Background and Methods
Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma (lelc) is a rare malignancy in ocular adnexa.
Here, we report 4 patients with lelc and review 11 patients reported in the literature. Clinical profiles, association with Epstein–Barr virus (ebv), treatment, and outcomes are analyzed.
Lacrimal glands and the lacrimal drainage system, eyelid, and conjunctiva are potential primary sites for lelc. The tumours are characterized histologically by nests of undifferentiated malignant cells surrounded by lymphoid infiltrates. Infection with ebv was confirmed in lelc of ocular adnexa, and that association seemed to be restricted to Asian populations. Results from our centre uniformly showed expression of ebv-encoded small rnas in primary tumour, locally recurrent tumour, and metastatic lymph nodes. This disease had a tendency to relapse regionally. Postoperative radiotherapy seems to improve disease-free survival. Tumours appear to be sensitive to radiotherapy and chemotherapy based on cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil. At our centre, 3 patients were still living at 22, 33, and 76 months after surgery. One patient died of distant metastasis after a survival of 38 months.
Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma is a heterogenous entity among ocular adnexal malignancies. Multimodality treatment provides a better chance at survival. Further investigation is required to achieve a better understanding of the biologic behavior of this entity and of its optimal treatment.
Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma; ocular adnexa; Epstein–Barr virus; surgery; radiotherapy
Reduced N-methyl-D-aspartate-receptor (NMDAR) signaling has been associated with schizophrenia, autism and intellectual disability. NMDAR-hypofunction is thought to contribute to social, cognitive and gamma (30–80 Hz) oscillatory abnormalities, phenotypes common to these disorders. However, circuit-level mechanisms underlying such deficits remain unclear. This study investigated the relationship between gamma synchrony, excitatory–inhibitory (E/I) signaling, and behavioral phenotypes in NMDA-NR1neo−/− mice, which have constitutively reduced expression of the obligate NR1 subunit to model disrupted developmental NMDAR function. Constitutive NMDAR-hypofunction caused a loss of E/I balance, with an increase in intrinsic pyramidal cell excitability and a selective disruption of parvalbumin-expressing interneurons. Disrupted E/I coupling was associated with deficits in auditory-evoked gamma signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Gamma-band abnormalities predicted deficits in spatial working memory and social preference, linking cellular changes in E/I signaling to target behaviors. The GABAB-receptor agonist baclofen improved E/I balance, gamma-SNR and broadly reversed behavioral deficits. These data demonstrate a clinically relevant, highly translatable neural-activity-based biomarker for preclinical screening and therapeutic development across a broad range of disorders that share common endophenotypes and disrupted NMDA-receptor signaling.
animal model; GABAergic signaling; gamma oscillation; neuropsychiatric disease; NMDA-receptor
People with schizophrenia display sensory encoding deficits across a broad range of electrophysiological and behavioral measures, suggesting fundamental impairments in the ability to transduce the external environment into coherent neural representations. This inability to create basic components of complex stimuli interferes with a high fidelity representation of the world and likely contributes to cognitive deficits. The current study evaluates the effects of constitutive forebrain activation of the Gsα G-protein subunit on auditory threshold and gain using acoustic brainstem responses and cortically generated N40 event-related potentials to assess the role of cyclic AMP signaling in sensory encoding. Additionally, we examine the ability of pharmacological treatments that mimic (amphetamine) or ameliorate (haloperidol) positive symptoms of schizophrenia to test the hypothesis that the encoding deficits observed in Gsα transgenic mice can be normalized with treatment. We find that Gsα transgenic mice have decreased amplitude of cortically generated N40 but normal acoustic brainstem response amplitude, consistent with forebrain transgene expression and a schizophrenia endophenotype. Transgenic mice also display decreased stimulus intensity response (gain) in both acoustic brainstem response and N40, indicating corticofugal influence on regions that lack transgene expression. N40 deficits in transgenic animals were ameliorated with low dose haloperidol and reversed with higher dose, suggesting dopamine D2 receptor-linked Gi activity contributes to the impairment. Consistent with this hypothesis, we recreated the Gsα transgenic deficit in wild type animals using the indirect dopamine agonist amphetamine. This transgenic model of sensory encoding deficits provides a foundation for identifying biochemical contributions to sensory processing impairments associated with schizophrenia.
