IκB kinase α (IKKα) activity is required for ErbB2-induced mammary tumorigenesis. Here, we show that IKKα and its activator, NF-κB-inducing kinase (NIK), support the expansion of tumor-initiating cells (TICs) that copurify with a CD24medCD49fhi population from premalignant ErbB2-expressing mammary glands. Upon activation, IKKα enters the nucleus, phosphorylates the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor p27/Kip1, and stimulates its nuclear export or exclusion. Reduced p27 expression rescues mammary tumorigenesis in mice deficient in IKKα kinase activity and restores TIC self-renewal. IKKα is also likely to be involved in human breast cancer, where its expression shows an inverse correlation with metastasis-free survival, and its presence in the nucleus of invasive ductal carcinomas (IDCs) is associated with decreased nuclear p27 abundance.
To elucidate the effect of resistin on human articular chondrocytes, and generate a picture of their regulation at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels.
Human articular chondrocytes were cultured with resistin. Changes in gene expression were analyzed at various doses and times. Cells were also treated with the transcriptional inhibitor actinomycin D after resistin treatment, or the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) inhibitor IKK-NBD before resistin treatment. Gene expression was tested by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Computational analysis for transcription factor binding motifs was performed on the promoter regions of differentially expressed genes. TC28 chondrocytes were transfected with CCL3 and CCL4 promoter constructs, pNF-κB reporter, and NF-κB and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ) expression vectors with or without resistin.
Resistin-treated human articular chondrocytes increased the expression of cytokines and chemokines. The mRNAs for MMP-1, MMP-13 and ADAMTS-4 also increased while COL2A1 and aggrecan were down-regulated. Cytokine and chemokine genes could be categorized into three groups according to the pattern of mRNA expression in a 24 h time course. One pattern suggested rapid regulation by mRNA stability. The second and third patterns were consistent with transcriptional regulation. Computational analysis suggested the transcription factors NF-κB and C/EBPβ were involved in the resistin-induced up-regulation. This prediction was confirmed by the co-transfection of NF-κB and C/EBPβ, and IKK-NBD inhibition.
Resistin has diverse effects on gene expression in human chondrocytes affecting chemokines, cytokines and matrix genes. mRNA stabilization and transcriptional up-regulation are involved in resistin-induced gene expression in human chondrocytes.
Numerous human diseases can lead to atrophy of skeletal muscle, and loss of this tissue has been correlated with increased mortality and morbidity rates. Clinically addressing muscle atrophy remains an unmet medical need, and the development of preclinical tools to assist drug discovery and basic research in this effort is important for advancing this goal. In this report, we describe the development of a bioluminescent gene reporter rat, based on the zinc finger nuclease-targeted insertion of a bicistronic luciferase reporter into the 3′ untranslated region of a muscle specific E3 ubiquitin ligase gene, MuRF1 (Trim63). In longitudinal studies, we noninvasively assess atrophy-related expression of this reporter in three distinct models of muscle loss (sciatic denervation, hindlimb unloading and dexamethasone-treatment) and show that these animals are capable of generating refined detail on in vivo MuRF1 expression with high temporal and anatomical resolution.
Low-level endotoxemia has been identified as a powerful risk factor for atherosclerosis. However, little is known about the mechanisms that regulate endotoxin responsiveness in vascular cells. We conducted experiments to compare the relative responses of human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAEC) and smooth muscle cells (HCASMC) to very low levels of endotoxin, and to elucidate the mechanisms that regulate endotoxin responsiveness in vascular cells. Endotoxin (≤1 ng/ml) caused production of chemotactic cytokines in HCAEC. Endotoxin-induced cytokine production was maximal at LPS-binding protein:soluble CD14 ratios <1, typically observed in individuals with subclinical infection; higher LPS-binding protein:soluble CD14 ratios were inhibitory. Endotoxin potently activated HCASMC, with cytokine release >10-fold higher in magnitude at >10-fold lower threshold concentrations (10–30 pg/ml) compared with HCAEC. This remarkable sensitivity of HCASMC to very low endotoxin concentrations, comparable to that found in circulating monocytes, was not due to differential expression of TLR4, which was detected in HCAEC, HCASMC, and intact coronary arteries. Surprisingly, membrane-bound CD14 was detected in seven different lines of HCASMC, conferring responsiveness to endotoxin and to lipoteichoic acid, a product of Gram-positive bacteria, in these cells. These results suggest that the low levels of endotoxin associated with increased risk for atherosclerosis are sufficient to produce inflammatory responses in coronary artery cells. Because CD14 recognizes a diverse array of inflammatory mediators and functions as a pattern recognition molecule in inflammatory cells, expression of membrane-bound CD14 in HCASMC implies a potentially broader role for these cells in transducing innate immune responses in the vasculature.
