The present study aimed to explore the independent association and potential pathways between serum uric acid (SUA) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). 1365 community-living obese Chinese adults who received hepatic ultrasonography scanning were included. The prevalence rates of NAFLD were 71.5% for men and 53.8% for women. Compared with controls, NAFLD subjects showed significantly increased SUA levels (333.3 ± 84.9 v.s. 383.4 ± 93.7 μmol/L) and prevalence rate of hyperuricemia (HUA) (25.7% v.s. 47.3%, p < 0.001). After adjustment for insulin resistance (IR), components of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and other potential confounders, elevated SUA is independently associated with increased risk of NAFLD, with the adjusted OR of 1.528–2.031 (p < 0.001). By using multivariable fractional polynomial (MFP) modeling, the best FP transformation model shows that SUA was independently and linearly associated with risk of NAFLD. The one-pathway model by using structural equation modeling (SEM) about the relationships among SUA, IR, components of metabolic syndrome and NAFLD fits well (χ2 = 57.367, p < 0.001; CFI = 0.998; TLI = 0.992; and RMSEA = 0.048) and shows SUA might increase the risk of NAFLD directly besides of the indirect effects through increasing fasting insulin, blood pressure, triglyceride and decreasing HDL-C levels. Our results imply that elevated SUA may play an important role in NAFLD pathogenesis.
Recent study showed periostin play a pivotal role in abnormal liver triglyceride (TG) accumulation and in the development of obesity-related liver fat accumulation. However, little is known regarding whether periostin plays a key role in the heightened prevalence of NAFLD and other metabolic phenotypes among large-scale populations. A cross-sectional sample of 8850 subjects aged 40 yr or older from China were evaluated in this study. Serum periostin was measured by ELISA methods. The diagnosis of NAFLD by liver ultrasonic examination. Among overweight and obese subjects, NAFLD subjects had higher serum periostin levels than those without NAFLD (126.75 ng/ml vs. 75.96 ng/ml, p < 0.001). Periostin was associated with a higher risk for NAFLD (OR 1.75 for each SD increase in periostin, 95% CI 1.04–3.37, p < 0.001) among overweight and obese subjects after confounder adjustment. Furthermore, periostin levels among overweight and obese subjects were correlated with aspartate aminotransferase (r = 0.102, p = 0.004), alanine aminotransferase (r = 0.108, p = 0.003), waist circumference (r = 0.111, p = 0.002), homeostasis model assessment index-insulin resistance (r = 0.154, p < 0.001) and fasting plasma insulin (r = 0.098, p = 0.006), TG (r = 0.117, p = 0.001). Elevated circulating periostin level was associated with an increased risk of having NAFLD and insulin resistance among overweight and obese individuals.
In this study, an advanced ceramic conversion surface engineering technology has been applied for the first time to self-drilling Ti6Al4V external fixation pins to improve their performance in terms of biomechanical, bio-tribological and antibacterial properties. Systematic characterisation of the ceramic conversion treated Ti pins was carried out using Scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, Glow-discharge optical emission spectroscopy, nano- and micro-indentation and scratching; the biomechanical and bio-tribological properties of the surface engineered Ti pins were evaluated by insertion into high density bone simulation material; and the antibacterial behaviour was assessed with Staphylococcus aureus NCTC 6571. The experimental results have demonstrated that the surfaces of Ti6Al4V external fixation pins were successfully converted into a TiO2 rutile layer (~2 μm in thickness) supported by an oxygen hardened case (~15 μm in thickness) with very good bonding due to the in-situ conversion nature. The maximum insertion force and temperature were reduced from 192N and 31.2 °C when using the untreated pins to 182N and 26.1 °C when the ceramic conversion treated pins were tested. This is mainly due to the significantly increased hardness (more than three times) and the effectively enhanced wear resistance of the cutting edge of the self-drilling Ti pins following the ceramic conversion treatment. The antibacterial tests also revealed that there was a significantly reduced number of bacteria isolated from the ceramic conversion treated pins compared to the untreated pins of around 50 % after 20 h incubation, P < 0.01 (0.0024). The results reported are encouraging and could pave the way towards high-performance anti-bacterial titanium external fixation pins with reduced pin-track infection and pin loosing.
