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author:("Li, aurelian")
1.  An eight-miRNA signature as a potential biomarker for predicting survival in lung adenocarcinoma 
Background
Lung adenocarcinoma is a heterogernous disease that creates challenges for classification and management. The purpose of this study is to identify specific miRNA markers closely associated with the survival of LUAD patients from a large dataset of significantly altered miRNAs, and to assess the prognostic value of this miRNA expression profile for OS in patients with LUAD.
Methods
We obtained miRNA expression profiles and corresponding clinical information for 372 LUAD patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), and identified the most significantly altered miRNAs between tumor and normal samples. Using survival analysis and supervised principal components method, we identified an eight-miRNA signature for the prediction of overall survival (OS) of LUAD patients. The relationship between OS and the identified miRNA signature was self-validated in the TCGA cohort (randomly classified into two subgroups: n = 186 for the training set and n = 186 for the testing set). Survival receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to assess the performance of survival prediction. The biological relevance of putative miRNA targets was also analyzed using bioinformatics.
Results
Sixteen of the 111 most significantly altered miRNAs were associated with OS across different clinical subclasses of the TCGA-derived LUAD cohort. A linear prognostic model of eight miRNAs (miR-31, miR-196b, miR-766, miR-519a-1, miR-375, miR-187, miR-331 and miR-101-1) was constructed and weighted by the importance scores from the supervised principal component method to divide patients into high- and low-risk groups. Patients assigned to the high-risk group exhibited poor OS compared with patients in the low-risk group (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.99, P <0.001). The eight-miRNA signature is an independent prognostic marker of OS of LUAD patients and demonstrates good performance for predicting 5-year OS (Area Under the respective ROC Curves [AUC] = 0.626, P = 0.003), especially for non-smokers (AUC = 0.686, P = 0.023).
Conclusions
We identified an eight-miRNA signature that is prognostic of LUAD. The miRNA signature, if validated in other prospective studies, may have important implications in clinical practice, in particular identifying a subgroup of patients with LUAD who are at high risk of mortality.
doi:10.1186/1479-5876-12-159
PMCID: PMC4062505  PMID: 24893932
Lung adenocarcinoma; MicroRNA; Prognostic markers; Overall survival
2.  Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in ATM Gene, Cooking Oil Fumes and Lung Adenocarcinoma Susceptibility in Chinese Female Non-Smokers: A Case-Control Study 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(5):e96911.
Background
The ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene plays an important role in the DNA double-strand breaks repair pathway. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of DNA repair genes are suspected to influence the risk of lung cancer. This study aimed to investigate the association between the ATM -111G>A (rs189037) polymorphism, environmental risk factors and the risk of lung adenocarcinoma in Chinese female non-smokers.
Methods
A hospital-based case-control study of 487 lung cancer patients and 516 matched cancer-free controls was conducted. Information concerning demographic and environmental risk factors was obtained for each case and control by a trained interviewer. After informed consent was obtained, 10 ml venous blood was collected from each subject for biomarker testing. Single nucleotide polymorphism was determined by using TaqMan method.
Results
This study showed that the individuals with ATM rs189037 AA genotype were at an increased risk for lung adenocarcinoma compared with those carrying the GA or GG genotype (adjusted odds ratios (OR) 1.44, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02–2.02, P = 0.039). The stratified analysis suggested that increased risk associated with ATM rs189037 AA genotype in individuals who never or seldom were exposed to cooking oil fumes (adjusted OR 1.89, 95%CI 1.03–3.49, P = 0.040).
Conclusions
ATM rs189037 might be associated with the risk of lung adenocarcinoma in Chinese non-smoking females. Furthermore, ATM rs189037 AA genotype might be a risk factor of lung adenocarcinoma among female non-smokers without cooking oil fume exposure.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0096911
PMCID: PMC4018408  PMID: 24819391
3.  Hypoxia Promotes Migration and Induces CXCR4 Expression via HIF-1α Activation in Human Osteosarcoma 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(3):e90518.
Background
Cellular adaptation to a hypoxic microenvironment is essential for tumor progression and is largely mediated by HIF-1α through coordinated regulation of hypoxia-responsive genes. The chemokine SDF-1α and its unique receptor CXCR4 have been implicated in organ-specific metastases of many cancers. In this study, we investigated the response of osteosarcoma cells to hypoxia and the expression of CXCR4 and HIF-1α in human osteosarcoma specimens and explored the roles of CXCR4 and HIF-1α in the cell migration process.
Methodology/Principal Findings
We performed immunohistochemistry, immunocytochemistry, quantitative real-time PCR, Western blots and fluorescent reporter assays to evaluate the correlation between CXCR4 and HIF-1α expression in human osteosarcoma specimens or SOSP-9607 cells under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Transwell assays were used to assess cell migration under different conditions. Exposure of SOSP-9607 cells to hypoxic conditions resulted in significantly increased migration. When SOSP-9607 cells were subjected to hypoxic conditions, the mRNA and protein levels of CXCR4 were significantly increased in a time-dependent manner. Moreover, siHIF-1α significantly decreased the mRNA and protein levels of CXCR4 under hypoxia, whereas pcDNA-HIF-1α significantly increased the mRNA and protein levels of CXCR4 under normoxia. A luciferase reporter gene study showed that siHIF-1α reduced pGL3-CXCR4 luciferase activity. Furthermore, coexpression of HIF-1α and CXCR4 was significantly higher in patients with distant metastasis compared with those without metastasis.
Conclusions/Significance
The hypoxia-HIF-1α-CXCR4 pathway plays a crucial role during the migration of human osteosarcoma cells, and targeting this pathway might represent a novel therapeutic strategy for patients suffering from osteosarcoma.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0090518
PMCID: PMC3949690  PMID: 24618817
4.  Association of X-Ray Repair Cross-Complementing Group 1 Arg194Trp, Arg399Gln and Arg280His Polymorphisms with Head and Neck Cancer Susceptibility: A Meta-Analysis 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(1):e86798.