Gsα; N40; schizophrenia; cAMP; haloperidol; event-related potentials
Mutations in the Leucine Rich Repeat Kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene, first described in 2004 have now emerged as the most important genetic finding in both autosomal dominant and sporadic Parkinson’s Disease (PD). While a formidable research effort has ensued since the initial gene discovery, little is known of either the normal or the pathological role of LRRK2. We have created lines of mice that express human mutant wild-type (hWT) or G2019S Lrrk2 via bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) transgenesis. In vivo analysis of the dopaminergic system revealed abnormal dopamine neurotransmission in both hWT and G2019S transgenic mice evidenced by a decrease in extra-cellular dopamine levels, which was detected without pharmacological manipulation. Immunopathological analysis revealed changes in localization and increased phosphorylation of microtubule binding protein tau in G2019S mice. Quantitative biochemical analysis confirmed the presence of differential phospho-tau species in G2019S mice but surprisingly, upon dephosphorylation the tau isoform banding pattern in G2019S mice remained altered. This suggests that other post-translational modifications of tau occur in G2019S mice. We hypothesize that Lrrk2 may impact on tau processing which subsequently leads to increased phosphorylation. Our models will be useful for further understanding of the mechanistic actions of LRRK2 and future therapeutic screening.
Parkinson’s Disease; Transgenic; Dopamine; Microdialysis; Neuropathology; Anxiety
Understanding cellular and molecular events in diabetes mellitus will identify new approaches for therapy. Immune system cells are important modulators of chronic inflammation in diabetes mellitus, but the role of B cells is not adequately studied. The aim of this work was to define the function of B cells in diabetes mellitus patients through focus on B cell responses to pattern recognition receptors.
We measured expression and function of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) on peripheral blood B cells from diabetes mellitus patients by flow cytometry and multiplexed cytokine analysis. We similarly analysed B cells from non-diabetic donors and periodontal disease patients as comparative cohorts.
B cells from diabetes mellitus patients secrete multiple pro-inflammatory cytokines, and IL-8 production is significantly elevated in B cells from diabetic patients compared with those from non-diabetic individuals. These data, plus modest elevation of TLR surface expression, suggest B cell IL-8 hyperproduction is a cytokine-specific outcome of altered TLR function in B cells from diabetes mellitus patients. Altered TLR function is further evidenced by demonstration of an unexpected, albeit modest ‘anti-inflammatory’ function for TLR4. Importantly, B cells from diabetes mellitus patients fail to secrete IL-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine implicated in inflammatory disease resolution, under a variety of TLR-stimulating conditions. Comparative analyses of B cells from patients with a second chronic inflammatory disease, periodontal disease, indicated that some alterations in B cell TLR function associate specifically with diabetes mellitus.
Altered TLR function in B cells from diabetes mellitus patients increases inflammation by two mechanisms: elevation of pro-inflammatory IL-8 and lack of anti-inflammatory/protective IL-10 production.
B lymphocytes; Cytokines; Diabetes mellitus; Human; Toll-like receptors
Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are one of the intracellular calcium channels involved in regulation of intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i). The immunolocalization of RyRs was investigated in the developing rat cochlea at different postnatal days (PND). The change of [Ca2+]i in isolated outer hair cells (OHCs) was determined. Morphological results showed low expression of RyRs in the Kolliker’s organ from the PND 5 group. RyR expression in inner hair cells (IHCs) increased as the rats aged, and was mature after PND 14. RyRs in OHCs were expressed near the synaptic area of afferent and efferent nerves. RyRs in supporting cells were expressed widely and strongly. The application of ACh, ryanodine + ACh, and thapsigargin + ACh could induce a significant increase in [Ca2+]i in OHCs in the presence of extracellular calcium. This increase of [Ca2+]i induced by ACh was caused by not only the calcium influx through surface calcium channels, but also the calciuminduced calcium release (CICR) from intracellular RyR-sensitive calcium stores. Morphological and Ca imaging results suggested that RyRs expression is related to cochlear maturity, and may play an important role in its function.
ryanodine receptor; development of cochlea; Ca2+; calcium-induced calcium release.
To determine the association of spherical equivalent (SE) with low uncorrected visual acuity (VA) along with a proposed definition for myopia using logMAR VA >0.3 as the criteria.