An increase in hepatic triglyceride (TG) contents usually results in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and related metabolic diseases. However, the mechanisms underlying perturbations of hepatic TG homeostasis remain largely unknown. Here, we showed that MicroRNA-124 was up-regulated in the livers of C57BL/6 mice fed a short-term high-fat-diet (HFD). Adenoviral overexpression of miR-124 in C57BL/6 mice led to accumulation of excessive triglycerides and up-regulation of lipogenic genes in the liver. We further identified tribbles homolog 3 (TRB3) as a direct target of miR-124. AKT signaling, which is negatively regulated by TRB3, was enhanced by miR-124 overexpression. Moreover, restoration of TRB3 expression markedly abolished the effect of miR-124 on hepatic TG metabolism. Therefore, our findings revealed that miR-124 played a role in mediating high-fat-diet induced TG accumulation in the liver.
Histone acetylation is known to affect the speed of seed germination, but the molecular regulatory basis of this remains ambiguous. Here we report that loss of function of two histone deacetylase-binding factors, SWI-INDEPENDENT3 (SIN3)-LIKE1 (SNL1) and SNL2, results in accelerated radicle protrusion and growth during seed germination. AUXIN RESISTANT 1 (AUX1) is identified as a key factor in this process, enhancing germination speed downstream of SNL1 and SNL2. AUX1 expression and histone H3 acetylation at lysines 9 and 18 is regulated by SNL1 and SNL2. The D-type cyclins encoding genes CYCD1;1 and CYCD4;1 display increased expression in AUX1 over-expression lines and the snl1snl2 double mutant. Accordingly, knockout of CYCD4;1 reduces seed germination speed of AUX1 over-expression lines and snl1snl2 suggesting the importance of cell cycling for radicle protrusion during seed germination. Together, our work identifies AUX1 as a link between histone acetylation mediated by SNL1 and SNL2, and radicle growth promoted by CYCD1;1 and CYCD4;1 during seed germination.
Histone acetylation influences the speed of seed germination. Here, Wang et al. show that loss of the SNL1/SNL2 histone deacetylase binding factors accelerates seed germination and provide evidence that they act by regulating the expression of AUX1 which in turn influences cell division.
Prediction and confirmation of the presence of disease-related miRNAs is beneficial to understand disease mechanisms at the miRNA level. However, the use of experimental verification to identify disease-related miRNAs is expensive and time-consuming. Effective computational approaches used to predict miRNA-disease associations are highly specific. In this study, we develop the Network Consistency Projection for miRNA-Disease Associations (NCPMDA) method to reveal the potential associations between miRNAs and diseases. NCPMDA is a non-parametric universal network-based method that can simultaneously predict miRNA-disease associations in all diseases but does not require negative samples. NCPMDA can also confirm the presence of miRNAs in isolated diseases (diseases without any known miRNA association). Leave-one-out cross validation and case studies have shown that the predictive performance of NCPMDA is superior over that of previous method.
Platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) is a parameter reflecting inflammatory responses in patients with cancer. Several studies have investigated the prognostic value of PLR in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC); however, the results are controversial. Thus, we carried out a meta-analysis to evaluate the association between PLR and CRC prognostication. Relevant articles were retrieved through PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science, and pooled hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were computed by using STATA V.12.0. Both the random-effects model and fixed-effects model were utilized. A total of 13 studies (14 cohorts) with 8,601 patients were included in the meta-analysis. Pooled HRs and 95% CIs demonstrated that increased PLR predicted poor overall survival (OS) (HR = 1.81, 95%CI:1.42–2.31, p<0.001; I2 = 65%, Ph = 0.002), disease-free survival (DFS) (HR = 1.84, 95%CI:1.22–2.76, p = 0.003; I2 = 78.3%, Ph<0.001) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) (HR = 1.84, 95%CI:1.41–2.41, p<0.001; I2 = 0, Ph = 0.686), although this was not the case for cancer-specific survival (CSS) (HR = 1.75, 95%CI:0.59–5.17, p = 0.309; I2 = 66.2%, Ph = 0.085) or time to recurrence (TTR) (HR = 1.21 95%CI:0.62–2.36, p = 0.573;I2 = 58.4%, Ph = 0.121). Subgroup analysis showed that PLR enhanced the prognostic value for OS in Caucasian patients, in small sample studies and for metastatic disease; however, this was not the case with rectal cancer. Furthermore, elevated PLR predicted reduced DFS in Caucasians and not in Asians. In conclusion, our meta-analysis showed that high PLR was a significant biomarker for poor OS, DFS, and RFS in patients with CRC; however, it had no association with CSS or TTR.