Background
Previous studies on the association of X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1) Arg194Trp, Arg399Gln, and Arg280His polymorphisms with head and neck cancer (HNC) have produced inconsistent results. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of these three polymorphic variants on HNC risk.
Methods
The PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched for genetic association studies on the XRCC1 Arg194Trp, Arg399Gln, and Arg280His polymorphisms and HNC risk. (The most recent search was conducted on 20 August, 2013.) Twenty-six studies were identified and meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the association between the polymorphism and HNC by calculating combined odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals.
Results
No significant association was found under the allelic, homozygous, heterozygote, and dominant genetic models in the overall comparison. Further, no significant association between the XRCC1 Arg399Gln and Arg280His polymorphisms and HNC risk was detected under the four genetic models in subgroup analyses based on ethnicity, cancer site, and whether or not the studies had been adjusted for cigarette smoking and alcohol. However, in stratified analyses based on cancer site, a significant association was found between the XRCC1 Arg194Trp polymorphism and oral cancer under the allelic, heterozygote, and dominant models. The XRCC1 Arg194Trp polymorphism was significantly associated with HNC risk in studies that were adjusted for smoking and alcohol under the homozygous and heterozygote models.
Conclusion
The meta-analysis results suggest that the XRCC1 Arg399Gln and Arg280His polymorphisms are probably not associated with the risk of HNC, but the XRCC1 Arg194Trp polymorphism was associated with increased risk of HNC in the subgroup analysis of studies adjusted for smoking and alcohol and with increased risk of oral cancer in the stratified analyses based on cancer site. Further studies with larger samples are needed to confirm these findings.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0086798
PMCID: PMC3907446  PMID: 24497981
5.  Genetic variant in TP63 on locus 3q28 is associated with risk of lung adenocarcinoma among never-smoking females in Asia 
Hosgood, H. Dean | Wang, Wen-Chang | Hong, Yun-Chul | Wang, Jiu-Cun | Chen, Kexin | Chang, I-Shou | Chen, Chien-Jen | Lu, Daru | Yin, Zhihua | Wu, Chen | Zheng, Wei | Qian, Biyun | Park, Jae Yong | Kim, Yeul Hong | Chatterjee, Nilanjan | Chen, Ying | Chang, Gee-Chen | Hsiao, Chin-Fu | Yeager, Meredith | Tsai, Ying-Huang | Wei, Hu | Kim, Young Tae | Wu, Wei | Zhao, Zhenhong | Chow, Wong-Ho | Zhu, Xiaoling | Lo, Yen-Li | Sung, Sook Whan | Chen, Kuan-Yu | Yuenger, Jeff | Kim, Joo Hyun | Huang, Liming | Chen, Ying-Hsiang | Gao, Yu-Tang | Kim, Jin Hee | Huang, Ming-Shyan | Jung, Tae Hoon | Caporaso, Neil | Zhao, Xueying | Huan, Zhang | Yu, Dianke | Kim, Chang Ho | Su, Wu-Chou | Shu, Xiao-Ou | Kim, In-San | Bassig, Bryan | Chen, Yuh-Min | Cha, Sung Ick | Tan, Wen | Chen, Hongyan | Yang, Tsung-Ying | Sung, Jae Sook | Wang, Chih-Liang | Li, Xuelian | Park, Kyong Hwa | Yu, Chong-Jen | Ryu, Jeong-Seon | Xiang, Yongbing | Hutchinson, Amy | Kim, Jun Suk | Cai, Qiuyin | Landi, Maria Teresa | Lee, Kyoung-Mu | Hung, Jen-Yu | Park, Ju-Yeon | Tucker, Margaret | Lin, Chien-Chung | Ren, Yangwu | Perng, Reury-Perng | Chen, Chih-Yi | Jin, Li | Chen, Kun-Chieh | Li, Yao-Jen | Chiu, Yu-Fang | Tsai, Fang-Yu | Yang, Pan-Chyr | Fraumeni, Joseph F. | Seow, Adeline | Lin, Dongxin | Zhou, Baosen | Chanock, Stephen | Hsiung, Chao Agnes | Rothman, Nathaniel | Lan, Qing
Human genetics  2012;131(7):10.1007/s00439-012-1144-8.
A recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) of subjects from Japan and South Korea reported a novel association between the TP63 locus on chromosome 3q28 and risk of lung adenocarcinoma (p = 7.3 × 10−12); however, this association did not achieve genome-wide significance (p < 10−7) among never-smoking males or females. To determine if this association with lung cancer risk is independent of tobacco use, we genotyped the TP63 SNPs reported by the previous GWAS (rs10937405 and rs4488809) in 3,467 never-smoking female lung cancer cases and 3,787 never-smoking female controls from 10 studies conducted in Taiwan, Mainland China, South Korea, and Singapore. Genetic variation in rs10937405 was associated with risk of lung adenocarcinoma [n = 2,529 cases; p = 7.1 × 10−8; allelic risk = 0.80, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.74–0.87]. There was also evidence of association with squamous cell carcinoma of the lung (n = 302 cases; p = 0.037; allelic risk = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.67–0.99). Our findings provide strong evidence that genetic variation in TP63 is associated with the risk of lung adenocarcinoma among Asian females in the absence of tobacco smoking.
doi:10.1007/s00439-012-1144-8
PMCID: PMC3875137  PMID: 22367405
6.  Abnormal fecal microbiota community and functions in patients with hepatitis B liver cirrhosis as revealed by a metagenomic approach 
BMC Gastroenterology  2013;13:175.