China has made remarkable progress in schistosomiasis control over the past decades. Transmission control has replaced morbidity control as the country moves towards the goal of elimination and the current challenge is to find a sensitive measure capable of gauging transmission risk in low-prevalence areas. The study aims to develop a Schistosomiasis Early Warning Index (SEWI) and demonstrate its use in Jiangsu Province along the lower Yangtze River.
The Delphi approach, a structured communication technique, was used to develop the SEWI. Two rounds of interviews with 30 public health experts specialized in schistosomiasis control were conducted using 40 indicators that reflected different aspects of schistosomiasis transmission and control. The necessity, feasibility, and sensitivity of each indicator were assessed and the weight value of each indicator determined based on these experts' judgment. The system included 3 first-order indicators, 7 second-order indicators, and 30 third-order indicators. The 3 first-order indicators were endemic status, control measures, social and environmental factors, with the weight values 0.366, 0.343 and 0.291, respectively. For the 7 second-order indicators, the highest weight value was for control measures for snails (0.175) and the lowest for transmission route (0.110). We estimated and mapped the SEWI for endemic areas at the county scale in Jiangsu Province finding that the majority of the endemic areas were characterized as medium transmission risk (SEWI risk values between 0.3 and 0.6), while areas where transmission interruption had been officially declared showed SEWI values <0.30. A few isolated areas (e.g. endemic islands in the Yangtze River) produced SEWI values >0.60. These estimates are largely in agreement with the endemicity levels based on recent epidemiological surveys.
The SEWI should be useful for estimation of schistosomiasis transmission surveillance, particularly with reference to the elimination of the disease in China.
Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) in humans are associated with locally increased oxidative stress and activity of NADPH oxidase. We investigated the hypothesis that vitamin E, an antioxidant with documented efficacy in mice, can attenuate AAA formation during angiotensin II (Ang II) infusion in apolipoprotein E–deficient mice.
Methods and Results
Six-month-old male apolipoprotein E–deficient mice were infused with Ang II at 1000 ng/kg per minute for 4 weeks via osmotic minipumps while consuming either a regular diet or a diet enriched with vitamin E (2 IU/g of diet). After 4 weeks, abdominal aortic weight and maximal diameter were determined, and aortic tissues were sectioned and examined using biochemical and histological techniques. Vitamin E attenuated formation of AAA, decreasing maximal aortic diameter by 24% and abdominal aortic weight by 34% (P<0.05, respectively). Importantly, animals treated with vitamin E showed a 44% reduction in the combined end point of fatal+nonfatal aortic rupture (P<0.05). Vitamin E also decreased aortic 8-isoprostane content (a marker of oxidative stress) and reduced both aortic macrophage infiltration and osteopontin expression (P<0.05, respectively). Vitamin E treatment had no significant effect on the extent of aortic root atherosclerosis, activation of matrix metalloproteinases 2 or 9, serum lipid profile, or systolic blood pressure.
Vitamin E ameliorates AAAs and reduces the combined end point of fatal+nonfatal aortic rupture in this animal model. These findings are consistent with the concept that oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in Ang II–driven AAA formation in hyperlipidemic mice.