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region contains many genes that are key regulators of both innate and adaptive immunity including the polymorphic MHCI and MHCII genes. Consequently, the characterisation of the repertoire of MHC genes is critical to understanding the variation that determines the nature of immune responses. Our current knowledge of the bovine MHCI repertoire is limited with only the Holstein-Friesian breed having been studied in any depth. Traditional methods of MHCI genotyping are of low resolution and laborious and this has been a major impediment to a more comprehensive analysis of the MHCI repertoire of other cattle breeds. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have been used to enable high throughput and much higher resolution MHCI typing in a number of species. In this study we have developed a MiSeq platform approach and requisite bioinformatics pipeline to facilitate typing of bovine MHCI repertoires. The method was validated initially on a cohort of Holstein-Friesian animals and then demonstrated to enable characterisation of MHCI repertoires in African cattle breeds, for which there was limited or no available data. During the course of these studies we identified >140 novel classical MHCI genes and defined 62 novel MHCI haplotypes, dramatically expanding the known bovine MHCI repertoire.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00251-016-0945-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Cattle; MHCI; Next-generation sequencing
Evidence on the role of irisin in insulin resistance is limited and controversial, and pathways between them remain unknown. We aimed to examine the independent effects of circulating irisin and different adiposity measurements, as well as their potential interactions, on insulin resistance. We also aimed to explore possible pathways among circulating irisin, adiposity, glucose and insulin levels and insulin resistance.
A cross-sectional study of 1,115 community- living obese Chinese adults, with data collection on clinical characteristics, glucose and lipid metabolic parameters and circulating irisin levels.
Among the 1,115 subjects, 667 (59.8 %) were identified as insulin-resistance, and showed significantly decreased serum irisin than their controls (log-transformed irisin: 1.19 ± 2.34 v.s. 1.46 ± 2.05 ng/ml, p = 0.042). With adjustment for potential confounders, elevated circulating irisin was significantly associated with reduced risk of insulin resistance, with adjusted odds ratio per standard deviation increase of irisin of 0.871 (0.765–0.991, p = 0.036). As for different adiposity measurements, body fat percentage, but neither BMI nor waist, was significantly associated with increased risk of insulin resistance (OR: 1.152 (1.041–1.275), p = 0.006). No significant interaction effect between serum irisin and adiposity on insulin resistance was found. A one pathway model about the relationship between serum irisin and insulin resistance fits well (χ2 = 44.09, p < 0.001; CFI–0.994; TLI =0.986; and RMSEA = 0.067), and shows that elevated circulating irisin might improve insulin resistance indirectly through lowering fasting insulin levels (standardized path coefficient = −0.046, p = 0.032).
Elevated circulating irisin is associated with lower risk of insulin resistance indirectly through lowering fasting insulin.
Irisin; Insulin resistance; Adiposity; Structural equation modeling
One of the important functions in a communication network is the distribution of information. It is not a problem to accomplish this in a classical system since classical information can be copied at will. However, challenges arise in quantum system because extra quantum noise is often added when the information content of a quantum state is distributed to various users. Here, we experimentally demonstrate a quantum information tap by using a fiber optical parametric amplifier (FOPA) with correlated inputs, whose noise is reduced by the destructive quantum interference through quantum entanglement between the signal and the idler input fields. By measuring the noise figure of the FOPA and comparing with a regular FOPA, we observe an improvement of 0.7 ± 0.1 dB and 0.84 ± 0.09 dB from the signal and idler outputs, respectively. When the low noise FOPA functions as an information splitter, the device has a total information transfer coefficient of Ts+Ti = 1.5 ± 0.2, which is greater than the classical limit of 1. Moreover, this fiber based device works at the 1550 nm telecom band, so it is compatible with the current fiber-optical network for quantum information distribution.