Background
Assessment and characterization of human colon microbiota is now a major research area in human diseases, including in patients with hepatitis B liver cirrhosis (HBLC).
Methods
We recruited 120 patients with HBLC and 120 healthy controls. The fecal microbial community and functions in the two groups were analyzed using high-throughput Solexa sequencing of the complete metagenomic DNA and bioinformatics methods.
Results
Community and metabolism-wide changes of the fecal microbiota in 20 HBLC patients and 20 healthy controls were observed and compared. A negative correlation was observed between the Child-Turcotte-Pugh scores and Bacteroidetes (P < 0.01), whereas a positive correlation was observed between the scores and Enterobacteriaceae and Veillonella (P < 0.01). Analysis of the additional 200 fecal microbiota samples demonstrated that these intestinal microbial markers might be useful for distinguishing liver cirrhosis microbiota samples from normal ones. The functional diversity was significantly reduced in the fecal microbiota of cirrhotic patients compared with in the controls. At the module or pathway levels, the fecal microbiota of the HBLC patients showed enrichment in the metabolism of glutathione, gluconeogenesis, branched-chain amino acid, nitrogen, and lipid (P < 0.05), whereas there was a decrease in the level of aromatic amino acid, bile acid and cell cycle related metabolism (P < 0.05).
Conclusions
Extensive differences in the microbiota community and metabolic potential were detected in the fecal microbiota of cirrhotic patients. The intestinal microbial community may act as an independent organ to regulate the body’s metabolic balance, which may affect the prognosis for HBLC patients.
doi:10.1186/1471-230X-13-175
PMCID: PMC3878425  PMID: 24369878
Metagenome; Cirrhosis; Microbiota; Metabolism
7.  The relationship between thyroiditis and polycystic ovary syndrome: a meta-analysis 
Background: The link between AIT and PCOS has been reported on several studies, but it’s true pathogenesis is far from being elucidated. In an attempt to provide evidence of the relationship between PCOS and AIT, relevant literature of AIT markers in women with PCOS was reviewed and analyzed. Methods: PubMed, Embase, Medline, Web of Knowledge and the Cochrane trial register were searched with English language restriction for only human beings. Data were collected and analyzed by Revman. Results: A total of 6 studies, involving 726 PCOS patients and 879 controls, were eligible for our meta-analysis. Conculsion: The prevalence of AIT, serum TSH, anti-TPO and anti-Tg positive rate in PCOS patients are all significantly higher than those in control groups, which suggests PCOS may be a kind of autoimmune disease and has close association with AIT. So, It will be helpful to assess thyroid function routinely in patients with PCOS and offer thyroid hormone replacement therapy if necessary.
PMCID: PMC3832324  PMID: 24260593
Polycystic ovary syndrome; thyroiditis; atuoimmune diseases; meta-analysis
8.  Investigating ligand-receptor interactions at bilayer surface using electronic absorption spectroscopy and Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer 
We investigate interactions between receptors and ligands at bilayer surface of polydiacetylene (PDA) liposomal nanoparticles using changes in electronic absorption spectroscopy and Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET). We study the effect of mode of linkage (covalent versus non-covalent) between the receptor and liposome bilayer. We also examine the effect of size dependent interactions between liposome and analyte through electronic absorption and FRET responses. Glucose (receptor) molecules were either covalently or non-covalently attached at the bilayer of nanoparticles, and they provided selectivity for molecular interactions between glucose and glycoprotein ligands of E. coli. The receptor-ligand interactions between glucose and ligand on E. Coli surface induced stress on conjugated PDA chain which resulted in changes (blue to red) in the absorption spectrum of PDA. The changes in electronic absorbance also led to changes in FRET efficiency between conjugated PDA chains (acceptor) and fluorophores (Sulphorhodamine-101) (donor) attached to the bilayer surface. Interestingly, we did not find significant differences in UV-Vis and FRET responses for covalently- and non-covalently-bound glucose to liposomes following their interactions with E. Coli. We attributed these results to close proximity of glucose receptor molecules to the liposome bilayer surface such that induced stress were similar in both the cases. We also found that PDA emission from direct excitation mechanism was ~ 2 - 10 times larger than that of FRET based response. These differences in emission signals were attributed to three major reasons: non-specific interactions between E. Coli and liposomes; size differences between analyte and liposomes; and a much higher PDA concentration with respect to sulpho-rhodamine (SR-101). We have proposed a model to explain our experimental observations. Our fundamental studies reported here will help in enhancing our knowledge regarding interactions involved between soft particles at molecular levels.
doi:10.1021/la300724z
PMCID: PMC3439585  PMID: 22734511
9.  Downregulation of miR-151-5p Contributes to Increased Susceptibility to Arrhythmogenesis during Myocardial Infarction with Estrogen Deprivation 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(9):e72985.