aneurysm; vitamin E; oxidative stress; vascular inflammation; NADPH oxidase; osteopontin
Non-phagocytic NAD(P)H oxidases have been implicated as major sources of reactive oxygen species in blood vessels. These oxidases can be activated by cytokines, thereby generating O2⋅‒, which is subsequently converted to H2O2 and other oxidant species. The oxidants, in turn, act as important second messengers in cell signaling cascades. We hypothesized that reactive oxygen species, themselves, can activate the non-phagocytic NAD(P)H oxidases in vascular cells to induce oxidant production and, consequently, cellular injury. The current report demonstrates that exogenous exposure of non-phagocytic cell types of vascular origin (smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts) to H2O2 activates these cell types to produce O2⋅‒ via an NAD(P)H oxidase. The ensuing endogenous production of O2⋅‒ contributes significantly to vascular cell injury following exposure to H2O2. These results suggest the existence of a feed-forward mechanism, whereby reactive oxygen species such as H2O2 can activate NAD(P)H oxidases in non-phagocytic cells to produce additional oxidant species, thereby amplifying the vascular injury process. Moreover, these findings implicate the non-phagocytic NAD(P)H oxidase as a novel therapeutic target for the amelioration of the biological effects of chronic oxidant stress.
Post-translational modifications (PTMs) of proteins play essential roles in almost all cellular processes, and are closely related to physiological activity and disease development of living organisms. The development of tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) has resulted in a rapid increase of PTMs identified on proteins from different species. The collection and systematic ordering of PTM data should provide invaluable information for understanding cellular processes and signaling pathways regulated by PTMs. For this original purpose we developed SysPTM, a systematic resource installed with comprehensive PTM data and a suite of web tools for annotation of PTMs in 2009. Four years later, there has been a significant advance with the generation of PTM data and, consequently, more sophisticated analysis requirements have to be met. Here we submit an updated version of SysPTM 2.0 (http://lifecenter.sgst.cn/SysPTM/), with almost doubled data content, enhanced web-based analysis tools of PTMBlast, PTMPathway, PTMPhylog, PTMCluster. Moreover, a new session SysPTM-H is constructed to graphically represent the combinatorial histone PTMs and dynamic regulation of histone modifying enzymes, and a new tool PTMGO is added for functional annotation and enrichment analysis. SysPTM 2.0 not only facilitates resourceful annotation of PTM sites but allows systematic investigation of PTM functions by the user.
Citation details: Li,J., Jia,J., Li,H. et al. SysPTM 2.0: an updated systematic resource for post-translational modification. Database (2014) Vol. 2014: article ID bau025; doi:10.1093/database/bau025.
The role of reactive oxygen species, such as superoxide anions (O2·−) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), in modulating vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and viability is controversial. To investigate the role of endogenously produced H2O2, rat aortic smooth muscle cells were infected with adenoviral vectors containing cDNA for human catalase (AdCat) or a control gene, β-galactosidase (AdLacZ). Infection with AdCat resulted in dose-dependent increases in intracellular catalase protein, which was predominantly localized to peroxisomes. After infection with 100 multiplicity of infection (MOI) of AdCat, cellular catalase activity was increased by 50- to 100-fold, and intracellular H2O2 concentration was reduced, as compared with control. Infection with AdCat reduced [3H]thymidine uptake, an index of DNA synthesis, in cells maintained in medium supplemented with 2% serum (0.37±0.09 disintegrations per minute per cell [AdLacZ] versus 0.22±0.08 disintegrations per minute per cell [AdCat], P<0.05). Five days after infection with 100 MOI of AdCat, cell numbers were reduced as compared with noninfected or AdLacZ-infected cells (157 780±8413 [AdCat], P<0.05 versus 233 700±3032 [noninfected] or 222 410±5332 [AdLacZ]). Furthermore, the number of apoptotic cells was increased 5-fold after infection with 100 MOI of AdCat as compared with control. Infection with AdCat resulted in induction of cyclooxygenase (COX)–2, and treatment with a COX-2 inhibitor overcame the AdCat-induced reduction in cell numbers. These findings indicate that overexpression of catalase inhibited smooth muscle proliferation while increasing the rate of apoptosis, possibly through a COX-2–dependent mechanism. Our results suggest that endogenously produced H2O2 importantly modulates survival and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells.