1334 Chinese schoolchildren (mean age 7.8; range 7–9 years) were enrolled in the study after those who had hyperopia ⩾+2.00 dioptres (D) and astigmatism > = −2.00D were excluded. Uncorrected logMAR VA was measured for both eyes. Cycloplegia autorefraction was achieved by the instillation of three drops of 1% cyclopentolate 5 minutes apart. The average of five successful consecutive refraction and keratometry readings were obtained with calibrated Canon RK5 autokeratorefractometers by well trained optometry students, at least 30 minutes after the instillation of the third drop of cyclopentolate. SE cut‐off points (−0.25D, −0.5D, −0.75D, −1.0D) were evaluated.
Using different SE cut‐off points, the myopia prevalence rates of this sample of schoolchildren varied from 45.8% (SE at least −0.25 D) to 30.7% (SE at least −1.0 D). The cut‐off point of ⩾−0.75 D had a sensitivity and specificity of 91.8% (95% CI, 89.2 to 94.4) and 93.7% (95% CI, 92.1 to 95.3), respectively, to predict low vision defined as uncorrected logMAR VA > 0.3 (either eye). The next best cut‐off point of −0.5D had a higher sensitivity (93.3%), but lower specificity (87.9%).
The cut‐off points of −0.75D and −0.5D in SE refraction are appropriate for the prediction of uncorrected logMAR VA worse than 0.3, which is the criterion for the US common state adult driver licensing standard.
myopia; children; Singapore
The cytochrome P450 CYP1B1 is consistently overexpressed in tumour cells as compared to their normal counterparts, but its precise role in drug resistance is yet to be defined. It has been reported that transfection of CYP1B1 results in increased resistance to docetaxel in V79 cells (McFadyen et al, 2001). In this study, we analysed changes in expression of CYP1B1 mRNA associated with pulse selection of MCF-7 cells with docetaxel. Docetaxel-selected MCF-7 cells (MCF-7 Txt), which showed increased resistance to this drug as compared to parental MCF-7 cells, showed a noteworthy increase in CYP1B1 mRNA expression, paralleled by increased ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity levels. This effect was not observed in cisplatin- or adriamycin-selected MCF-7 cells, or in docetaxel-selected colon, lung or pancreatic carcinoma cells. Short-term treatment with docetaxel induced CYP1B1 mRNA expression in MDA 453 and BT-20 breast carcinoma cells, but not in MCF-7 cells. Transfection of MCF-7 Txt cells with CYP1B1 siRNA did not significantly affect docetaxel-induced toxicity, but it decreased cell survival in the absence of drug. Preincubation of docetaxel with recombinant CYP1B1 did not affect drug toxicity in A549 cells. These results suggest that CYP1B1 does not directly inactivate docetaxel, but rather might promote cell survival in MCF-7 Txt cells, providing an explanation for its association with drug resistance.
cytochromes P450; CYP1B1; drug resistance; breast
Nonadherence with medication is a critical limitation in current long-term treatment of schizophrenia and a primary factor in poor quality-of-life outcomes. However, few treatments have addressed this shortcoming using an implantable drug delivery approach. The goal of this study was to provide in vitro and in vivo proof of concept for a long-term implantable risperidone delivery system in mice.
Implantable formulations of risperidone were created using the biodegradable polymer Poly Lactic co Glycolic Acid (PLGA) combined with various drug loads. Implant bioactivity was tested using in vitro release and stability studies, as well as in vivo pharmacokinetic and behavioral studies in mice.
The pattern of risperidone release is influenced by various parameters, including polymer composition and drug load. In vitro measures demonstrate that risperidone is stable in implants under physiological conditions. Behavioral measures demonstrate the bioactivity of risperidone implants delivering 3mg/kg/day in mice, while pharmacokinetic analyses indicate that reversibility is maintained throughout the delivery interval.
The current report suggests that implantable formulations are a viable approach to providing long-term delivery of antipsychotic medications based on in vivo animal studies and pharmacokinetics. Implantable medications demonstrated here can last two months or longer while maintaining coherence and removability past full release, suggesting a potential paradigm shift in the long-term treatment of schizophrenia.