Estrogen deficiency is associated with increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases. But merely estrogen supplementary treatment can induce many severe complications such as breast cancer. The present study was designed to elucidate molecular mechanisms underlying increased susceptibility of arrhythmogenesis during myocardial infarction with estrogen deprivation, which provides us a new target to cure cardiac disease accompanied with estrogen deprivation. We successfully established a rat model of myocardial ischemia (MI) accompanied with estrogen deprivation by coronary artery ligation and ovariectomy (OVX). Vulnerability and mortality of ventricular arrhythmias increased in estrogen deficiency rats compared to non estrogen deficiency rats when suffered MI, which was associated with down-regulation of microRNA-151-5p (miR-151-5p). Luciferase Reporter Assay demonstrated that miR-151-5p can bind to the 3′-UTR of FXYD1 (coding gene of phospholemman, PLM) and inhibit its expression. We found that the expression of PLM was increased in (OVX+MI) group compared with MI group. More changes such as down-regulation of Kir2.1/IK1, calcium overload had emerged in (OVX+MI) group compared to MI group merely. Transfection of miR-151-5p into primary cultured myocytes decreased PLM levels and [Ca2+]i, however, increased Kir2.1 levels. These effects were abolished by the antisense oligonucleotides against miR-151-5p. Co-immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescent experiments confirmed the co-localization between Kir2.1 and PLM in rat ventricular tissue. We conclude that the increased ventricular arrhythmias vulnerability in response to acute myocardial ischemia in rat is critically dependent upon down-regulation of miR-151-5p. These findings support the proposal that miR-151-5p could be a potential therapeutic target for the prevention of ischemic arrhythmias in the subjects with estrogen deficiency.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0072985
PMCID: PMC3767733  PMID: 24039836
10.  The Joint Effect of hOGG1, APE1, and ADPRT Polymorphisms and Cooking Oil Fumes on the Risk of Lung Adenocarcinoma in Chinese Non-Smoking Females 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(8):e71157.
Background
The human 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 (hOGG1), apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1), and adenosine diphosphate ribosyl transferase (ADPRT) genes play an important role in the DNA base excision repair pathway. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in critical genes are suspected to be associated with the risk of lung cancer. This study aimed to identify the association between the polymorphisms of hOGG1 Ser326Cys, APE1 Asp148Glu, and ADPRT Val762Ala, and the risk of lung adenocarcinoma in the non-smoking female population, and investigated the interaction between genetic polymorphisms and environmental exposure in lung adenocarcinoma.
Methods
We performed a hospital-based case-control study, including 410 lung adenocarcinoma patients and 410 cancer-free hospital control subjects who were matched for age. Each case and control was interviewed to collect information by well-trained interviewers. A total of 10 ml of venous blood was collected for genotype testing. Three polymorphisms were analyzed by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique.
Results
We found that individuals who were homozygous for the variant hOGG1 326Cys/Cys showed a significantly increased risk of lung adenocarcinoma (OR = 1.54; 95% CI: 1.01–2.36; P = 0.045). When the combined effect of variant alleles was analyzed, we found an increased OR of 1.89 (95% CI: 1.24–2.88, P = 0.003) for lung adenocarcinoma individuals with more than one homozygous variant allele. In stratified analyses, we found that the OR for the gene-environment interaction between Ser/Cys and Cys/Cys genotypes of hOGG1 codon 326 and cooking oil fumes for the risk of lung adenocarcinoma was 1.37 (95% CI: 0.77–2.44; P = 0.279) and 2.79 (95% CI: 1.50–5.18; P = 0.001), respectively.
Conclusions
The hOGG1 Ser326Cys polymorphism might be associated with the risk of lung adenocarcinoma in Chinese non-smoking females. Furthermore, there is a significant gene-environment association between cooking oil fumes and hOGG1 326 Cys/Cys genotype in lung adenocarcinoma among female non-smokers.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0071157
PMCID: PMC3741325  PMID: 23951099
11.  Association of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T and A1298C polymorphisms with colorectal cancer risk: A meta-analysis 
Biomedical Reports  2013;1(5):781-791.
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common types of cancer worldwide and a leading cause of cancer-related mortality. This meta-analysis was conducted to determine the effect of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) mutants on the risk of CRC. A literature search was conducted on PubMed, Medline and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases. Eligible studies were collected based on rigorous criteria of inclusion. The pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by the fixed- or random-effects model. After all the studies were pooled, the OR of CRC for individuals carrying the MTHFR 677TT genotype, compared to the CC genotype, was 0.89 (95% CI: 0.82–0.97). When analyzed by ethnicity, Asians with the MTHFR 1298CC genotype exhibited a decreased risk of CRC (OR=0.69; 95% CI: 0.54–0.89). In a mixed population, a significantly reduced risk of CRC was observed among carriers of the 677TT (OR=0.86; 95% CI: 0.76–0.96) and the 1298CC (OR=0.82; 95% CI: 0.69–0.98) genotypes, compared to the wild-type homozygous genotype. In the subgroup of colon cancer, the OR of 677TT vs. CC+CT was 0.83 (95% CI: 0.72–0.96) and the OR of 1298CC vs. AA+AC was 0.81 (95% CI: 0.69–0.96). In the rectal cancer subgroup, the OR of 677TT vs. CC+CT was 0.86 (95% CI: 0.77–0.97). Therefore, this meta-analysis suggested that the MTHFR 677T and 1298C alleles were associated with a low risk of CRC.
doi:10.3892/br.2013.134
PMCID: PMC3917732  PMID: 24649029
methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase; polymorphism; colorectal cancer; meta-analysis
12.  Genetic Variations in TERT-CLPTM1L Genes and Risk of Lung Cancer in Chinese Women Nonsmokers 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(5):e64988.
Background
The TERT gene is the reverse transcriptase component of telomerase and is essential for the maintenance of telomere DNA length, chromosomal stability and cellular immortality. CLPTM1L gene encodes a protein linked to cisplatin resistance, and it is well conserved and express in various normal or malignant tissues, including lung.
Methods
To test this hypothesis, we genotyped for two significant SNPs TERT-rs2736098 and CLPTM1L-rs4016981 in a case-control study with 501 cancer cases and 576 cancer-free controls in Chinese nonsmoking population. Information concerning demographic and risk factors was obtained for each case and control by a trained interviewer. Gene polymorphisms were determined by TaqMan methodology.
Results
We found that the homozygous variant genetic model of TERT gene was associated with a significantly increased risk of lung cancer with adjusted OR of 1.72(95%CI = 1.19–2.51, P = 0.004 for heterogeneity). The joint effect of TERT and CLPTM1L increased risk for lung cancer with adjusted OR is 1.31(95%CI = 1.00–1.74, P = 0.052 for heterogeneity).