catalase; apoptosis; vascular smooth muscle cell; cell proliferation; hydrogen peroxide
Vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) are phenotypically diverse. Although most medial SMCs can be classified as “fusiform,” others are of the “epithelioid” phenotype. Proliferation and apoptosis of epithelioid SMCs may contribute importantly to neointimal formation and regression, respectively. Because reactive oxygen species (ROS) are increased in vascular injury and can induce apoptosis of SMCs, we compared the effects of ROS on epithelioid and fusiform SMCs. Epithelioid and fusiform SMC lines were clonally isolated from rat aortic media and studied under similar conditions and passage numbers. H2O2 produced dose- and time-dependent cytotoxicity that was enhanced in epithelioid compared with fusiform cells. After 24-hour exposure to 50 μmol/L H2O2, epithelioid cell numbers were reduced by 34±5% versus a 3±5% (P<0.05) reduction in fusiform cell numbers. Similar results were obtained whether H2O2 was administered to growth-arrested or growing cells or when epithelioid and fusiform cells were exposed to extracellular O2·−. To investigate whether apoptosis contributed to enhanced ROS-induced cytotoxicity in epithelioid SMCs, terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase (TDT)-mediated dUTP-digoxigenin nick-end labeling (TUNEL) staining was performed. The incidence of TUNEL positivity was 5-fold increased in epithelioid versus fusiform SMCs after treatment with 50 μmol/L H2O2 (19±1% epithelioid versus 5±1% fusiform, P<0.05). Enhanced H2O2-induced apoptosis in epithelioid SMCs was confirmed by DNA laddering. Furthermore, when balloon-injured aortas were exposed to H2O2 ex vivo, enhanced apoptosis was observed in neointimal compared with medial SMCs. These results suggest that epithelioid SMCs exhibit enhanced sensitivity to ROS-induced apoptosis, which may play an important role in neointimal regression.
smooth muscle cells; apoptosis; reactive oxygen species; hydrogen peroxide; neointima
In this randomized open-label trial, tribendimidine was shown to have an efficacy comparable to praziquantel for the treatment of Clonorchis sinensis infection. Patients treated with praziquantel experienced significantly more adverse events than tribendimidine recipients.
Background. Clonorchiasis is of considerable public health importance, particularly in the People's Republic of China (PR China), where most of the 15 million individuals infected with Clonorchis sinensis are currently concentrated. Praziquantel is the drug of choice, but tribendimidine might be an alternative.
Methods. We performed a randomized open-label trial in Guangxi, PR China, to assess the efficacy and safety of 400 mg tribendimidine once, 400 mg tribendimidine daily for 3 days, and 75 mg/kg praziquantel in 1 day divided in 3 doses against parasitological-confirmed C. sinensis infections. Cure and egg reduction rates were determined 3 weeks posttreatment using available case analysis. Clinical symptoms were documented at baseline, and adverse events were recorded and graded 3 and 24 hours after each dose.
Results. A total of 74 patients were included in the final analysis. Single-dose tribendimidine achieved a cure rate of 44%, whereas cure rates of 58% and 56% were obtained for tribendimidine administered for 3 days and praziquantel, respectively. High egg reduction rates (97.6%–98.8%) were observed for all treatment regimens. Single-dose tribendimidine was the best-tolerated treatment scheme. Patients treated with praziquantel experienced significantly more adverse events than did tribendimidine recipients (P < .05).
Conclusions. Tribendimidine has an efficacy comparable to praziquantel in the treatment of C. sinensis infection and resulted in fewer adverse events compared to praziquantel. Larger clinical trials are warranted among C. sinensis–infected patients to determine the potential of tribendimidine against clonorchiasis and other helminthiases.
Clinical Trials Registration. Controlled-Trials.com, ISRCTN80829842.
tribendimidine; praziquantel; Clonorchis sinensis; clonorchiasis; People's Republic of China
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are multipotent progenitor cells capable of differentiating into adipocytes, osteoblasts, and chondroblasts as well as secreting a vast array of soluble mediators. This potentially makes MSCs important mediators of a variety of therapeutic applications. They are actively under evaluation for immunomodulatory purposes such as graft-versus host disease (GvHD) and Crohn’s disease, as well as regenerative applications such as stroke and congestive heart failure. Here we report our method of generating clinical-grade MSCs together with suggestions gathered from manufacturing experience in our Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) facility.