Treatment adherence; schizophrenia; risperidone pharmacokinetics; drug delivery system; drug implant; in vitro/in vivo correlation
Background and purpose: A prostamide analogue, bimatoprost, has been shown to be effective in reducing intraocular pressure, but its precise mechanism of action remains unclear. Hence, to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of this effect of bimatoprost, we focused on pharmacologically characterizing prostaglandin FP receptor (FP) and FP receptor variant (altFP) complexes.
Experimental approach: FP receptor mRNA variants were identified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The FP-altFP4 heterodimers were established in HEK293/EBNA cells co-expressing FP and altFP4 receptor variants. A fluorometric imaging plate reader was used to study Ca2+ mobilization. Upregulation of cysteine-rich angiogenic protein 61 (Cyr61) mRNA was measured by Northern blot analysis, and phosphorylation of myosin light chain (MLC) by western analysis.
Key results: Six splicing variants of FP receptor mRNA were identified in human ocular tissues. Immunoprecipitation confirmed that the FP receptor is dimerized with altFP4 receptors in HEK293/EBNA cells co-expressing FP and altFP4 receptors. In the studies of the kinetic profile for Ca2+ mobilization, prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) elicited a rapid increase in intracellular Ca2+ followed by a steady state phase. In contrast, bimatoprost elicited an immediate increase in intracellular Ca2+ followed by a second phase. The prostamide antagonist, AGN211335, selectively and dose-dependently inhibited the bimatoprost-initiated second phase of Ca2+ mobilization, Cyr61 mRNA upregulation and MLC phosphorylation, but did not block the action of PGF2α.
Conclusion and implications: Bimatoprost lacks effects on the FP receptor but may interact with the FP-altFP receptor heterodimer to induce alterations in second messenger signalling. Hence, FP-altFP complexes may represent the underlying basis of bimatoprost pharmacology.
prostaglandin; prostamide; intraocular pressure; receptor dimerization; calcium signalling
Microarray-based pooled DNA methods overcome the cost bottleneck of simultaneously genotyping more than 100 000 markers for numerous study individuals. The success of such methods relies on the proper adjustment of preferential amplification/hybridization to ensure accurate and reliable allele frequency estimation. We performed a hybridization-based genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyping analysis to dissect preferential amplification/hybridization. The majority of SNPs had less than 2-fold signal amplification or suppression, and the lognormal distributions adequately modeled preferential amplification/hybridization across the human genome. Comparative analyses suggested that the distributions of preferential amplification/hybridization differed among genotypes and the GC content. Patterns among different ethnic populations were similar; nevertheless, there were striking differences for a small proportion of SNPs, and a slight ethnic heterogeneity was observed. To fulfill appropriate and gratuitous adjustments, databases of preferential amplification/hybridization for African Americans, Caucasians and Asians were constructed based on the Affymetrix GeneChip Human Mapping 100 K Set. The robustness of allele frequency estimation using this database was validated by a pooled DNA experiment. This study provides a genome-wide investigation of preferential amplification/hybridization and suggests guidance for the reliable use of the database. Our results constitute an objective foundation for theoretical development of preferential amplification/hybridization and provide important information for future pooled DNA analyses.
paclitaxel (taxol); doxorubicin (adriamycin); drug resistance; invasion; motility; adhesion, Rho-GTPases
Kallistatin is a serine proteinase inhibitor which binds to tissue kallikrein and inhibits its activity. The aim of this study is to evaluate if kallistatin has a direct effect on the vasculature and on blood pressure homeostasis. We found that an intravenous bolus injection of human kallistatin caused a rapid, potent, and transient reduction of mean arterial blood pressure in anesthetized rats. Infusion of purified kallistatin (0.07-1.42 nmol/kg) into cannulated rat jugular vein produced a 20-85 mmHg reduction of blood pressure in a dose-dependent manner. Hoe 140, a bradykinin B2-receptor antagonist, had no effect on the hypotensive effect of kallistatin yet it abolished the blood pressure-lowering effect of kinin and kallikrein. Relaxation of isolated aortic rings by kallistatin was observed in the presence (ED50 of 3.4 x 10(-9) M) and in the absence of endothelium (ED50 of 10(-9) M). Rat kallikrein-binding protein, but not kinin or kallikrein, induced vascular relaxation of aortic rings. Neither Hoe 140 nor Nomega-nitro--arginine methyl ester, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, affected vasorelaxation induced by kallistatin. Kallistatin also caused dose-dependent vasodilation of the renal vasculature in the isolated, perfused rat kidney. Specific kallistatin-binding sites were identified in rat aorta by Scatchard plot analysis with a Kd of 0.25+/-0.07 nM and maximal binding capacity of 47.9+/-10.4 fmol/mg protein (mean+/-SEM, n = 3). These results indicate that kallistatin is a potent vasodilator which may function directly through a vascular smooth muscle mechanism independent of an endothelial bradykinin receptor. This study introduces the potential significance of kallistatin in directly regulating blood pressure to reduce hypertension.