Conclusion
Genetic variants in TERT and CLPTM1L may affect the susceptibility of lung cancer, especially adenocarcinoma in Chinese women nonsmokers.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0064988
PMCID: PMC3667812  PMID: 23738012
13.  Overexpression of microRNA-1 Causes Atrioventricular Block in Rodents 
The present study was designed to investigate whether microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in atrioventricular block (AVB) in the setting of myocardial ischemia (MI). A cardiac-specific miR-1 transgenic (Tg) mouse model was successfully established for the first time in this study using microinjection. miR-1 level was measured by real-time qRT-PCR. Whole-cell patch clamp was employed to record L-type calcium current (ICa,L) and inward rectifier K+ current (IK1). Expression of connexin 43 (Cx43) protein was determined by western blot analysis. Alternations of [Ca2+]i was detected by laser scanning confocal microscopy in ventricular myocytes. The incidence of AVB was higher in miR-1 Tg mice than that in wild-type (WT) mice. The normalized peak current amplitude of ICa,L was lower in ventricular myocytes from miR-1 Tg mice as compared with WT mice. Similarly, the current density of IK1 was decreased in miR-1 Tg mice than that in WT mice. Compared with WT mice, miR-1 Tg mice exhibited a significant decrease of the systolic [Ca2+]i in ventricular myocytes but a prominent increase of the resting [Ca2+]i. Moreover, Cx43 protein was downregulated in miR-1 Tg mice compared to that in WT mice. Administration of LNA-modified antimiR-1 reversed all the above changes. miR-1 overexpression may contribute to the increased susceptibility of the heart to AVB, which provides us novel insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying ischemic cardiac arrhythmias.
doi:10.7150/ijbs.4630
PMCID: PMC3654494  PMID: 23678295
atrioventricular block (AVB); miR-1; L-type calcium current ICa,L; inward rectifier K+ current IK1; connexin 43.
14.  Sensitive and Rapid Detection of the New Delhi Metallo-Beta-Lactamase Gene by Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2012;50(5):1580-1585.
New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase 1 (NDM-1), which is associated with resistance to carbapenem, was first reported in 2008. A sensitive and rapid molecular assay to detect the plasmid blaNDM-1 in clinical isolates is needed to control its spread. We describe a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for the rapid detection of blaNDM-1 from pure culture and sputum, urine, and fecal samples. Eight sets of primers were designed to recognize six or eight distinct sequences on target blaNDM-1, and one set was selected as the most appropriate set of primers for its rapid detection. The specificity and sensitivity of the primers in the LAMP reactions for blaNDM-1 detection were determined. The sensitivity of the LAMP assay for blaNDM-1 detection in sputum, urine, and fecal samples was also tested. Two methods, namely, monitoring of turbidity and addition of calcein to the reaction tube, were used to determine negative and positive results. The results showed that target DNA was amplified and visualized by the two detection methods within 70 min at an isothermal temperature of 65°C. The sensitivity of LAMP, with a detection limit of 10.70 pg/μl DNA, was 100-fold greater than that of PCR. Thirteen infection bacterial strains without blaNDM-1 were selected for testing of specificity, and the results of the amplification were negative, which showed that the primers had good levels of specificity. The LAMP method reported here is demonstrated to be a potentially valuable means for the detection of blaNDM-1 and rapid clinical diagnosis, being fast, simple, and low in cost.
doi:10.1128/JCM.06647-11
PMCID: PMC3347096  PMID: 22357496
15.  Beta-adrenoceptor regulates miRNA expression in rat heart 
Summary
Background
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are noncoding RNAs of 18–25 nucleotides that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression and are involved in a wide range of physiological and pathological conditions. The β-adrenergic signaling pathway plays a fundamental role in regulation of heart function. The present study was designed to investigate the expression profile of miRNAs and functional implications under conditions of β-adrenoceptor activation or inhibition in rat heart.
Material/Methods
Hemodynamic parameters were measured to assess heart function in Wistar rats treated with isoproterenol (ISO) or propranolol (PRO). miRNA expression was analyzed by miRNA Microarray and confirmed by real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (real-time qRT-PCR).
Results
Isoproterenol (ISO, a β-adrenoceptor activator) and propranolol (PRO, a β-adrenoceptor inhibitor) induced differential miRNA expression profiles. Out of 349 miRNAs measured, 43 were upregulated and nine downregulated in the ISO group, while five miRNAs were upregulated and 28 downregulated in PRO group. Among these altered miRNAs in both PRO and ISO groups, 11 were cardiac abundant and 11 showed opposite profiles between the PRO and ISO groups. The recognized anti-hypertrophic miRNAs miR-1, miR-21 and miR-27b, and the pro-hypertrophic miRNAs miR-22, miR-24, miR-199a, miR-212 and miR-214, were upregulated in the ISO group. In the PRO group, pro-hypertrophic miRNA miR-30c was upregulated, whereas miR-212 was downregulated.
Conclusions
β-adrenoceptor intervention alters miRNA expression profile, and miRNAs may be involved in the β-adrenoceptor signaling pathway. Cardiomyocyte hypertrophy is a balanced process between pro-hypertrophic and anti-hypertrophic regulation and involves, at the very least, miRNA participation.
doi:10.12659/MSM.883263
PMCID: PMC3560703  PMID: 22847192
β-adrenoceptor; miRNAs; antagonistic effect; hypertrophy
16.  Meta-analysis of human lung cancer microRNA expression profiling studies comparing cancer tissues with normal tissues 
Background
Lung cancer is the major cause of cancer death globally, it is often diagnosed at an advanced stage and has one of the lowest survival rates of any type of cancer. The common interest in the field of lung cancer research is the identification of biomarkers for early diagnosis and accurate prognosis. There is increasing evidence to suggest that microRNAs play important and complex roles in lung cancer.