Clinical Trials; Good manufacturing practices (GMP); Mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC); Phase I
Air pollution in China comes from multiple sources, including coal consumption, construction and industrial dust, and vehicle exhaust. Coal consumption in particular directly determines the emissions of three major air pollutants: dust, sulfur dioxide (SO2), and nitrogen oxide (NOx). The rapidly increasing number of civilian vehicles is expected to bring NOx emission to a very high level. Contrary to expectations, however, existing data show that the concentrations of major pollutants [particulate matter-10 (PM10), SO2, and nitrogen dioxide (NO2)] in several large Chinese cities have declined during the past decades, though they still exceed the national standards of ambient air quality. Archived data from China does not fully support that the concentrations of pollutants directly depend on local emissions, but this is likely due to inaccurate measurement of pollutants. Analyses on the cancer registry data show that cancer burden related to air pollution is on the rise in China and will likely increase further, but there is a lack of data to accurately predict the cancer burden. Past experience from other countries has sounded alarm of the link between air pollution and cancer. The quantitative association requires dedicated research as well as establishment of needed monitoring infrastructures and cancer registries. The air pollution-cancer link is a serious public health issue that needs urgent investigation.
Lung cancer; air pollution; particulate matter; sulfur dioxide; nitrogen oxide
Schistosome eggs are trapped in host liver and elicit severe hepatic granulomatous inflammation, which can lead to periportal fibrosis, portal hypertension, hemorrhage, or even death in the host. It was reported that the macrophage plays an important role in host immune responses to schistosome infection. Nitric oxide (NO) produced by classically activated macrophages (M1 macrophages) is cytotoxic to schistosomula and can prevent hepatic schistosomal fibrosis, while arginase-1 (Arg-1) expressed by alternatively activated macrophages (M2 macrophages) promotes hepatic schistosomal fibrosis. However, the dynamics of macrophage polarization, as well as the possible factors that regulate macrophage polarization, during schistosome infection remain unclear.
We first analyzed M1 and M2-phenotypic markers of peritoneal macrophages from mice infected with Schistosoma japonicum (S. japonicum) at indicated time points using flow cytometry (FCM) analysis and real-time PCR. Then we treated peritoneal macrophages from normal mice with schistosome worm antigen (SWA) or schistosome soluble egg antigen (SEA) and determined M1 and M2-phenotypic markers, in order to identify macrophage polarization in responding to schistosomal antigens.
In this study, we showed that macrophages were preferentially differentiated into the M1 subtype during the acute stage of S. japonicum infection. However, the level of M1 macrophages decreased and M2 macrophages significantly increased during the chronic stage of infection. Furthermore, we showed that SWA favors the generation of M1 macrophages, whereas SEA preferentially promotes M2-polarized phenotype.
These findings not only reveal the parasite antigen-driven dynamic changes in macrophage polarization, but also suggest that manipulation of macrophage polarization may be of therapeutic benefit in controlling excessive hepatic granulomas and fibrosis in the host with schistosomiasis.
Schistosoma japonicum; Liver fibrosis; Macrophage polarization; Schistosomal antigen
Upon activation, a subset of mature human CD8+ T cells re-expresses CD4 dimly. This CD4dimCD8bright T cell population is genuine and enriched in antiviral CD8+ T cell responses. The signaling pathway that leads to CD4 re-expression on mature CD8+ T cells is not clear. Given that Wnt/β-catenin signaling plays a critical role in the transition of CD4−CD8− to CD4+CD8+ thymocytes, we determined whether β-catenin mediates CD4 expression on mature CD8+ T cells. We demonstrate that active β-catenin expression is 20-fold higher on CD4dimCD8bright than CD4−CD8+ T cells. Activation of β-catenin signaling, through LiCl or transfection with a constitutively active construct of β-catenin, induced CD4 on CD8+ T cells by ~10-fold. Conversely, inhibition of β-catenin signaling through transfection with a dominant-negative construct for T cell factor-4, a downstream effector of β-catenin signaling, diminished CD4 expression on CD8+ T cells by 50% in response to T cell activation. β-catenin–mediated induction of CD4 on CD8+ T cells is transcriptionally regulated, as it induced CD4 mRNA, and T cell factor/lymphoid enhancer factor sites were identified within the human CD4 promoter. Further, β-catenin expression induced the antiapoptotic factor BcL-xL, suggesting that β-catenin may mediate protection against activation-induced cell death. Collectively, these data demonstrate that β-catenin is critical in inducing CD4 expression on mature CD8+ T cells, suggesting that it is a common pathway for CD4 upregulation among thymocytes and mature CD8+ T cells.
