Human enterovirus type 71 (EV71) and Coxsackievirus A group type 16 (CA16) belong to human Enterovirus species A of the family Picornaviridae. These viruses are recognized as the major pathogens responsible for epidemics of hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD), which presents with fever and vesicular eruptions of palms, soles of the feet or mouth. Human scavenger receptor class B, member 2 (SCARB2) has been identified as the receptor for both EV71 and CA16, as overexpression of SCARB2 in cells can enhance virus replication significantly.
In this study, we used a lentivirus packaging vector to transduce the SCARB2 gene into human embryonic kidney cells (293), human rhabdomyosarcoma cells (RD) and African green monkey kidney cells (Vero) to create stable expression lines. Expression of SCARB2 in the resulting three transgenic cell lines was confirmed by real-time RT-PCR, immunofluorescence and flow cytometry.
Levels of SCARB2 mRNA determined by real-time RT-PCR in 293-SCARB2 (293S) or RD-SCARB2 (RDS) transgenic cell lines were approximately 2 × 102 times higher than those in 293 and RD cells, respectively, and three times higher in Vero-SCARB2 (VeroS) than in Vero cells. Furthermore, EV71 and CA16 virus titers in 293S and RDS cells were 102–103-fold higher (detected in RD cell) than those in the parental cells, and a 10-fold higher titer of EV71 was achieved in VeroS cells compared with that in Vero cells.
We established for the first time three cell lines stably overexpressing SCARB2, which showed drastic increases in susceptibility to EV71/CA16 infection. These optimal cell lines may be utilized to develop inactivated vaccines for EV71/CA16 and facilitate rapid detection and isolation of HFMD pathogens or other Enterovirus serotypes. Furthermore, these stable cell lines also can serve as tools to facilitate drug screenings as well as molecular studies on virus-host interactions and pathogenesis of causative agents for HFMD.
SCARB2; EV71/CA16; 293 cells; RD cells; Vero cells
Epidemiological investigations have shown that fetuses with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) are susceptible to adult metabolic syndrome. Clinical investigations and experiments have demonstrated that caffeine is a definite inducer of IUGR, as children who ingest caffeine-containing food or drinks are highly susceptible to adult obesity and hypertension. Our goals for this study were to investigate the effect of prenatal caffeine ingestion on the functional development of the fetal hippocampus and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and to clarify an intrauterine HPA axis-associated neuroendocrine alteration induced by caffeine. Pregnant Wistar rats were intragastrically administered 20, 60, and 180 mg/kg·d caffeine from gestational days 11–20. The results show that prenatal caffeine ingestion significantly decreased the expression of fetal hypothalamus corticotrophin-releasing hormone. The fetal adrenal cortex changed into slight and the expression of fetal adrenal steroid acute regulatory protein (StAR) and cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), as well as the level of fetal adrenal endogenous corticosterone (CORT), were all significantly decreased after caffeine treatment. Moreover, caffeine ingestion significantly increased the levels of maternal and fetal blood CORT and decreased the expression of placental 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-2 (11β-HSD-2). Additionally, both in vivo and in vitro studies show that caffeine can downregulate the expression of fetal hippocampal 11β-HSD-2, promote the expression of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 and glucocorticoid receptor (GR), and enhance DNA methylation within the hippocampal 11β-HSD-2 promoter. These results suggest that prenatal caffeine ingestion inhibits the development of the fetal HPA axis, which may be associated with the fetal overexposure to maternal glucocorticoid and activated glucocorticoid metabolism in the fetal hippocampus. These results will be beneficial in elucidating the developmental toxicity of caffeine and in exploring the fetal origin of adult HPA axis dysfunction and metabolic syndrome susceptibility for offspring with IUGR induced by caffeine.