Methods
A meta-analysis was conducted to review the published microRNA expression profiling studies that compared the microRNAs expression profiles in lung cancer tissues with those in normal lung tissues. A vote-counting strategy that considers the total number of studies reporting its differential expression, the total number of tissue samples used in the studies and the average fold change was employed.
Results
A total of 184 differentially expressed microRNAs were reported in the fourteen microRNA expression profiling studies that compared lung cancer tissues with normal tissues, with 61 microRNAs were reported in at least two studies. In the panel of consistently reported up-regulated microRNAs, miR-210 was reported in nine studies and miR-21 was reported in seven studies. In the consistently reported down-regulated microRNAs, miR-126 was reported in ten studies and miR-30a was reported in eight studies. Four up-regulated microRNAs (miR-210, miR-21, miR-31 and miR-182) and two down-regulated mcroiRNAs (miR-126 and miR-145) were consistently reported both in squamous carcinoma and adenocarcinoma-based subgroup analysis, with the other 14 microRNAs solely reported in one or the other subset.
Conclusions
In conclusion, the top two most consistently reported up-regulated microRNAs were miR-210 and miR-21. The results of this meta-analysis of human lung cancer microRNA expression profiling studies might provide some clues of the potential biomarkers in lung cancer. Further mechanistic and external validation studies are needed for their clinical significance and role in the development of lung cancer.
doi:10.1186/1756-9966-31-54
PMCID: PMC3502083  PMID: 22672859
MicroRNAs; Profiling; Lung cancer; Meta-analysis
17.  Prevalence and risk factors for depression and anxiety among outpatient migraineurs in mainland China 
The Journal of Headache and Pain  2012;13(4):303-310.
This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and risk factors for anxiety and depression symptoms in outpatient migraineurs in mainland China. In addition, we evaluated whether the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) provided sufficient validity to screen depression and anxiety. A cross-sectional study was conducted consecutively at our headache clinic. Migraine was diagnosed according to International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd edition (ICHD-II). Demographic characteristics and clinical features were collected by headache questionnaire. Anxiety and depression symptoms about migraineurs were assessed using HADS. Several questionnaires were simultaneously used to evaluate patients with depressive disorder including the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-17 (HAMD), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAMA) and HADS. Pearson correlation analysis was applied to test the validity of HADS. 176 outpatients with migraine (81.8 % female) were included. Overall, 17.6 and 38.1 % participants had depression and anxiety, respectively. Possible risk factors for depression in migraineurs included headache intensity of first onset of migraine, migraine with presymptom, migraine with family history and migraine disability. The possible risk factors for anxiety included fixed attack time of headache in one day and poor sleeping, and age represented a protective factor for anxiety. The correlation coefficient of HADS-A and HADS-D with HAMA and HAMD was 0.666 and 0.508, respectively (P < 0.01). This study demonstrates that depression and anxiety comorbidity in our mainland Chinese migraineurs are also common, and several risk factors were identified that may provide predictive value. These findings can help clinicians to identify and treat anxiety and depression in order to improve migraine management.
doi:10.1007/s10194-012-0442-9
PMCID: PMC3356469  PMID: 22466285
Anxiety; Cross-sectional study; Depression; Migraine; Risk factor
18.  Association between polymorphisms in XRCC1 gene and clinical outcomes of patients with lung cancer: a meta-analysis 
BMC Cancer  2012;12:71.
Background
X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1) protein plays an important role in the repair of DNA damage and adducts. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of XRCC1 are suspected to have some relationship with response to chemotherapy and overall survival of lung cancer. This meta-analysis aimed to summarize published data on the association between the commonest SNPs of XRCC1 (Arg194Trp, C > T, rs1799782 and Arg399Gln, G > A, rs25487) and clinical outcome of lung cancer patients.
Methods
We retrieved the relevant articles from PubMed, EMBASE and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases. Studies were selected using specific inclusion and exclusion criteria. Primary outcomes included objective response (i.e., complete response + partial response vs. progressive disease + stable disease) and overall survival (OS). Odds ratio (OR) or hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated. All analyses were performed using the Stata software.
Results
Twenty-two articles were included in the present analysis. XRCC1 Arg194Trp and Arg399Gln polymorphisms were significantly associated with response to treatment in lung cancer patients. Patients with C/T genotype, T/T genotype and minor variant T allele at Arg194Trp were more likely to respond to platinum-based chemotherapy compared with those with C/C genotype (C/T vs. C/C: OR, 2.54; 95%CI, 1.95-3.31; T/T vs. C/C: OR, 2.06; 95%CI, 1.39-3.06; C/T+T/T vs. C/C: OR, 2.42; 95% CI, 1.88-3.10). For XRCC1 Arg399Gln, G/A genotype, A/A genotype and minor variant A allele were associated with objective response in all patients (G/A vs. G/G: OR, 0.67; 95%CI, 0.50-0.90; A/A vs. G/G: OR, 0.43; 95%CI, 0.25-0.73; A/A+G/A vs. G/G: OR, 0.63; 95%CI, 0.49-0.83). Both G/A and A/A genotypes of XRCC1 Arg399Gln could influence overall survival of lung cancer patients (G/A vs. G/G: HR, 1.23; 95%CI, 1.06-1.44; A/A vs. G/G: HR, 2.03; 95%CI, 1.20-3.45). Interaction analysis suggested that compared with the patients carrying C/T+T/T genotype at XRCC1 194 and G/G genotype at XRCC1 399, the patients carrying 194 C/C and 399 G/A+A/A or 194 C/C and 399 G/G genotype showed much worse objective response.