Immunity against Theileria parva is associated with CD8 T‐cell responses that exhibit immunodominance, focusing the response against limited numbers of epitopes. As candidates for inclusion in vaccines, characterization of responses against immunodominant epitopes is a key component in novel vaccine development. We have previously demonstrated that the Tp249–59 and Tp1214–224 epitopes dominate CD8 T‐cell responses in BoLA‐A10 and BoLA‐18 MHC I homozygous animals, respectively. In this study, peptide–MHC I tetramers for these epitopes, and a subdominant BoLA‐A10‐restricted epitope (Tp298–106), were generated to facilitate accurate and rapid enumeration of epitope‐specific CD8 T cells. During validation of these tetramers a substantial proportion of Tp249–59‐reactive T cells failed to bind the tetramer, suggesting that this population was heterogeneous with respect to the recognized epitope. We demonstrate that Tp250–59 represents a distinct epitope and that tetramers produced with Tp50–59 and Tp49–59 show no cross‐reactivity. The Tp249–59 and Tp250–59 epitopes use different serine residues as the N‐terminal anchor for binding to the presenting MHC I molecule. Molecular dynamic modelling predicts that the two peptide–MHC I complexes adopt structurally different conformations and Tcell receptor β sequence analysis showed that Tp249–59 and Tp250–59 are recognized by non‐overlapping T‐cell receptor repertoires. Together these data demonstrate that although differing by only a single residue, Tp249–59 and Tp250–59 epitopes form distinct ligands for T‐cell receptor recognition. Tetramer analysis of T. parva‐specific CD8 T‐cell lines confirmed the immunodominance of Tp1214–224 in BoLA‐A18 animals and showed in BoLA‐A10 animals that the Tp249–59 epitope response was generally more dominant than the Tp250–59 response and confirmed that the Tp298–106 response was subdominant.
cattle; CD8 T cell; epitope; tetramer; Theileria parva
Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in women and the presence of metastasis significantly decreases survival. MicroRNAs are involved in tumor progression and the metastatic spreading of breast cancer. Here, we reported that a microRNA, mmu-miR-1894, significantly decreased the lung metastasis of 4TO7 mouse breast cancer cells by 86.7% in mouse models. Mmu-miR-1894-3p was the functional mature form of miR-1894 and significantly decreased the lung metastasis of 4TO7 cells by 90.8% in mouse models. A dual-luciferase reporter assay indicated that mmu-miR-1894-3p directly targeted the tripartite motif containing 46 (Trim46) 3′-untranslated region (UTR) and downregulated the expression of Trim46 in 4TO7 cells. Consistent with the effect of mmu-miR-1894-3p, knockdown of Trim46 inhibited the experimental lung metastasis of 4TO7 cells. Moreover, knockdown of human Trim46 also prohibited the cell proliferation, migration and wound healing of MBA-MD-231 human breast cancer cells. These results suggested that the effect of knockdown of Trim46 alone was sufficient to recapitulate the effect of mmu-miR-1894 on the metastasis of the breast cancer cells in mouse and that Trim46 was involved in the proliferation and migration of mouse and human breast cancer cells.
