The presence of SDR and DN, independently, increases the risk of stroke, cerebral infarction, and cerebral hemorrhage in patients with type 1 diabetes.
doi:10.2337/dc13-0669
PMCID: PMC3836162  PMID: 24101700
2.  Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Type 1 Diabetes 
Diabetes Care  2013;36(11):3754-3758.
OBJECTIVE
To estimate for the first time the incidence of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in type 1 diabetes.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Using the nationwide Finnish Diabetic Nephropathy (FinnDiane) Study cohort of 4,083 patients with type 1 diabetes (mean age of 37.4 ± 11.8 years at enrollment), we analyzed the incidence of first-ever SAH events.
RESULTS
During the follow-up time of 36,680 person-years (median 9.4 years), 15 patients with type 1 diabetes experienced an aneurysmal or nonaneurysmal SAH, and thus the crude incidence of SAH was 40.9 (95% CI 22.9–67.4) per 100,000 person-years. One patient had a verified aneurysmal SAH, and four patients died suddenly of an SAH, which was most likely caused by an aneurysm. SAHs in 10 out of 15 patients were classified as nonaneurysmal SAH, and thus the crude incidence of nonaneurysmal SAH was 27.3 (13.1–50.1) per 100,000 person-years. None of the nonaneurysmal SAHs were fatal. In univariate analysis, current smokers had a hazard ratio of 4.82 (95% CI 1.31–17.81) for nonaneurysmal SAH.
CONCLUSIONS
The incidence of nonaneurysmal SAH is high among patients with type 1 diabetes. Our findings suggest that nonaneurysmal SAH is a distinct new microvascular complication in type 1 diabetes.
doi:10.2337/dc13-0260
PMCID: PMC3816906  PMID: 23877984
3.  Spinal Epidural Hematoma as a Complication of Intravenous Thrombolysis in an Acute Ischemic Stroke Patient 
Case Reports in Neurology  2010;2(1):32-36.
An 80-year-old white male suffered a stroke, fell to the floor, and suffered acute right hemiparesis and facial palsy. After an intravenous alteplase infusion 2.5 h later, the patient first complained of numbness in his right arm, then neck pain, followed by left leg numbness and slowly progressing paraparesis. MRI of the spine demonstrated an acute spinal dorsal epidural hematoma extending from the C6 to the T6 level; 12 h later, he underwent hematoma evacuation and laminectomy. Three months after surgery, the patient was paraplegic with moderate sensory loss below mamillary level. Acute ischemic stroke is often associated with a sudden fall, which, after thrombolysis, may result in unusual hemorrhagic complications.
doi:10.1159/000313637
PMCID: PMC2914369  PMID: 20689632
Cerebral infarction; Thrombolysis; Spinal epidural hematoma

Results 1-3 (3)