Conclusions
Genetic polymorphisms in XRCC1 gene might be associated with overall survival and response to platinum-based chemotherapy in lung cancer patients.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-12-71
PMCID: PMC3305620  PMID: 22339849
19.  Photo-Pens: A Simple and Versatile Tool for Maskless Photolithography 
We demonstrate conical pores etched in tracked glass chips for fabricating patterns at micron-scale. Highly fluorescent patterns based on photopolymerization of diacetylene films were formed by irradiating UV light through conical pores called “photo-pens”. The properties of photo-pens were investigated through experiments, Finite-difference-time-domain (FDTD) simulations and numerical calculations based on Fresnel equations. We show that the pattern dimensions are easily controlled by adjusting the exposure time. Thus, patterns with a range of dimensions can be fabricated without any need of changes in the pore diameter. Parallel patterning was also demonstrated by simultaneously exposing the films to photons through multiple pores in the chip. Our method provides an inexpensive, versatile, and efficient way for patterning without the use of sophisticated masks.
doi:10.1021/la1028433
PMCID: PMC2978279  PMID: 20886901
20.  Classification and clinical features of headache patients: an outpatient clinic study from China 
The Journal of Headache and Pain  2011;12(5):561-567.
This study aimed to analyze and classify the clinical features of headache in neurological outpatients. A cross-sectional study was conducted consecutively from March to May 2010 for headache among general neurological outpatients attending the First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University. Personal interviews were carried out and a questionnaire was used to collect medical records. Diagnosis of headache was according to the International classification of headache disorders, 2nd edition (ICHD-II). Headache patients accounted for 19.5% of the general neurology clinic outpatients. A total of 843 (50.1%) patients were defined as having primary headache, 454 (27%) secondary headache, and 386 (23%) headache not otherwise specified (headache NOS). For primary headache, 401 (23.8%) had migraine, 399 (23.7%) tension-type headache (TTH), 8 (0.5%) cluster headache and 35 (2.1%) other headache types. Overall, migraine patients suffered (1) more severe headache intensity, (2) longer than 6 years of headache history and (3) more common analgesic medications use than TTH ones (p < 0.001).TTH patients had more frequent episodes of headaches than migraine patients, and typically headache frequency exceeded 15 days/month (p < 0.001); 22.8% of primary headache patients were defined as chronic daily headache. Almost 20% of outpatient visits to the general neurology department were of headache patients, predominantly primary headache of migraine and TTH. In outpatient headaches, more attention should be given to headache intensity and duration of headache history for migraine patients, while more attention to headache frequency should be given for the TTH ones.
doi:10.1007/s10194-011-0360-2
PMCID: PMC3173628  PMID: 21744226
Outpatient; Headache; Cross-sectional study; Clinical feature; Migraine
21.  Classification and clinical features of headache patients: an outpatient clinic study from China 
The Journal of Headache and Pain  2011;12(5):561-567.
This study aimed to analyze and classify the clinical features of headache in neurological outpatients. A cross-sectional study was conducted consecutively from March to May 2010 for headache among general neurological outpatients attending the First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University. Personal interviews were carried out and a questionnaire was used to collect medical records. Diagnosis of headache was according to the International classification of headache disorders, 2nd edition (ICHD-II). Headache patients accounted for 19.5% of the general neurology clinic outpatients. A total of 843 (50.1%) patients were defined as having primary headache, 454 (27%) secondary headache, and 386 (23%) headache not otherwise specified (headache NOS). For primary headache, 401 (23.8%) had migraine, 399 (23.7%) tension-type headache (TTH), 8 (0.5%) cluster headache and 35 (2.1%) other headache types. Overall, migraine patients suffered (1) more severe headache intensity, (2) longer than 6 years of headache history and (3) more common analgesic medications use than TTH ones (p < 0.001).TTH patients had more frequent episodes of headaches than migraine patients, and typically headache frequency exceeded 15 days/month (p < 0.001); 22.8% of primary headache patients were defined as chronic daily headache. Almost 20% of outpatient visits to the general neurology department were of headache patients, predominantly primary headache of migraine and TTH. In outpatient headaches, more attention should be given to headache intensity and duration of headache history for migraine patients, while more attention to headache frequency should be given for the TTH ones.
doi:10.1007/s10194-011-0360-2
PMCID: PMC3173628  PMID: 21744226
Outpatient; Headache; Cross-sectional study; Clinical feature; Migraine
22.  Patterns of smoking and its association with psychosocial work conditions among blue-collar and service employees of hospitality venues in Shenyang, PR China 
BMC Public Health  2010;10:37.
Background
To characterize the smoking patterns of hospitality employees in blue-collar and service occupations, and to examine its relations with psychosocial work conditions.
Methods
The Shenyang Hospitality Industry Employees Survey-a face-to-face cross-sectional study of representative hospitality industry employees-was conducted between March and July 2008. A total of 4,213 workers were selected using stratified random cluster sampling designs, and final analyses were performed on 2,508 blue-collar and service subjects. Multilevel-logistic regression models were used to estimate the contribution of psychosocial work conditions to smoking status.
Results
Blue-collar and service employees smoked at a rate 1.4 times that of the general population (49.4% vs. 35.8%), more particularly for females (12.9% vs. 3.08%). Strain jobs had significantly higher odds ratio of daily smoking (OR 2.09, 95%CI: 1.28-3.41) compared to the relaxed category. The passive jobs (OR 2.01, 95%CI 1.27 to 3.17), highest job demands (OR 1.72, 95%CI: 1.13-2.61), and lowest job control (OR 2.56, 95%CI: 1.57-4.16) were also associated with a significantly higher daily smoking ratio. The negative relationship between job stability and smoking behavior was slightly stronger among daily than occasional smokers. However, neither job strain nor any of its components was found to be significantly associated with occasional smoking.
