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1.  Construction of a novel Shigella live-vector strain co-expressing CS3 and LTB/STm of enterotoxigenic E.coli 
AIM: To construct and evaluate a polyvalent recombinant vaccine strain Shigella flexneri 2a T32 against enterotoxigenic E.coli (ETEC).
METHODS: By using a host-plasmid balanced lethal system based on asd gene, a polyvalent recombinant strain was constructed to highly express CS3 and regularly express fusion enterotoxin of LTB subunit and mutant ST (LTB/STm) in a vaccine strain Shigella flexneri 2a T32 with specific deletion of asd gene. Fimbria CS3 was observed by immunofluorescence and electron microscopy assay. The security of LTB/STm was examined by ileal loop assay and suckling mouse assay. To evaluate this new candidate vaccine, it was compared with a previous vaccine strain in plasmid and protein level, growth assay and immunogenicity in Balb/c mice.
RESULTS: The newly constructed vaccine expressed CS3 and grew better than the previously constructed vaccine except for the lower expression of LTB/STm. Serum IgG and mucosal IgA against CS3, LTB, ST, and host lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were produced after immunization of Balb/c mice by oral route with the new strain. The titers were not significantly different from the Balb/c mice with the previous strain.
CONCLUSION: This novel candidate diarrheal vaccine can effectively induce serum and mucosal antibody responses against ETEC and Shigella.
PMCID: PMC4315996  PMID: 15948247
ETEC; Shigella flexneri; CS3; LTB; ST; Vector vaccine; Immunogenicity
2.  Survey of human papillomavirus types and their vertical transmission in pregnant women 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2013;13:109.
The prevalence, genotypes, and vertical transmission characteristics of human papillomavirus (HPV) among pregnant women from Nanjing, China was investigated.
Cervical cells were collected from healthy pregnant women (n = 3139; stage of gestation, 24.6 ± 2.1 weeks) for cytological evaluation and determination of HPV infection status. Exfoliated oral and genital cells were collected from neonates (<1-day-old, n = 233) whose mothers were positive for HPV DNA. We used HPV Gene Chip technology with 23 HPV genotype probes to conduct our analysis.
Overall prevalence of HPV DNA among pregnant women was 13.4% (422/3139). The most frequently detected HPV genotypes were HPV-16 (29.6%, 125/422), -18 (14.7%, 62/422), and -58 (14.2%, 60/422). The rate of concordance for HPV DNA in maternal-neonatal pairs was 23.6% (55/233), with HPV type-specific concordance occurring in 26 cases. A higher prevalence of HPV DNA was apparent in female neonates compared with males (17.7 vs. 11.6%).
The prevalence of cervical HPV DNA in pregnant women from Nanjing was low, with vertical transmission rates slightly higher. From our findings, we concluded that there was efficient vertical transmission of three HPV genotypes, with HPV-16 the most prevalent type in pregnant women and newborn babies.
PMCID: PMC3598550  PMID: 23446269
Human papillomavirus; Pregnancy; Vertical transmission
3.  Trend analysis of hospital admissions attributable to tobacco smoking, Northern Territory Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations, 1998 to 2009 
BMC Public Health  2012;12:545.
Tobacco smoking is a well-recognised risk factor for many diseases [1]. This study assesses the extent of smoking-attributable hospitalisation in the Northern Territory (NT) Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations, and examines smoking-attributable hospitalisation trends for the years 1998/99 to 2008/09.
Hospital discharge data were used for the analysis. The proportion of conditions attributable to tobacco smoking was calculated using the aetiological fraction method. Age-adjusted smoking-attributable hospitalisation rates were calculated to describe the impact of tobacco smoking on the health of Territorians. A negative binominal regression model was applied to examine trends in smoking-attributable hospitalisations.
Aboriginal Territorians were found to have higher rates of smoking-attributable hospitalisation, with Aboriginal males more than three times and Aboriginal females more than four times more likely to be hospitalised for smoking-attributable conditions than their non-Aboriginal counterparts. The age-adjusted hospitalisation rate for Aboriginal males increased by 31% and for Aboriginal females by 18% during the study period. There were more modest increases for NT non-Aboriginal males and females (5% and 17% respectively). The increase among Aboriginal males occurred up until 2005/06 followed by moderation in the trend. There were small reductions in smoking-attributable hospitalisation rates among all populations in younger age groups (less than 25 years).
Aboriginal Territorians experience much higher smoking-attributable hospitalisation rates than non-Aboriginal Territorians. The scale of the smoking burden and suggestion of recent moderation among Aboriginal men reinforce the importance of tobacco control interventions that are designed to meet the needs of the NT’s diverse population groups. Preventing smoking and increasing smoking cessation rates remain priorities for public health interventions in the NT.
PMCID: PMC3447727  PMID: 22828156
Tobacco; Smoking; Attributable; Hospital admission; Condition; Aboriginal; Trend

Results 1-3 (3)