breast cancer; mmu-miR-1894-3p; tripartite motif containing 46; metastasis; migration
This study was designed to explore the association between elevated platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and prognosis of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) by meta-analysis. A total of 11 studies with 3,430 subjects were included and the combined hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated. The data showed that elevated PLR predicted poor overall survival (OS) (HR = 1.42; 95% CI: 1.25–1.61, p < 0.001; I2 = 63.6, Ph = 0.002) and poor disease-free survival (DFS)/progression-free survival (PFS) (HR = 1.19; 95% CI: 1.02–1.4, p = 0.027; I2 = 46.8, Ph = 0.111). Subgroup analysis showed elevated PLR did not predict poor OS in patients included in large sample studies (HR = 1.44; 95% CI: 0.94–2.21, p = 0.098) whereas petients with Caucasian ethnicity (HR = 1.59; 95% CI: 1.27–1.98, p < 0.001) and PLR cut-off value >180 (HR = 1.61; 95% CI: 1.3–1.99, p < 0.001) had enhanced prognostic efficiency for OS. Subgroup analysis also demonstrated that high PLR did not predict poor DFS/PFS in Asian patients. In conclusion, our meta-analysis suggested that elevated PLR was associated with poor OS and DFS/PFS in NSCLC. In addition, high PLR especially predicted poor OS in Caucasians but had no association with poor DFS/PFS in Asians.
This study sought to structure a genetic score for smoking behaviour in a Chinese population. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) were evaluated in a community-representative sample (N = 3,553) of Beijing, China. The candidate SNPs were tested in four genetic models (dominance model, recessive model, heterogeneous codominant model and additive model), and 7 SNPs were selected to structure a genetic score. A total of 3,553 participants (1,477 males and 2,076 females) completed the survey. Using the unweighted score, we found that participants with a high genetic score had a 34% higher risk of trying smoking and a 43% higher risk of SI at ≤18 years of age after adjusting for age, gender, education, occupation, ethnicity, body mass index (BMI) and sports activity time. The unweighted genetic scores were chosen to best extrapolate and understand these results. Importantly, genetic score was significantly associated with smoking behaviour (smoking status and SI at ≤18 years of age). These results have the potential to guide relevant health education for individuals with high genetic scores and promote the process of smoking control to improve the health of the population.
This study was aimed to investigate the prognostic value of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in patients with prostate cancer (PCa). A meta-analysis including 14 publications (15 cohorts) with 16,266 patients was performed to evaluate the association between NLR and overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS)/recurrence-free survival (RFS) in PCa using hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). The combining data showed that increased NLR predict poor OS (HR = 1.38, 95%CI: 1.22–1.56) and PFS/RFS (HR = 1.24, 95%CI 1.05–1.46) in PCa. Stratified analysis by PCa type, sample size, ethnicity and NLR cut-off value revealed that NLR showed consistent prognostic value in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) patients and predict poor PFS/RFS in Asians, but not in Caucasians. These statistical data suggested that increased NLR could predict poor prognosis in patients with PCa.
Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV) is becoming a threat to papaya and transgenic papaya resistant to the related pathogen, papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). The generation of infectious viral clones is an essential step for reverse-genetics studies of viral gene function and cross-protection. In this study, a sequence- and ligation-independent cloning system, the In-Fusion® Cloning Kit (Clontech, Mountain View, CA, USA), was used to construct intron-less or intron-containing full-length cDNA clones of the isolate PLDMV-DF, with the simultaneous scarless assembly of multiple viral and intron fragments into a plasmid vector in a single reaction. The intron-containing full-length cDNA clone of PLDMV-DF was stably propagated in Escherichia coli.
In vitro intron-containing transcripts were processed and spliced into biologically active intron-less transcripts following mechanical inoculation and then initiated systemic infections in Carica papaya L. seedlings, which developed similar symptoms to those caused by the wild-type virus. However, no infectivity was detected when the plants were inoculated with RNA transcripts from the intron-less construct because the instability of the viral cDNA clone in bacterial cells caused a non-sense or deletion mutation of the genomic sequence of PLDMV-DF. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the construction of an infectious full-length cDNA clone of PLDMV and the splicing of intron-containing transcripts following mechanical inoculation. In-Fusion cloning shortens the construction time from months to days. Therefore, it is a faster, more flexible, and more efficient method than the traditional multistep restriction enzyme-mediated subcloning procedure.
PLDMV; infectious cDNA clone; In-Fusion; intron; papaya
The complete genome sequence (10,326 nucleotides) of a papaya ringspot virus isolate infecting genetically modified papaya in Hainan Island of China was determined through reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. The virus shares 92% nucleotide sequence identity with the isolate that is unable to infect PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya.