AIM: To investigate causes and clinical findings of non-tuberculous mycobacterial keratitis, and to study its response to topical antibiotic therapy and surgical extirpative keratectomy. METHOD: A single centre, retrospective review of 22 patients with non-tuberculous mycobacterial keratitis seen in a 3 year period. Laboratory diagnoses were established with Ziehl-Nielsen acid fast staining and Löwenstein-Jensen cultures. RESULTS: In 20 patients (91%), there was an antecedent history of foreign body eye trauma (18 patients) or elective surgery (two patients). There were 19 cases of Mycobacterium chelonei, and three of M fortuitum. Clinical signs included epithelial defects, satellite or ring stromal infiltrates, crystalline keratopathy, and hypopyon. For topical antibiotic therapy, 20 patients received amikacin, while one patient received rifampin and another received ciprofloxacin, each in accordance with the results of the in vitro drug sensitivities. An extirpative keratectomy was performed in 15 cases; four of these cases additionally required a temporary conjunctival flap in order to finally eradicate the infection. At the end of the follow up period (median 18 months; range 3 months to 3 years) all eyes were stable and free of infection, with 19 (86%) having final visual acuities of 20/200 or better. CONCLUSION: Early clinical recognition and prompt laboratory diagnosis, together with aggressive topical antibiotic therapy and early keratectomy, may shorten morbidity and improve the clinical outcome of non-tuberculous mycobacterial keratitis.
Bengkala is an Indonesian village located on the north shore of Bali that has existed for over 700 years. Currently, 2.2% of the 2185 people in this village have profound congenital deafness. In response to the high incidence of deafness, the people of Bengkala have developed a village specific sign language which is used by many of the hearing and deaf people. Deafness in Bengkala is congenital, sensorineural, non-syndromal, and caused by a fully penetrant autosomal recessive mutation at the DFNB3 locus. The frequency of the DFNB3 mutation is estimated to be 9.4% among hearing people who have a 17.2% chance of being heterozygous for DFNB3.
The Drosophila melanogaster shavenbaby (svb)-ovo gene region is a complex locus, containing two distinct but comutable genetic functions. ovo is required for survival and differentiation of female germ line cells and plays a role in germ line sex determination. In contrast, svb is required in both male and female embryos for the production of epidermal locomotor and sensory structures. Sequences required for the two genetic functions are partially overlapping. ovo corresponds to a previously described germ line-dependent 5.0-kb poly(A)+ mRNA that first appears in the germarium and accumulates in nurse cells during oogenesis. The 5.0-kb mRNA is stored in the egg, but it is rapidly lost in the embryos except for its continued presence in the germ line precursor pole cells. The ovo mRNA predicts a 1,028-amino-acid 110.6-kDa protein homologous with transcription factors. We have identified an embryonic mRNA, 7.1 kb in length, that contains exons partially overlapping those of the 5.0-kb poly(A)+ mRNA. The spatial distribution of this newly discovered transcript during midembryogenesis suggests that it corresponds to the svb function. The arrangement of exons common to the 5.0- and 7.1-kb mRNAs suggests that the Ovo and Svb proteins share DNA-binding specificity conferred by four Cys2-His2 zinc finger motifs but differ functionally in their capacity to interact with other components of the transcription machinery.