To examine the role of hepatitis B virus (HBV) integration in hepatocarcinogenesis, a systematic comparative study of both tumor and their corresponding non-tumor derived tissue has been conducted in a cohort of 60 HBV associated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. By using Alu-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and ligation-mediated PCR, 233 viral-host junctions mapped across all human chromosomes at random, no difference between tumor and non-tumor tissue was observed, with the exception of fragile sites (P = 0.0070). HBV insertions in close proximity to cancer related genes such as hTERT were found in this study, however overall they were rare events. No direct correlation between chromosome aberrations and the number of HBV integration events was found using a sensitive array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) assay. However, a positive correlation was observed between the status of several tumor suppressor genes (TP53, RB1, CDNK2A and TP73) and the number of chromosome aberrations (r = 0.6625, P = 0.0003). Examination of the viral genome revealed that 43% of inserts were in the preC/C region and 57% were in the HBV X gene. Strikingly, approximately 24% of the integrations examined had a breakpoint in a short 15 nt viral genome region (1820–1834 nt). As a consequence, all of the confirmed X gene insertions were C-terminal truncated, losing their growth-suppressive domain. However, the same pattern of X gene C-terminal truncation was found in both tumor and non-tumor derived samples. Furthermore, the integrated viral sequences in both groups had a similar low frequency of C1653T, T1753V and A1762T/G1764A mutations. The frequency and patterns of HBV insertions were similar between tumor and their adjacent non-tumor samples indicating that the majority of HBV DNA integration events are not associated with hepatocarcinogenesis.
We report here the complete genomic sequence of the Chinese duck flavivirus TA strain. This work is the first to document the complete genomic sequence of this previously unknown duck flavivirus strain. The sequence will help further relevant epidemiological studies and extend our general knowledge of flaviviruses.
Immunization of hypercholesterolemic mice with selected apoB-100 peptide antigens reduces atherosclerosis but the precise immune mediators of athero-protection remain unclear. In this study we show that immunization of apoE (-/-) mice with p210, a 20 amino acid apoB-100 related peptide, reduced aortic atherosclerosis compared with PBS or adjuvant/carrier controls. Immunization with p210 activated CD8+ T cells, reduced dendritic cells (DC) at the site of immunization and within the plaque with an associated reduction in plaque macrophage immunoreactivity. Adoptive transfer of CD8+ T cells from p210 immunized mice recapitulated the athero-protective effect of p210 immunization in naïve, non-immunized mice. CD8+ T cells from p210 immunized mice developed a preferentially higher cytolytic response against p210-loaded dendritic cells in vitro. Although p210 immunization profoundly modulated DCs and cellular immune responses, it did not alter the efficacy of subsequent T cell dependent or independent immune response to other irrelevant antigens. Our data define, for the first time, a role for CD8+ T cells in mediating the athero-protective effects of apoB-100 related peptide immunization in apoE (-/-) mice.
Brainstem A2/C2 catecholamine (CA) neurons in the solitary tract nucleus (NTS) are thought to play an important role in the control of food intake and other homeostatic functions. We have previously demonstrated that these neurons, which send extensive projections to brain regions involved in the regulation of appetite, are strongly and directly activated by solitary tract (ST) visceral afferents. Ghrelin, a potent orexigenic peptide released from the stomach, is proposed to act in part through modulating NTS CA neurons but the underlying cellular mechanisms are unknown. Here we identified CA neurons using transgenic mice that express enhanced green florescent protein driven by the tyrosine hydroxylase promoter (TH-EGFP). We then determined how ghrelin modulates TH-EGFP neurons using patch clamp techniques in a horizontal brain slice preparation. Ghrelin inhibited the frequency of spontaneous glutamate inputs (sEPSCs) onto TH-EGFP neurons, including cholecystokinin-sensitive neurons, an effect blocked by the GHSR1 antagonist, D-Lys-3-GHRP-6. This resulted in a decrease in the basal firing rate of NTS TH-EGFP neurons, an effect blocked by the glutamate antagonist NBQX. Ghrelin also dose-dependently inhibited the amplitude of ST afferent evoked EPSCs (ST-EPSCs) in TH-EGFP NTS neurons, decreasing the success rate for ST-evoked action potentials. In addition, ghrelin decreased the frequency of mini-EPSCs suggesting its actions are pre-synaptic to reduce glutamate release. Lastly, ghrelin’s inhibition of the ST-EPSCs was significantly increased by an 18 hour fast. These results demonstrate a potential mechanism by which ghrelin inhibits NTS TH neurons through a pathway whose responsiveness is increased during fasting.