The aim of this study was to investigate the toxic effects of aflatoxins and evaluate the effectiveness of Bacillus subtilis ANSB060 in detoxifying aflatoxicosis in broilers. A total of 360 one-week-old male broilers (Ross 308) were assigned to six dietary treatments for five weeks. The treatment diets were: C0 (basal diet); C1.0 (C0 + 1.0 g B. subtilis ANSB060/kg diet); M0 (basal diet formulated with moldy peanut meal); M0.5, M1.0 and M2.0 (M0 + 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g B. subtilis ANSB060/kg diet, respectively). The contents of aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2 in the diets formulated with moldy peanut meal were 70.7 ± 1.3, 11.0 ± 1.5, 6.5 ± 0.8 and 2.0 ± 0.3 µg/kg, respectively. The results showed that aflatoxins increased (p < 0.05) serum aspartate transaminase activity, decreased (p < 0.05) serum glutathione peroxidase activity, and enhanced (p < 0.05) malondialdehyde contents in both the serum and liver. Aflatoxins also caused gross and histological changes in liver tissues, such as bile duct epithelium hyperplasia, vacuolar degeneration and lymphocyte infiltration. The supplementation of ANSB060 reduced aflatoxin levels in the duodenum and counteracted the negative effects of aflatoxins, leading to the conclusion that ANSB060 has a protective effect against aflatoxicosis and this protection is dose-related.
aflatoxins; aflatoxin biodegradation preparation; Bacillus subtilis; broiler; liver; antioxidant
Background: Undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (UPS), previously known as malignant fibrous histiocytoma, comprises a series of high-grade soft tissue sarcomas, which fail to exhibit any specific line of differentiation by using currently available ancillary techniques. Studies on gene mutation screening occurring in UPS are rarely conducted. In this study, we described a case of UPS and analyzed its mutation changes. We detected 19 hotspot oncogenes in the case. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to use a high-throughput OncoCarta panel 1.0 and MassARRAY system to detect 238 known mutations in 19 hotspot oncogenes in UPS. In this study, our result revealed two missense mutations, namely, KRAS mutation (35G > A, G12D) and PIK3CA mutation (1636C > A, Q546K) in the case.
Undifferentiated soft tissue sarcoma; mutations; MassARRAY
Cholangiocarcinoma is one of the most aggressive types of malignancy, and is associated with poor patient prognosis. Recent findings suggest that a decrease in pleckstrin homology-like domain family A, member 1 (PHLDA1) expression is significant in the induction of cell migration and tumor invasion. The clinicopathological significance of the expression of PHLDA1, and its potential correlation with the expression of CD133 in cholangiocarcinoma have remained to be elucidated. In the present study, PHLDA1 protein expression was investigated by immunohistochemical analysis of 218 cholangiocarcinoma tissue samples, as well as 30 para-neoplastic and 20 normal bile ducts. The expression status of PHLDA1 and CD133 was determined, and these results were analyzed against the age, gender, tumor location and size, histological grade, clinical stage and overall mean survival time of the patients. The expression of PHLDA1 protein was markedly decreased in 35.3% of cholangiocarcinomas, compared with that of the para-neoplastic and normal cholangiocytes. Carcinomas with loss of expression of PHLDA1 were significantly correlated with the tumor site (P=0.001), histological grade (P=0.020) and clinical stage (P=0.0001), but not with age (P=0.085), gender (P=0.456) or size (P=0.413), respectively. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis indicated that the loss of expression of PHLDA1 was significantly correlated with the overall survival time (Log rank=193.861; P=0.0001). Furthermore, the expression of PHLDA1 was found to be inversely correlated with the expression of CD133 (γ=-0.142; P=0.036). These findings suggested that the decreased expression of PHLDA1 may be significant in the carcinogenesis and progression of cholangiocarcinoma, and may represent a novel adjunct marker of disease prognosis.