The present study evaluated the involvement of glucose transport and phosphorylation in glucose-stimulated insulin release from pancreatic islets. Using quantitative histochemical techniques, we investigated basal islet glucose content, islet glucose uptake in situ during acute extreme experimental hyperglycemia, and islet glucokinase activity in several animal models of diabetes and obesity. The basal islet glucose content in anaesthetized diabetic or obese rodents was either the same or higher than that in their relevant controls. The rate of glucose uptake of islet tissue in these animals after an i.v. glucose injection was different. The db+/db+ mouse and the obese Zucker rat exhibited significantly reduced islet glucose uptake rates. RIP-cHras transgenic mice, BHE/cdb rats and partially pancreatectomized rats showed normal islet glucose uptake rates. The activity of islet glucokinase was increased to a different degree related to the blood glucose level. All five animal models of diabetes or obesity exhibited either a delay or a reduction of insulin release in response to supra maximal glucose stimulation. Our results indicate that the impairment of glucose-induced insulin release in diabetes is not consistently associated with a reduction of islet glucose uptake nor a change of glucokinase activity.
We have examined the onset and duration of the inhibitory effect of an intravenous infusion of lipid/heparin on total body carbohydrate and fat oxidation (by indirect calorimetry) and on glucose disappearance (with 6,6 D2-glucose and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) in healthy men during euglycemic hyperinsulinemia. Glycogen synthase activity and concentrations of acetyl-CoA, free CoA-SH, citrate, and glucose-6-phosphate were measured in muscle biopsies obtained before and after insulin/lipid and insulin/saline infusions. Lipid increased insulin-inhibited fat oxidation (+40%) and decreased insulin-stimulated carbohydrate oxidation (-63%) within 1 h. These changes were associated with an increase (+489%) in the muscle acetyl-CoA/free CoA-SH ratio. Glucose disappearance did not decrease until 2-4 h later (-55%). This decrease was associated with a decrease in muscle glycogen synthase fractional velocity (-82%). The muscle content of citrate and glucose-6-phosphate did not change. We concluded that, during hyperinsulinemia, lipid promptly replaced carbohydrate as fuel for oxidation in muscle and hours later inhibited glucose uptake, presumably by interfering with muscle glycogen formation.
Among numerous active electrode materials, nickel hydroxide is a promising electrode in electrochemical capacitors. Nickel hydroxide research has thus far focused on the crystalline rather than the amorphous phase, despite the impressive electrochemical properties of the latter, which includes an improved electrochemical efficiency due to disorder. Here we demonstrate high-performance electrochemical supercapacitors prepared from amorphous nickel hydroxide nanospheres synthesized via simple, green electrochemistry. The amorphous nickel hydroxide electrode exhibits high capacitance (2,188 F g−1), and the asymmetric pseudocapacitors of the amorphous nickel hydroxide exhibit high capacitance (153 F g−1), high energy density (35.7 W h kg−1 at a power density of 490 W kg−1) and super-long cycle life (97% and 81% charge retentions after 5,000 and 10,000 cycles, respectively). The integrated electrochemical performance of the amorphous nickel hydroxide is commensurate with crystalline materials in supercapacitors. These findings promote the application of amorphous nanostructures as advanced electrochemical pseudocapacitor materials.
Nickel hydroxide is a promising material for capacitor electrodes and most research has focussed on the crystalline form. Here, the authors report that amorphous nickel hydroxide nanospheres, which may be synthesized relatively easily, also exhibit excellent integrated electrochemical performance.
We have investigated the mechanism of transcription termination in vitro by spinach chloroplast RNA polymerase using templates encoding variants of the transcription-termination structure (attenuator) of the regulatory region of the threonine (thr) operon of Escherichia coli. Fourteen sequence variants located within its d(G+C) stem-loop and d(A+T)-rich regions were studied. We found that the helix integrity in the stem-loop structure is necessary for termination but that its stability is not directly correlated with termination efficiency. The sequence of the G+C stem-loop itself also influences termination. Moreover, the dA template stretch at the 3' end of the terminator plays a major role in termination efficiency, but base pairing between the A and U tract of the transcript does not. From the studies using deletion variants and a series of mutants that alter the sequences immediately downstream from the transcription termination site, we found that termination of transcription by spinach chloroplast RNA polymerase was also modulated by downstream DNA sequences in a sequence-specific manner. The second base immediately following the poly(T) tract is crucial for determining the termination efficiency by chloroplast RNA polymerase, but not of the T7 or E.coli enzymes.