The best strategy for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients with multivessel disease (MVD), who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the acute phase, is not well established.
Our goal was to conduct a meta-analysis comparing culprit vessel only percutaneous coronary intervention (culprit PCI) with multivessel percutaneous coronary intervention (MV-PCI) for treatment of patients with STEMI and MVD.
Pubmed, Elsevier, Embase, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases were systematically searched for randomized and nonrandomized studies comparing culprit PCI and MV-PCI strategies during the index procedure. A meta-analysis was performed using Review Manager 5.1 (Cochrane Center, Denmark).
Four randomized and fourteen nonrandomized studies involving 39,390 patients were included. MV-PCI strategy is associated with an increased short-term mortality (OR: 0.50, 95% CI: 0.32 to 0.77, p = 0.002), long-term mortality (OR: 0.52, 95% CI: 0.36 to 0.74, p<0.001), and risk of renal dysfunction (OR: 0.77, 95% CI: 0.61 to 0.97, p = 0.03) compared with culprit PCI strategy, while it reduced the incidence of revascularization (OR: 2.65, 95% CI: 1.80 to 3.90, p<0.001).
This meta-analysis supports current guidelines which indicate that the non-culprit vessel should not be treated during the index procedure.
Disruption of the regulatory role of the kidneys leads to diverse renal pathologies; one major hallmark is inflammation and fibrosis. Conventional magnitude MRI has been used to study renal pathologies; however, the quantification or even detection of focal lesions caused by inflammation and fibrosis is challenging. We propose that quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) may be particularly sensitive for the identification of inflammation and fibrosis. In this study, we applied QSM in a mouse model deficient for angiotensin receptor type 1 (AT1). This model is known for graded pathologies, including focal interstitial fibrosis, cortical inflammation, glomerulocysts and inner medullary hypoplasia. We acquired high-resolution MRI on kidneys from AT1-deficient mice that were perfusion fixed with contrast agent. Two MR sequences were used (three-dimensional spin echo and gradient echo) to produce three image contrasts: T1, T2* (magnitude) and QSM. T1 and T2* (magnitude) images were acquired to segment major renal structures and to provide landmarks for the focal lesions of inflammation and fibrosis in the three-dimensional space. The volumes of major renal structures were measured to determine the relationship of the volumes to the degree of renal abnormalities and magnetic susceptibility values. Focal lesions were segmented from QSM images and were found to be closely associated with the major vessels. Susceptibilities were relatively more paramagnetic in wild-type mice: 1.46 ± 0.36 in the cortex, 2.14 ± 0.94 in the outer medulla and 2.10 ± 2.80 in the inner medulla (10−2 ppm). Susceptibilities were more diamagnetic in knockout mice: −7.68 ± 4.22 in the cortex, −11.46 ± 2.13 in the outer medulla and −7.57 ± 5.58 in the inner medulla (10−2 ppm). This result was consistent with the increase in diamagnetic content, e.g. proteins and lipids, associated with inflammation and fibrosis. Focal lesions were validated with conventional histology. QSM was very sensitive in detecting pathology caused by small focal inflammation and fibrosis. QSM offers a new MR contrast mechanism to study this common disease marker in the kidney.