cholangiocarcinoma; pleckstrin homology-like domain family A; member 1; immunohistochemistry; prognosis; pathology
Background: The Leukemia related protein 16 gene (LRP16) localized on chromosome 11q12.1, is an important estrogen-responsive gene and a crucial regulator for NF-kB activation. LRP16 is frequently expressed in human cancers; however, the LRP16 gene remains unexplored in lung neuroendocrine tumors. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of LRP16 expression in primary lung neuroendocrine tumors. Methods: lung neuroendocrine tumors were analyzed for LRP16 gene expression by two-step non-biotin immunohistochemical method. Results: Fifty of ninety (55.6%) cases of neuroendocrine lung tumors tested were positive for LRP16 protein by immunohistochemistry. The expression of LRP16 was mainly located in cytoplasm and nucleus of tumor cells. LRP16 protein was corresponding to tumor type and clinical stage, as well as survival time. Conclusions: The results indicate that abnormal LRP16 expression is noted in neuroendocrine lung tumors and the expression can give insight into the pathogenesis of the disease. The LRP16 protein may serve as a potential marker in predicting prognosis of neuroendocrine lung tumors.
Neuroendocrine lung tumors; LRP16; immunohistochemistry; prognosis
TERT is of great importance in cancer initiation and progression. Many studies have demonstrated the TERT polymorphisms as risk factors for many cancer types, including lung cancer. However, the impacts of TERT variants on cancer progression and treatment efficacy have remained controversial. This study aimed to investigate the association of TERT polymorphisms with clinical outcome of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients receiving first-line platinum-based chemotherapy, including response rate, clinical benefit, progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and grade 3 or 4 toxicity. Seven polymorphisms of TERT were assessed, and a total of 1004 inoperable advanced NSCLC patients treated with platinum-based chemotherapy were enrolled. It is exhibited that the variant heterozygote of rs4975605 showed significant association with a low rate of clinical benefit, and displayed a much stronger effect in never-smoking female subset, leading to the clinical benefit rate decreased from 82.9% (C/C genotype) to 56.4% (C/A genotype; adjusted OR, 3.58; P=1.40×10-4). It is also observed that the polymorphism rs2736109 showed significant correlation with PFS (log-rank P=0.023). In age > 58 subgroup, patients carrying the heterozygous genotype had a longer median PFS than those carrying the wild-type genotypes (P=0.002). The results from the current study, for the first time to our knowledge, provide suggestive evidence of an effect of TERT polymorphisms on disease progression variability among Chinese patients with platinum-treated advanced NSCLC.
The study aims to explore the patterns and changes of active and passive smoking in the elderly population.
Two cross-sectional surveys with representative samples of urban populations, aged between 60 and 95 years old, were conducted in 2001 and 2010 in Beijing. A current smoker was defined as a person who smoked a tobacco product at the time of the survey, and a passive smoker was defined as a person who had been exposed to smoke exhaled by a smoker for more than 15 minutes per day more than once per week.
A total of 2,277 participants in 2001 and 2,102 participants in 2010 completed the survey. The current smoking prevalence changed slightly in males (24.7 vs. 21.2%, P = 0.081), while the prevalence in females decreased significantly from 8.8% (95% CI: 7.3–10.3%) in 2001 to 4.1% (95% CI: 3.0–5.2%) in 2010 (P<0.001). The prevalence of passive smoking was 30.5% (95% CI: 28.6–32.4%) in 2001 and 30.0% (95% CI: 28.1–32.0%) in 2010. The main source of secondhand smoke switched from a spouse in 2001 to offspring in 2010. This trend was observed in both sexes. Passive smoking in males from a smoking spouse decreased from 5.7% to 2.4% (P<0.001), while that from smoking offspring increased from 7.3 to 14.5% (P<0.001). Passive smoking in females from a spouse decreased from 30.6 to 17.6%, while that from offspring increased from 5.3 to 15.4% (P<0.001).
Offspring became the main source of secondhand smoke for the elderly. Our findings demonstrated the importance of implementing smoking prevention programs, to educate older adults who live with a smoking spouse and/or offspring.