Conclusions
Smoking in hospitality blue-collar and service employees is certainly a major occupational health problem in Shenyang. This evidence also suggests an association between psychosocial-work conditions and smoking status, and implies that more intervention studies where changes in work environment are carried out in combination with health promotion interventions should be performed.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-10-37
PMCID: PMC2832774  PMID: 20102639
23.  Association between polymorphisms in DNA repair genes and survival of non-smoking female patients with lung adenocarcinoma 
BMC Cancer  2009;9:439.
Background
Excision repair cross-complementing group 1 (ERCC1) and group 2 (ERCC2), and X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1) proteins play important roles in the repair of DNA damage and adducts. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of DNA repair genes are suspected to influence treatment effect and survival of cancer patients. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between polymorphisms in ERCC2, ERCC1 and XRCC1 genes and survival of non-smoking female patients with lung adenocarcinoma.
Methods
We used polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method to evaluate SNPs in ERCC2, ERCC1 and XRCC1 genes among 257 patients.
Results
The overall median survival time (MST) was 13.07 months. Increasing numbers of either ERCC1 118 or XRCC1 399 variant alleles were associated with shorter survival of non-smoking female lung adenocarcinoma patients (Log-rank P < 0.001). The adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for individuals with CT or TT genotype at ERCC1 Asn118Asn were 1.48 and 2.67 compared with those with CC genotype. For polymorphism of XRCC1 399, the HRs were 1.28 and 2.68 for GA and AA genotype. When variant alleles across both polymorphisms were combined to analysis, the increasing number of variant alleles was associated with decreasing overall survival. Using the stepwise Cox regression analysis, we found that the polymorphisms in ERCC1 and XRCC1, tumor stage and chemotherapy or radiotherapy status independently predicted overall survival of non-smoking female patients with lung adenocarcinoma.
Conclusions
Genetic polymorphisms in ERCC1 and XRCC1 genes might be prognostic factors in non-smoking female patients with lung adenocarcinoma.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-9-439
PMCID: PMC2803496  PMID: 20003463
24.  ERCC2, ERCC1 polymorphisms and haplotypes, cooking oil fume and lung adenocarcinoma risk in Chinese non-smoking females 
Background
Excision repair cross-complementing group 1 (ERCC1) and group 2 (ERCC2) proteins play important roles in the repair of DNA damage and adducts. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of DNA repair genes are suspected to influence the risk of lung cancer. This study aimed to investigate the association between the ERCC2 751, 312 and ERCC1 118 polymorphisms and the risk of lung adenocarcinoma in Chinese non-smoking females.
Methods
A hospital-based case-control study of 285 patients and 285 matched controls was conducted. Information concerning demographic and risk factors was obtained for each case and control by a trained interviewer. After informed consent was obtained, each person donated 10 ml blood for biomarker testing. Three polymorphisms were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method.
Results
This study showed that the individuals with the combined ERCC2 751AC/CC genotypes were at an increased risk for lung adenocarcinoma compared with those carrying the AA genotype [adjusted odds ratios (OR) 1.64, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-2.52]. The stratified analysis suggested that increased risk associated with ERCC2 751 variant genotypes (AC/CC) was more pronounced in individuals without exposure to cooking oil fume (OR 1.98, 95%CI 1.18-3.32) and those without exposure to fuel smoke (OR 2.47, 95%CI 1.46-4.18). Haplotype analysis showed that the A-G-T and C-G-C haplotypes were associated with increased risk of lung adenocarcinoma among non-smoking females (ORs were 1.43 and 2.28, 95%CIs were 1.07-1.91 and 1.34-3.89, respectively).
Conclusion
ERCC2 751 polymorphism may be a genetic risk modifier for lung adenocarcinoma in non-smoking females in China.
doi:10.1186/1756-9966-28-153
PMCID: PMC2797795  PMID: 20003391
25.  Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer in Polydiacetylene Liposomes 
The journal of physical chemistry. B  2008;112(42):13263-13272.
Conjugated polydiacetylene (PDA) possessing stimuli-responsive properties has been intensively investigated for developing efficient sensors. We report here fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) in liposomes synthesized using different molar ratios of dansyl-tagged diacetylene and diacetylene–carboxylic acid monomers. Photopolymerization of diacetylene resulted in cross-linked PDA liposomes. We used steady-state electronic absorption, emission, and fluorescence anisotropy (FA) analysis to characterize the thermal-induced FRET between dansyl fluorophores (donor) and PDA (acceptor). We found that the monomer ratio of acceptor to donor (Rad) and length of linkers (functional part that connects dansyl fluorophores to the diacetylene group in the monomer) strongly affected FRET. For Rad = 10 000, the acceptor emission intensity was amplified by more than 18 times when the liposome solution was heated from 298 to 338 K. A decrease in Rad resulted in diminished acceptor emission amplification. This was primarily attributed to lower FRET efficiency between donors and acceptors and a higher background signal. We also found that the FRET amplification of PDA emissions after heating the solution was much higher when dansyl was linked to diacetylene through longer and flexible linkers than through shorter linkers. We attributed this to insertion of dansyl in the bilayer of the liposomes, which led to an increased dansyl quantum yield and a higher interaction of multiple acceptors with limited available donors. This was not the case for shorter and more rigid linkers where PDA amplification was much smaller. The present studies aim at enhancing our understanding of FRET between fluorophores and PDA-based conjugated liposomes. Furthermore, receptor tagged onto PDA liposomes can interact with ligands present on proteins, enzymes, and cells, which will produce emission sensing signal. Therefore, using the present approach, there exist opportunities for designing FRET-based highly sensitive and selective chemical and biochemical sensors.
doi:10.1021/jp804640p
PMCID: PMC2683164  PMID: 18816092

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