small animal preclinical imaging; magnetic susceptibility; quantitative susceptibility mapping; AT1; renal structures; pathology; fibrosis; inflammation
ZDHHC13 is a member of DHHC-containing palmitoyl acyltransferases (PATs) family of enzymes. It functions by post-translationally adding 16-carbon palmitate to proteins through a thioester linkage. We have previously shown that mice carrying a recessive Zdhhc13 nonsense mutation causing a Zdhcc13 deficiency develop alopecia, amyloidosis and osteoporosis. Our goal was to investigate the pathogenic mechanism of osteoporosis in the context of this mutation in mice. Body size, skeletal structure and trabecular bone were similar in Zdhhc13 WT and mutant mice at birth. Growth retardation and delayed secondary ossification center formation were first observed at day 10 and at 4 weeks of age, disorganization in growth plate structure and osteoporosis became evident in mutant mice. Serial microCT from 4-20 week-olds revealed that Zdhhc13 mutant mice had reduced bone mineral density. Through co-immunoprecipitation and acyl-biotin exchange, MT1-MMP was identified as a direct substrate of ZDHHC13. In cells, reduction of MT1-MMP palmitoylation affected its subcellular distribution and was associated with decreased VEGF and osteocalcin expression in chondrocytes and osteoblasts. In Zdhhc13 mutant mice epiphysis where MT1-MMP was under palmitoylated, VEGF in hypertrophic chondrocytes and osteocalcin at the cartilage-bone interface were reduced based on immunohistochemical analyses. Our results suggest that Zdhhc13 is a novel regulator of postnatal skeletal development and bone mass acquisition. To our knowledge, these are the first data to suggest that ZDHHC13-mediated MT1-MMP palmitoylation is a key modulator of bone homeostasis. These data may provide novel insights into the role of palmitoylation in the pathogenesis of human osteoporosis.
The use of injection devices to administer intravenous or subcutaneous medications is common practice throughout a variety of health care settings. Studies suggest that one-half of all harmful medication errors originate during drug administration; of those errors, about two-thirds involve injectables. Therefore, injection device management is pivotal to safe administration of medications. In this article, the authors summarize the relevant experiences by retrospective analysis of injection device-related near misses and adverse events in the Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, People’s Republic of China. Injection device-related near misses and adverse events comprised the following: 1) improper selection of needle diameter for subcutaneous injection, material of infusion sets, and pore size of in-line filter; 2) complications associated with vascular access; 3) incidents induced by absence of efficient electronic pump management and infusion tube management; and 4) liquid leakage of chemotherapeutic infusion around the syringe needle. Safe injection drug use was enhanced by multidisciplinary collaboration, especially among pharmacists and nurses; drafting of clinical pathways in selection of vascular access; application of approaches such as root cause analysis using a fishbone diagram; plan–do–check–act and quality control circle; and construction of a culture of spontaneous reporting of near misses and adverse events. Pharmacists must be professional in regards to medication management and use. The depth, breadth, and efficiency of cooperation between nurses and pharmacists are pivotal to injection safety.
electronic infusion pump; infusion therapy; intravenous; medication errors; subcutaneous injection; vascular access
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been considered as an attractive tool for the therapy of diseases. Exosomes excreted from MSCs can reduce myocardial ischemia/reperfusion damage and protect against acute tubular injury. However, whether MSC-derived exosomes can relieve liver fibrosis and its mechanism remain unknown. Previous work showed that human umbilical cord-MSCs (hucMSCs) transplanted into acutely injured and fibrotic livers could restore liver function and improve liver fibrosis. In this study, it was found that transplantation of exosomes derived from hucMSC (hucMSC-Ex) reduced the surface fibrous capsules and got their textures soft, alleviated hepatic inflammation and collagen deposition in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced fibrotic liver. hucMSC-Ex also significantly recovered serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity, decreased collagen type I and III, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and phosphorylation Smad2 expression in vivo. In further experiments, we found that epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-associated markers E-cadherin-positive cells increased and N-cadherin- and vimentin-positive cells decreased after hucMSC-Ex transplantation. Furthermore, the human liver cell line HL7702 underwent typical EMT after induction with recombinant human TGF-β1, and then hucMSC-Ex treatment reversed spindle-shaped and EMT-associated markers expression in vitro. Taken together, these results suggest that hucMSC-Ex could ameliorate CCl4-induced liver fibrosis by inhibiting EMT and protecting hepatocytes. This provides a novel approach for the treatment of fibrotic liver disease.