NTS; ghrelin; catecholamine; fasted; visceral; CCK
Mouse DC-SIGN CD209a is a type II transmembrane protein, one of a family of C-type lectin genes syntenic and homologous to human DC-SIGN. Current anti-mouse DC-SIGN monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) are unable to react with DC-SIGN in acetone fixed cells, limiting the chance to visualize DC-SIGN in tissue sections. We first produced rabbit polyclonal PAb-DSCYT14 against a 14-aa peptide in the cytosolic domain of mouse DC-SIGN, and it specifically detected DC-SIGN and not the related lectins, SIGN-R1 and SIGN-R3 expressed in transfected CHO cells. MAbs were generated by immunizing rats and DC-SIGN knockout mice with the extracellular region of mouse DC-SIGN.. Five rat IgG2a or IgM MAbs, named BMD10, 11, 24, 25, and 30, were selected and each MAb specifically detected DC-SIGN by FACS and Western blots, although BMD25 was cross-reactive to SIGN-R1. Two mouse IgG2c MAbs MMD2 and MMD3 interestingly bound mouse DC-SIGN but at 10 fold higher levels than the rat MAbs. When the binding epitopes of the new BMD and two other commercial rat anti-DC-SIGN MAbs, 5H10 and LWC06, were examined by competition assays, the epitopes of BMD11, 24, and LWC06 were identical or closely overlapping while BMD10, 30, and 5H10 were shown to bind different epitopes. MMD2 and MMD3 epitopes were on a 3rd noncompeting region of mouse DC-SIGN. DC-SIGN expressed on the cell surface was sensitive to collagenase treatment, as monitored by polyclonal and MAb. These new reagents should be helpful to probe the biology of DC-SIGN in vivo.
Monoclonal Antibody; Polyclonal Antibody; DC-SIGN; CD209a; Dendritic Cells
NDRG2 (N-Myc downstream-regulated gene 2) was initially cloned in our laboratory. Previous results have shown that NDRG2 expressed differentially in normal and cancer tissues. Specifically, NDRG2 mRNA was down-regulated or undetectable in several human cancers, and over-expression of NDRG2 inhibited the proliferation of cancer cells. NDRG2 also exerts important functions in cell differentiation and tumor suppression. However, it remains unclear whether NDRG2 participates in carcinogenesis of the thyroid.
In this study, we investigated the expression profile of human NDRG2 in thyroid adenomas and carcinomas, by examining tissues from individuals with thyroid adenomas (n = 40) and carcinomas (n = 35), along with corresponding normal tissues. Immunohistochemistry, quantitative RT-PCR and western blot methods were utilized to determine both the protein and mRNA expression status of Ndrg2 and c-Myc.
The immunostaining analysis revealed a decrease of Ndrg2 expression in thyroid carcinomas. When comparing adenomas or carcinomas with adjacent normal tissue from the same individual, the mRNA expression level of NDRG2 was significantly decreased in thyroid carcinoma tissues, while there was little difference in adenoma tissues. This differential expression was confirmed at the protein level by western blotting. However, there were no significant correlations of NDRG2 expression with gender, age, different histotypes of thyroid cancers or distant metastases.
Our data indicates that NDRG2 may participate in thyroid carcinogenesis. This finding provides novel insight into the important role of NDRG2 in the development of thyroid carcinomas. Future studies are needed to address whether the down-regulation of NDRG2 is a cause or a consequence of the progression from a normal thyroid to a carcinoma.
The Raf/MEK/ERK (MAPK) signal transduction is an important mediator of a number of cellular fates including growth, proliferation and survival. The BRAF gene is activated by onogenic RAS, leading to cooperative effects in cells responding to growth factor signals. Our study was performed to elucidate a possible role of BRAF in the development of IPMN (Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasm) and IPMC (Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Carcinoma) of the pancreas. Mutations of BRAF and KRAS were evaluated in 36 IPMN/IPMC samples and two mucinous cystadenomas by direct genomic sequencing. Exons 1 for KRAS, and 5, 11, and 15 for BRAF were examined. Totally we identified 17 (47%) KRAS mutations in exon 1, codon 12 and one missense mutation (2.7%) within exon 15 of BRAF. The mutations appear to be somatic since the same alterations were not detected in the corresponding normal tissues. Our data provide evidence that oncogenic properties of BRAF contribute to the tumorigenesis of IPMN/IPMC, but at a lower frequency than KRAS.
Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm; pancreas; KRAS; BRAF
Recent studies have reported high frequencies of somatic mutations in the phosphoinositide-3-kinase, catalytic, alpha (PIK3CA) gene in various human solid tumors. More than 75% of those somatic mutations are clustered in the helical (exon 9) and kinase domains (exon 20). The three hot-spot mutations, E542K, E545K, and H1047R, have been proven to elevate the lipid kinase activity of PIK3CA and activate the Akt signaling pathway. The mutational status of PIK3CA in intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm/carcinoma (IPMN/IPMNC) has not been evaluated previously.
To evaluate a possible role for PIK3CA in the tumorigenesis of IPMN and IPMNC, exons 1, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 12, 18, and 20 were analyzed in 36 IPMN/IPMC and two mucinous cystadenoma specimens by direct genomic DNA sequencing.
We identified four missense mutations in the nine screened exons of PIK3CA from 36 IPMN/IPMC specimens (11%). One of the four mutations, H1047R, has been previously reported as a hot-spot mutation. The remaining three mutations, T324I, W551G, and S1015F, were novel and somatic.
This is the first report of PIK3CA mutation in pancreatic cancer. Our data provide evidence that oncogenic properties of PIK3CA contribute to the tumorigenesis of IPMN/IPMC.
IPMN/IPMC, intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm/carcinoma; PCR, polymerase chain reaction; PIK3CA, phosphoinositide-3-kinase, catalytic, alpha; PIP3, phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-triphosphate; LOH, loss of heterozygosity
Recent studies have reported high frequencies of somatic mutations in the phosphoinositide-3-kinase, catalytic, alpha (PIK3CA) gene in several human solid tumors. Although gene amplifications of PIK3CA have been reported in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), small mutation of the gene has not been evaluated in HNSCC previously. In this study, we examined the mutation frequency of PIK3CA in HNSCC.
More than 75% of the somatic mutations of PIK3CA are clustered in the helical (exon 9) and kinase domains (exon 20). To investigate the possible role of PIK3CA in HNSCC tumorigenesis, exons 1, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, and 20 of the gene were analyzed by direct genomic DNA sequencing in 38 HNSCC specimens.
We identified four missense mutations in the seven exons of PIK3CA from 38 HNSCC specimens (11%). Three of the four mutations, named H1047R, E542K and E545K respectively, have been previously reported as hot-spot mutations. The remaining novel mutation, Y343C, is identified at exon 4 nucleotide 1028 A → G. Three of the four mutations were shown to be somatic, while the forth mutation (H1047R) was identified in a cell line. Interestingly, three of the four mutations identified were in pharyngeal cancer samples.
These data provide evidence that oncogenic properties of PIK3CA contributes to the carcinogenesis of human head and neck cancers, especially in pharyngeal cancer. A specific kinase inhibitor to PIK3CA may potentially be an effective therapeutic reagent against HNSCC or pharyngeal cancer in particular.
HNSCC, Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma; PCR, polymerase chain reaction; PI3K, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase; PIP3, phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-triphosphate
The role of the TGF-β-Smad signaling pathway in the carcinogenesis of head and neck cancer has not been fully evaluated genetically. In this study, we screened for mutation in the five main members of the TGF-β-Smad signaling pathway, TGF-β type I receptor (TGFBRI), TGF-β type II receptor (TGFBRII), SMAD2, SMAD3 and SMAD4, in eight human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines. Two mutations with presumed loss of heterozygosity (LOH) were identified. A novel missense mutation of SMAD2, located in exon 8 at codon 276 TCG (ser) →TTG (leu), was identified in cell line SCC-15. This is the first report of a biallelic mutation of the SMAD2 gene in HNSCC. A nonsense mutation of the SMAD4 gene in exon 5 codon 245 CAG (glut) →TAG (stop) was found in cell line CAL27. Western blotting verified that this nonsense mutation gives rise to the complete loss of the Smad4 protein in the cells. While the down-regulation and loss of expressions of the TGF-β-Smad signaling pathway have been described frequently in HNSCC, here we offer further genetic evidence that the pathway is directly targeted for mutation during the HNSCC tumorigenesis.
SMAD2; SMAD4; HNSCC; genetic mutation; TGFβ receptors