asymmetric catalysis; enamides; enantioselectivity; hydrogenation; rhodium
Accelerated senescence (ACS) leading to proliferative arrest is a physiological mechanism of the DNA damage response that occurs during tumor therapy. Our experiment was designed to detect unknown genes that may play important roles in cisplatin-induced senescence and to illustrate the related senescence mechanism. Using 2-dimension electrophoresis (2-DE), we identified 5 protein spots with different expression levels in the normal and senescent NG108-15 cells. According to MALDI-TOF MS analysis, the 5 proteins were determined to be peptidylprolyl isomerase A (PPIA), peroxiredoxin 1 (PRX1), glutathione S-transferase mu 1 (GSTM1), vimentin (VIM) and glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78). Then, we investigated how cisplatin-induced senescence was mediated by GRP78 in the NG108-15 cells. Knockdown of GRP78 significantly increased P53 expression in NG108-15 cells. Additionally, 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG)-induced GRP78 overexpression protected the NG108-15 cells from cisplatin-induced senescence, which was accompanied by the obvious suppression of P53 and p-CDC2 expression. Inhibition of Ca2+ release from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stores was also found to be associated with the anti-senescence effect of 2DG-induced GRP78 overexpression. In conclusion, we found 5 proteins that were differentially expressed in normal NG108-15 cells and senescent NG108-15 cells. GRP78 plays an important role in cisplatin-induced senescence in NG108-15 cells, mainly through its regulation of P53 expression and ER calcium efflux.
In this study, we investigated the impact of Nardosinone, a bioactive component in Nardostachys root, on the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells. The neural stem cells were isolated from cerebrums of embryonic day 14 CD1 mice. The proliferation of cells was monitored using the cell counting kit-8 assay, bromodeoxyuridine incorporation and cell cycle analysis. Cell migration and differentiation were investigated with the neurosphere assay and cell specific markers, respectively. The results showed that Nardosinone promotes cells proliferation and increases cells migration distance in a dose-dependent manner. Nardosinone also induces the selective differentiation of neural stem cells to neurons and oligodendrocytes, as indicated by the expression of microtubule-associated protein-2 and myelin basic protein, respectively. Nardosinone also increases the expression of phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase and phospho-cAMP response element binding protein during proliferation and differentiation. In conclusion, this study reveals the regulatory effects of Nardosinone on neural stem cells, which may have significant implications for the treatment of brain injury and neurodegenerative diseases.
Androgen receptor (AR) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that plays a key role in prostate cancer. Little is known about the nature of AR cis-regulatory sites in the human genome. We have mapped the AR binding regions on two chromosomes in human prostate cancer cells by combining chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) with tiled oligonucleotide microarrays. We find that the majority of AR binding regions contain noncanonical AR-responsive elements (AREs). Importantly, we identify a noncanonical ARE as a cis-regulatory target of AR action in TMPRSS2, a gene fused to ETS transcription factors in the majority of prostate cancers. In addition, through the presence of enriched DNA-binding motifs, we find other transcription factors including GATA2 and Oct1 that cooperate in mediating the androgen response. These collaborating factors, together with AR, form a regulatory hierarchy that governs androgen-dependent gene expression and prostate cancer growth and offer potential new opportunities for therapeutic intervention.
Peliosis hepatis (PH) is a vascular lesion of the liver that mimics a hepatic tumor. PH is often associated with underlying conditions, such as chronic infection and tumor malignancies, or with the use of anabolic steroids, immunosuppressive drugs, and oral contraceptives. Most patients with PH are asymptomatic, but some present with abdominal distension and pain. In some cases, PH may induce intraperitoneal hemorrhage and portal hypertension. This study analyzed a 46-year-old male who received a transplanted kidney nine years prior and had undergone long-term immunosuppressive therapy following the renal transplantation. The patient experienced progressive abdominal distention and pain in the six months prior to this study. Initially, imaging studies revealed multiple liver tumor-like abnormalities, which were determined to be PH by pathological analysis. Because the hepatic lesions were progressively enlarged, the patient suffered from complications related to portal hypertension, such as intense ascites and esophageal varices bleeding. Although the patient was scheduled to undergo liver transplantation, he suffered hepatic failure and died prior to availability of a donor organ.
Peliosis hepatis; Liver neoplasm; Portal hypertension; Renal failure; Renal transplantation